After the completion of Vedic ritual all the kings and Sage Rishyasringa took leave of Dasharatha and went away to their countries. After some time Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna are born. Their virtues in childhood and rituals connected thereto are depicted here. Dasharatha then contemplates the marriages of the princes, since marrying sons after completion of education is customary. At that juncture Sage Vishvamitra arrives at the court of Dasharatha seeking help from the king. Dasharatha receives him adoring in high esteem.
निर्वृत्ते तु क्रतौ तस्मिन् हयमेधे महात्मनः |
प्रतिगृह्य सुरा भागान् प्रतिजग्मुर्यथागतम् || १-१८-१
1. mahaatmanaH tasmin hayamedhe = that horse ritual of the high souled one Dasharatha; kratau nirvR^itte sati = when ritual is completed; suraaH bhaagaan pratigR^ihya = gods on taking their portion [of oblations]; yathaa aagatam = as they came; pratijagmuH = returned [to their heavens.]
On the competition of the horse ritual of high-souled Dasharatha, the golds having received their portion of sacrificial oblation returned to their abodes as they have come. [1-18-1]
समाप्तदीक्षानियमः पत्नीगणसमन्वितः |
प्रविवेश पुरीं राजा सभृत्यबलवाहनः || १-१८-२
2. patniigaNasamanvitaH = along with wives' company; raajaa = king Dasharatha; samaaptadiikShaaniyamaH = on completing vows rules - consecration vowed for Vedic ritual; sabhR^ityabalavaahanaH = along with servants, guards and vehicles; pravivesha puriim = entered, city [Ayodhya,].
The king completing his consecratory vows held for horse ritual, entered Ayodhya city along with the company of his queens, servants, guards and vehicles. [1-18-2]
यथार्हं पूजितास्तेन राज्ञा च पृथिवीश्वराः |
मुदिताः प्रययुर्देशान् प्रणम्य मुनिपुंगवम् || १-१८-३
3. pR^ithiviishvaraaH = earthly gods [other kings]; tena raaj~naa = by him, the king; yathaarham puujitaaH = honoured befittingly; muditaaH = are gladdened; munipungavam praNamya = on duly adoring the eminent [Vashishta] sage; deshaan = to their countries; prayayuH = travelled - returned.
The other kings who arrived for the ritual are delighted when befittingly honoured by the king Dasharatha, and they too returned to their countries, after suitably adoring the eminent sage Vashishta. [1-18-3]
श्रीमतां गच्छतां तेषां स्वगृहाणि पुरात्ततः |
बलानि राज्ञां शुभ्राणि प्रहृष्टानि चकाशिरे || १-१८-४
4. tataH puraat = from that, city; svagR^ihaaNi = to their own houses [own countries - homeward]; gacChataam = those who are going - set forth; shriimataam teSaam raajnaam = of those magnificent [kings,] those, kings'; shubhraaNi = clean [neat white uniforms, or in fine fettle]; prahR^iSTaani = highly gladdened; balaani chakaashire = armies [entourages,] shone forth.
The entourages of those kings who set forth homeward from that city are highly gladdened and shone forth in fine fettle. [1-18-4]
Some commentaries said that the soldiers are given white and clean uniforms by Dasharatha by the word shubhraaNi and hence they are happy. But they may be said to be sprucely without those gifts from Dasharatha.
गतेषु पृथिवीशेषु राजा दशरथस्तदा |
प्रविवेश पुरीं श्रीमान् पुरस्कृत्य द्विजोत्तमान् || १-१८-५
5. pR^ithiviisheSu gateShu = when earthly lords [kings] have gone; tadaa shriimaan raajaa dasharathaH = then, fortunate, king, Dasharatha; dvijottamaan puraskR^itya = keeping ahead eminent Brahmans; puriim pravivesha = entered city.
On the departure of visiting kings, then that fortunate king Dasharatha entered the city Ayodhya, keeping eminent Brahman priests ahead of him in the procession. [1-18-5]
शांतया प्रययौ सार्धमृष्यशृङ्गः सुपूजितः |
अनुगम्यमानो राज्ञा च सानुयात्रेण धीमता || १-१८-६
6. R^iSyashR^i~NgaH = Rishyasringa; supuujitaH = well adored; saanuyaatreNa = with co-travellers [entourage of Romapada]; dhiimataa raajnaa = with virtuous one, king [Romapaada]; anugamyamaanaH cha = followed by, king also; shaantayaa saardham prayayau = travelled along with Shanta.
Well adored by king Dasharatha sage Rishyasringa also travelled along with his wife Shanta, followed by his father-in-law King Romapada, and along with other co-travellers, namely the entourage of Romapada. [1-18-6]
एवं विसृज्य तान् सर्वान् राजा संपूर्णमानसः |
उवास सुखितस्तत्र पुत्रोत्पत्तिं विचिंतयन् || १-१८-७
7. raajaa = king Dasharatha; evam taan sarvaan visR^ijya = thus, on dispersing all of them ; sampuurNamaanasaH = with a satiated heart; putrotpattim vichintayan = dwelling upon birth of sons; tatra sukhitaH uvaasa = there, gratifyingly, dwelled.
On dispersing all of them king Dasharatha gratifyingly dwelled there in Ayodhya, with a satiated heart dwelling upon the birth of his sons. [1-18-7]
ततो यज्ञे समाप्ते तु ऋतूनां षट् समत्ययुः |
ततश्च द्वादशे मासे चैत्रे नावमिके तिथौ || १-१८-८
नक्षत्रेऽदितिदैवत्ये स्वोच्चसंस्थेषु पंचसु |
ग्रहेषु कर्कटे लग्ने वाक्पताविंदुना सह || १-१८-९
प्रोद्यमाने जगन्नाथं सर्वलोकनमस्कृतम् |
कौसल्याजनयद्रामं सर्वलक्षणसंयुतम् || १-१८-१०
विष्णोरर्धं महाभागं पुत्रमैक्ष्वाकुनंदनम् |
लोहिताक्षं महाबाहुं रक्तौष्ठं दुंदुभिस्वनम् || १-१८-११
8, 9, 10, 11. tataH yaj~ne samaapte = then on completion of ritual; R^ituuNaam SaT samatyayuH = well passed by six seasons; tataH = then; dvaadashe maase = in twelfth, month; chaitre naavamike tithau = chaitra month [April-May], ninth, day;
nakshatre aditidaivatye = star of the day [punarvasu,] whose presiding deity is aditi;
panchasu graheSu swocchasamstheShu = in their own highest positions of five planets - in their own ucchasthAna-s, viz., in their own ascendent positions - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s;
karkaTe lagne = in Cancer [of Zodiac]; vaakpatiH= [when] Speech's Lord [Jupiter]; indunaa saha = along with Moon; prodyamaane = when raising - when ascendent; [abhijit lagna = advancing daytime];
kausalyaa = Queen Kausalya; jagannaatham = lord of worlds[Vishnu]; sarvalokanamaskR^itam = adored by all worlds; divyalakShaNasamyutam = along with divine attributes;
viSNoH = Vishnu's; ardham = epitome of [not half of Vishnu];
mahaabhaagam = greatly blessed one; ikShwaakunandanam = delight of Ikshvaaku dynasty; lohitaakSham = lotus-red eyes; mahaabaahum = lengthy armed; raktoSTham = roseate lips; dundubhisvanam = drumbeat voiced; raamam = Rama as; putram = the son; ajanayat = gave birth.
On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month, i.e., in chaitra-mAsa, and on the ninth day of that chaitra month [April-May], when it is punarvasunakShatrayukta-navamI tithi, i.e., when the ruling star of that ninth day is punarvasu, for which Aditi is the presiding deity; and when five of the nine planets - sUrya, kuja, guru, shukra, shani are in ucChasthAna-s, namely, when those planets are in ascension in their respective houses - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s; and when chandrayukta- guru, karkaTalagne - Jupiter in conjuction with Moon is ascendant in Cancer, and when day is advancing, Queen Kausalya gave birth to a son with all the divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, roseate lips, voice like drumbeat, and who took birth to delight the Ikshwaku dynasty and adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome of Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-8, 9, 10, 11]
Twice six months had rolled a way since the great sacrifice was over and, in the first month of the New Year, on the ninth day of the bright fortnight, the Lord of the worlds chose to take human form and sent down half of His essence as the son of Kausalya (thenceforth to be known as Rama), the world-honored One, the crowning glory of the grand line of Ikshwku, and the sum of all perfections. The constellation Punarvasu, of which Aditi was the regent, was chosen to preside at his birth. The Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn were in ascension in their respective houses. Aries, Capricornus, Cancer, Pisces and the Libra, Jupiter and the Moon were in conjunction ; the rising sign was Cancer. And KausalyA, shone with unparalleled effulgence, even as Aditi when she gave birth to Indra, the lord of the Shining Ones, the Vajra-wielder. - C. R. Sreeniuasa Aiyangar, 1910.
By this configuration of stars the supreme merits of Rama are indicated. atra sa~mvatsaramukhottaraayaNa-vasantacaitramaasa-shuklapakShaadeva nakShatra-divaabhijitlagna- nakShatra-divaabhijitlagna-puNyanakShatraad utkR^iShTakaale karkaaTakalagne uccasya grahapa~ncake guru- candrayoge shriiraamotpattiH | tasya sarvotkR^iShTataam sakalakalyaaNaguNaabhiramataam sakalashiShTaadaraNiiyasampattim mahaaparaakramam ca suucitam |dharmaakuutam.
The phrase viSNoH adtham half of Vishnu - is to be taken as half of the fruit of ritual where Vedic ritual itself is pervaded by Vishnu. The fruit of ritual is obtained in the shape of dessert, and Kausalya consumed half of it, but it is not half of Vishnu as he is illimitable. Even Sreenivasa Aiyangar took it as half, in saying half of Vishnu's essence is Rama. This has become a perennial topic debating whether the incarnation of Rama is a pUrNaavatAra, ardhaavatAra or aMshaavatAra.
कौसल्या शुशुभे तेन पुत्रेणामिततेजसा |
यथा वरेण देवानामदितिर्वज्रपाणिना || १-१८-१२
12. kausalya = queen Kausalya; amitatejasaa = one with unlimited resplendence; tena putreNa = by that, son; devaanaam vareNa = the best among gods; vajrapaaNinaa = by Thunderbolt in hand [wielder - Indra]; aditiH yathaa shushubhe = shone forth as Lady Aditi.
Kausalya shone forth with such a son whose resplendence is unlimited, as with lady Aditi who once stood out with her son Indra, the best one among gods. [1-18-12]
भरतो नाम कैकेय्यां जज्ञे सत्यपराक्रमः |
साक्षाद्विष्णोश्चतुर्भागः सर्वैः समुदितो गुणैः || १-१८-१३
13. satyaparaakramaH = truthfulness as his valour; saakShaat viSNoH = Vishnu's manifest; chaturbhaagaH = fourth component; sarvaiH guNaiH samuditaH = embodied with all merits; bharataH naama kaikeyyaam jaj~ne = Bharata named [son] born to Queen Kaikeyi.
Queen Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, one embodied with all merits, and whose truthfulness itself is his valour and who is fourth component of manifest Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-13]
The fraction indicated here like 'one fourth of Vishnu' etc may be reckoned as the share of the dessert consumed by the queens, but not as a cleaved portion of Vishnu as he is an indivisible entity. Here it is half of one-fourth i.e., one-eighth of dessert given to Kaikeyi.
अथ लक्ष्मणशत्रुघ्नौ सुमित्राजनयत् सुतौ |
वीरौ सर्वास्त्रकुशलौ विष्णोरर्धसमन्वितौ | १-१८-१४
14. atha = then; sumitraa = Queen Sumitra; viirau = valiant ones; sarvaastrakushalau = experts in all weaponry; viSNoH = Vishnu's; ardhasamanvitau = those that are embodied with essence epitome; lakShmaNashatrughnau = Lakshmana and Shatrughna; sutau ajanayat = gave birth to sons.
Queen Sumitra then gave birth to two sons who are the embodied epitomes of Vishnu, namely Lakshmana, and Shatrughna, who are valiant ones and experts in all kinds of weaponry. [1-18-14]
पुष्ये जातस्तु भरतो मीनलग्ने प्रसन्नधीः |
सार्पे जातौ तु सौमित्री कुळीरेऽभ्युदिते रवौ || १-१८-१५
15. prasannadhiiH = level headed one - guileless, fair-minded; bharataH = Bharata; puShye miinalagne jaataH = under Pushyami star, in Pisces [of Zodiac,] born; saumitrii = sons of Sumitra [Lakshmana, Shatrughna]; saarpe kuliire = under star presided by serpent [aaSreSa,] in Cancer [of Zodiac]; ravau abhyudite = while Sun, is rising - i.e., on next day of Rama's birth - tenth of Chaitra; jaatau = they are born.
With the dawn of sun on the next day, fair-minded Bharata is born under Pisces where puSyami is the star of day, later the sons of Sumitra, namely Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born under Cancer, where aashleSa is the star of the day, i.e., the tenth of chaitra month, [1-18-15]
Rama is born on the ninth day of Chaitra month, and Bharata is born in the earlier part of next day the tenth of Chaitra, earlier to his younger brothers, and then Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born on the later part of that tenth day.
'Pushya is the name of a month; but here it means the eighth mansion. The ninth is called AshleSh, or the snake. It is evident from this that Bharata, though his birth is mentioned before that of the twins, was the youngest of the four brothers and Rama's junior by eleven months' -- Schlegel.
The eleven-month gap between Rama and Bharata is unapparent in the words of verse. This may be from some other version of Ramayana.
राज्ञः पुत्रा महात्मानश्चत्वारो जज्ञिरे पृथक् |
गुणवंतोऽनुरूपाश्च रुच्या प्रोष्ठपदोपमाः || १-१८-१६
16. guNavantaH anuruupaaH cha = virtuous ones, charming, also; ruchyaa = by brilliance; proSTapada upamaaH = [like puurva bhaadra, uttara bhaadra] stars, in simile; mahaatmaanaH = great souls; such; raajnaH putraa = kings', sons; chatvaaraH = four of them; jaj~nire pR^ithak = born, separately.
Thus there are four great-souled sons of Dasharatha, born on separate instances, who are virtuous, charming, and by brilliance they are in similitude with two stars of each of the asterisms called puurvaabhaadra and uttaraabhaadra. [1-18-16]
The word proSTa is cow; pada feet; the feet of a cow. It is also the name for the asterisms puurvaabhaadra, uttaraabaadra, containing stars in the wing of Pegasus, each of which will have two stars, and all the four stars make a perfect square. Like the pairs of stars the brother also move in pairs - Rama, Lakshmana; Bharata, Shatrughna.
The epithet mahaatmaanaH high-souled ones is though negligible for peripheral reading, it is explained as: Rama is one such, as he undertakes svadharmaanuSThaana ; Lakshmana by his sheSatvaj~naana ; Bharata by his bhagavatpaaratantrya ; and Shatrughna by his bhaagavata-paaratantrya.
Like this, each of the epithets used in Ramayana has something or the other meaning which is not generally recorded in English translations. All the English translations are story-oriented, as though there is some unknown story in Ramayana for retelling afresh. In the spate of telling story again and again these niceties are lost. The same is the position with the numerous epithets given to Seetha in Aranya Kanda. Readers may please note that each epithet conveys some meaning and if we could not incorporate them, it is our misfortune in getting a book containing their meanings. We request the readers to kindly inform us if they have come across the meanings of these seemingly useless and metre-filling-like epithets in any book, so that, that book will be brought to the notice of readers who are mistaking them as 'redundant stanza fillers'.
जगुः कलं च गंधर्वा ननृतुश्चाप्सरोगणाः |
देवदुंदुभयो नेदुः पुष्पवृष्टिश्च खात्पतत् || १-१८-१७
उत्सवश्च महानासीदयोध्यायां जनाकुलः |
17, 18a. gandharvaaH kalam jaguH = celestial singers, melodiously, sang; apsarogaNaaH nanR^ituH = groups of divine dancers - dancing parties, danced; devadundubhayaH neduH = divine drums, sounded; khaat pushpavR^iSTiH cha patat = from heavens, flowery, rain, also, fallen; ayodhyaayaam janaakulaH = with people thronging in Ayodhya ; utsavaH cha mahaan aasiit = great festivity also is there.
The celestial singers sang melodiously, paradisiacal dancing parties danced, divine drums drummed and heavens rained flowers, with all this there is a great festivity in Ayodhya with thronging people. [1-18-17, 18a]
रथ्याश्च जनसंबाधा नटनर्तकसंकुलाः || १-१८-१८
गायनैश्च विराविण्यो वादनैश्च तथापरैः |
विरेजुर्विपुलास्तत्र सर्वरत्नसमन्विताः || १-१८-१९
18b, 19. rathyaaH = streets; janasambaadhaaH = pressurised with people - stampeded; natanartakasamkulaaH = flurried with actors and dancers; gaayanaiH cha = singers, too; vaadanaiH cha eva = with players of musical instruments, also, thus; tathaa aparaiH = like that, by others - onlookers; viraaviNyaH= well sounding - hilarity, jubilation; tatra = there - on streets; vipulaaH virejuH = widely, strewn; sarvaratnasamanvitaaH = along with all gems.
Hilarity filled the streets with people stampeding them and with the flurry of actors, dancers, singers and instrumentalists, as well by other onlookers, and there on the streets widely strewn are all kinds of gems appreciating the artists. [1-18-18b, 19]
प्रदेयांश्च ददौ राजा सूतमागधवंदिनाम् |
ब्राह्मणेभ्यो ददौ वित्तं गोधनानि सहस्रशः || १-१८-२०
20. raajaa = king; suutamaagadhavandinaam = to eulogisers, bard singers, panegyrists; pradeyaan cha = giveable donation, also; dadou = gave; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmans; vittam = funds; godhanaani sahasrashaH = cow wealth, in thousands; dadau = gave.
The king gave worthy gifts to eulogisers, bard singers, and panegyrists, and to Brahmans he gave funds and wealth in the form of thousands of cows. [1-18-20]
अतीत्यैकादशाहं तु नामकर्म तथाकरोत् |
ज्येष्ठं रामं महात्मानं भरतं कैकयीसुतम् || १-१८-२१
सौमित्री लक्ष्मणमिति शत्रुघ्नमपरं तथा |
वसिष्ठः परमप्रीतो नामानि कुरुते तदा || १-१८-२२
21, 22. tataH = then; ekaadashaaham atiitya = eleven days, when elapsed; naamakarma akarot = naming ceremony, performed; mahaatmaanaam jyeSTam raamam = high souled, elder one, as Rama; kaikayiisutam bharatam = Kaikeyi's son, as Bharata; soumitrii = Sumitra's [to one son]; lakShmaNam iti = as Lakshmana, thus; aparam = other [son]; shatrughnam = as Shatrughna; paramapriitaH vashiShThaH tadaa = highly gladdened, Vashishta, then; naamaani kurute = names, [made] gave.
Elapsed are eleven days and the naming ceremony is performed, then Vashishta, the chief priest, named the high-souled elder one as Rama, Kaikeyi's son as Bharata, and one son of Sumitra as Lakshmana and the other as Shatrughna [1-18-21, 22]
The word 'Rama' is defined as ramante sarve janaaH guNaiH asmin iti raamaH 'in whom all the people take delight for his virtuousness, thus he is Rama.' The name Rama is very old, so says padma puraaNa : shriyaH kamalavaasinyaH raameNaaham mahaaprabhuH | tasmaat shriiraama iti asya naamasiddhi puraatanam || padma puraaNa
Bharata is defined as: bharataH raajyabharaNaat - bibharti iti bharata Bharata is because he bears the burden of the kingdom of Rama during Rama's exile.
Lakshmana is lakShmaNo laksmisampannaH or lakShmiiH asya astiiti lakShmaNa Lakshmana is the favoured flourisher. The wealth of selfless dedication is in him, hence Lakshmana. One who is endowed with favoured dedication, kainkaryalakShaNalakshitaH Lakshmana is a hearty dedication to Rama and he always wishes to reside by the side of his brother.
Shatrughna is shatruun hanti iti shatrughnaH. Or shatrughno nityashatru-ghnaHShatrughna is always an enemy destroyer.
The naming ceremony acquires a particular significance, because Vashishta, the purohita = puraa future; hitaH well-wisher of; well wishing advisor about the future of the kingdom, named these princes with a vision into the future.
ब्राह्मणान् भोजयामास पौरान् जानपदानपि |
अददद्ब्राह्मणानां च रत्नौघममितं बहु || १-१८-२३
तेषां जन्मक्रियादीनि सर्वकर्माण्यकारयत् |
23, 24a. brahmaNaan pauraan jaanapadaan api = Brahmans, urbanites, villagers, also; bhojayaamaasa = are fed well by king; braahmaNaanaam bahu ratnaugham adadat = he gave - gifted many valuable gems to Brahmans; amitam = unlimited; teSaam janmakriyaadiini = them - the princes, birth rites, ceremonies sequel to it; sarvakarmaaNi akaarayat = all rituals, performed.
The king feasted Brahmans, urbanites and villagers and he gifted many valuable gems to Brahmans in an unlimited way, and all the rituals of birth and ceremonies sequel to it like naming ceremony, first-food-feeding ceremony, first-hair-removal ceremony, and sacred thread ceremony are performed in respect of the princes. [1-18-23, 24a]
तेषां केतुरिव ज्येष्ठो रामो रतिकरः पितुः |१-१८-२४
बभूव भूयो भूतानां स्वयंभूरिव सम्मतः |
24b, 25a. teSaam jyeSThaH raamaH = among them the princes Rama is eldest one; ketuH iva = flagstaff like; pituH bhuyaH ratikaraH = very much delightful one to his father; svayambhuuH iva bhuutaanaam sammataH babhuuva = he became acceptable to all beings like self-emerged [god, Brahma].
Among those princes the eldest one Rama is like a flagstaff and a delight of his father Dasharatha, and he became acceptable to all beings like the self-created Brahma. [1-18-24b, 25a]
सर्वे वेदविदः शूराः सर्वे लोकहिते रताः || १-१८-२५
सर्वे ज्ञानोपसंपन्नाः सर्वे समुदिता गुणैः |
25b, 26a. sarve vedavidaH = all princes are scholars in Veda-s; shuuraaH = valiant ones; sarve lokahite rataaH = all are interested in worlds' welfare; sarve j~naanopasampannaaH = all are, intellectual ones; sarve samuditaaH guNaiH = all are, possessors of merits - air of probity.
All the princes are scholars in Veda-s, valiant ones, all are interested in the welfare of the world, all are intellectuals and all of them possess an air of probity. [1-18-25b, 26a]
तेषामपि महातेजा रामः सत्यपराक्रमः || १-१८-२६
इष्टः सर्वस्य लोकस्य शशांक इव निर्मलः |
26b, 27a. teSaam api mahaatejaaH = great resplendent among them, also; raaamaH satyaparaakramaH = Rama, truthfulness as his valorous one; nirmalaH shashaankaH iva = tranquil, moon, like; sarvasya lokasya iSTaH = dear one to all of world.
Among them the great resplendent Rama, whose valour itself is his truthfulness, is the dear one to all the world like the tranquil moon. [1-18-26b, 27a]
गजस्कन्धेऽश्वपृष्ठे च रथचर्यासु सम्मतः || १-१८-२७
धनुर्वेदे च निरतः पितृशुश्रूषणे रतः |
27b, 28a. [saH raamaH = he that Rama is]; gajaskandhe = on [riding] elephant's shoulders; ashvapR^iSThe = on [riding] horse's back; cha = also; rathacharyaasu = manoeuvring in chariots' [tactical charioting]; sammataH = admitted to be [the champion]; dhanurvede cha nirataH = rejoices in archery and Veda, also ; pituH shushruuShaNe rataH = absorbed in father's service.
Rama is admittedly a champion of riding elephants and horses, also in tactical charioting, and he rejoices in the art of archery, and absorbed in the obedient service of his father. [1-18-27b, 28a]
बाल्यात् प्रभृति सुस्निग्धो लक्ष्मणो लक्ष्मिवर्धनः || १-१८-२८
रामस्य लोकरामस्य भ्रातुर्ज्येष्ठस्य नित्यशः |
28b, 29a. lakshmivardhanaH lakShmaNaH = Lakshmana the enhancer of prosperity; baalyaat prabhR^iti = since childhood; lokaraamasya = charming Rama for world; jyeSThasya bhraatuH = towards elder, brother; raamasya = in respect of Rama; nityashaH susnigdhaH = always, he is very amiable.
Right from childhood Lakshmana, the enhancer of prosperity, is always amiable towards his world-charming elder brother Rama. [1-18-28b, 29a]
सर्वप्रियकरस्तस्य रामस्यापि शरीरतः || १-१८-२९
लक्ष्मणो लक्ष्मिसंपन्नो बहिःप्राण इवापरः |
29b, 30a. lakshmisampannaH lakShmaNaH = Lakshmana the one endowed with wealth [of dedication] ; shariirataH api = bodily, even [dedicated to Rama]; sarvapriyakaraH = peforming agreeable deeds to all; tasya raamasya = to that, Rama; bahiHpraaNaH iva = external entity, like; aparaH = [bahiH praaNa] outer life - alter ego, [he behaved like alter ego].
Lakshmana who is endowed with the wealth of dedication dedicated himself to Rama with bodily service, and while performing all agreeable deeds in respect of Rama, he behaved like Rama's alter ego. [1-18-29b, 30a]
न च तेन विना निद्रां लभते पुरुषोत्तमः || १-१८-३०
मृष्टमन्नमुपानीतमश्नाति न हि तं विना |
30b, 31a. puruSottamaH = best of men, Rama; tena vinaaa = without him - Lakshmana, ; nidraam na labhate = he does not get sleep; upaaniitam mR^iSTam annam ca = brought [for him,] delicious, food, also; tam vinaa = without him [Lakshmana,] ; na ashnaati = will not, eat.
That best one among the men Rama does not get his sleep without Lakshmana and he would not eat food brought for him, however delicious it may be, without Lakshmana. [1-18-30b, 31a]
यदा हि हयमारूढो मृगयां याति राघवः || १-१८-३१
तदैनं पृष्ठतोऽभ्येति स धनुः परिपालयन् |
31b, 32a. raaghavaH = Raghava; hayam aruuDhaH = on mounting horse; yadaa mR^igayaam yaati = when goes for a hunting game; tadaa = then; saH = he, Lakshmana; dhanuH paripaalayan = bow, wielding [as a squire]; enam priSThataH abhyeti = rushes behind him [Rama].
Whenever Raghava mounts a horse and goes on a hunting game Lakshmana rushes after him wielding his bow as a squire. [1-18-31b, 32a]
भरतस्यापि शत्रुघ्नो लक्ष्मणावरजो हि सः || १-१८-३२
प्राणैः प्रियतरो नित्यं तस्य चासीत्तथा प्रियः |
32b, 33a. lakshamaNaavarajaH = born along with Lakshmana - younger brother; saH shatrughnaH = he that, Shatrughna; bharatasya api = to Bharata, even; nityam praaNaiH priyataraH = always, dear one by lives; [Bharata also]; tasya cha = to him [to Shatrughna,] even; tathaa aasiit priyaH = like that, he is, a dear one.
Lakshmana's younger brother Shatrughna is a dear one to Bharata, like that Bharata too held Shatrughna dearer than his own lives. [1-18-32b, 33a]
स चतुर्भिर्महाभागैः पुत्रैर्दशरथः प्रियैः || १-१८-३३
बभूव परमप्रीतो देवैरिव पितामहः |
33. saH = he, Dasharatha; mahaabhaagaiH chaturbhiH priyaiH putraiH= with highly fortunate, four, dearest, sons; pitaamahaH devaiH iva = Forefather, Brahma, as with gods ; paramapriitaH babhuuva = highly glad, he became.
King Dasharatha is highly gladdened with four of his highly fortunate sons like the Forefather Brahma with gods in heaven. [1-18-33]
ते यदा ज्ञानसंपन्नाः सर्वे समुदिता गुणैः || १-१८-३४
ह्रीमन्तः कीर्तिमन्तश्च सर्वज्ञा दीर्घदर्शिनः |
तेषामेवं प्रभावाणां सर्वेषां दीप्ततेजसाम् || १-१८-३५
पिता दशरथो हृष्टो ब्रह्मा लोकाधिपो यथा |
34b, 35, 36a. te sarvaiH guNaiH samuditaaH = having - gifted with all merits; te yadaa j~naanasampannaaH = they [four princes,] when prospering with practical wisdom - prudence ; hriimantaH = bashful ones - self-conscious [to do wrong deeds]; kiirtimantaH cha = well-know ones [for their gentility,] also; sarvaj~naaH = knowing all [knowers of pros and cons]; diirghadarshinaH = foresighted - conscientious; [when they have become thus, then]; evam prabhaavaaNaam = having this kind of potentiality; diiptatejasaam = radiantly brilliant ones; teSaam sarveSaam = in respect of all; pitaa = father; dasharathaH = Dasharatha; lokaadhipaH yathaa = as with presiding deity for world - Brahma; hR^iSTaH = is contented.
When all of the four sons are thus prospering with prudence, gifted with all the merits, self-conscious to do wrong deeds, well-known for their gentility, knowers of pros and cons and even the conscientious princes, then their father Dasharatha is contented in respect of all of them who are such radiantly brilliant and potential princes, like Brahma. [1-18-34b, 35, 36a]
ते चापि मनुजव्याघ्रा वैदिकाध्ययने रताः || १-१८-३६
पितृशुश्रूषणरता धनुर्वेदे च निष्ठिताः |
36. te manujavyaaghraaH api = they, tigerly men, even; vaidikaadhyayane rataaH = engrossed in Vedic studies; pitR^ishushruuSaNarataaH = delighted in father's service ; dhanurvede cha niSTitaaH = experts also in art of archery.
Even those tigerly-men, namely the princes, are engrossed in the studies of Veda-s, delighted to render service to their father and they are also the experts in art of archery. [1-18-36b, 37a]
अथ राजा दशरथस्तेषां दारक्रियां प्रति || १-१८-३७
चिंतयामास धर्मात्मा सोपाध्यायः सबान्धवः |
37b, 38a. tataH = then; dharmaatmaa raajaa = noble souled, king Dasharatha; sopaadhyaayaH sabaandhavaH = along with teachers, with relatives; teSaam daarakriyaam prati = about their matrimonial works [alliances]; chintayaamaasa = contemplated.
Then the noble souled Dasharatha contemplated along with his priestly teachers and relatives about the matrimonial alliances of his sons. [1-18-37b, 38a]
तस्य चिन्तयमानस्य मन्त्रि मध्ये महात्मनः || १-१८-३८
अभ्यागच्छन्महातेजा विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः |
38b, 39a. mahaatmanaH tasya = great souled one, his [Dasharatha's]; chintayamaanasya = while he is thinking so [discussing so]; mantrimadhye = among ministers; mahaatejaaH = great resplendent one - highly powerful; vishvaamitraH mahaamuniH = Vishvamitra the great sage; abhyaagacChat [abhi aagacChat] = arrived.
While the great souled Dasharatha is discussing the marriages of princes among his ministers, the highly powerful sage Vishvamitra arrived. [1-18-38b, 39a]
स राज्ञो दर्शनाकांक्षी द्वाराध्यक्षानुवाच ह || १-१८-३९
शीघ्रमाख्यात मां प्राप्तं कौशिकं गाधिनः सुतम् |
39b, 40a. saH = he, Vishvamitra; raaj~naH darshanaakaankShii = desirous to see king; dvaaraadhyakShaan uvaacha ha = said to the door keeper; gaadhinaH sutaH = Gadhi's son; kaushikam = belonging to Kushi's dynasty; maam praaptam = me, as arrived; shiighram aakhyaata = quickly, inform [to king.]
Desirous to have an audience with king Vishvamitra said to the doorkeeper, "Let the king be informed quickly that I, the son of Gadhi from the dynasty of Kushi, have come" [1-18-39b, 40a]
तच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं तस्य राज्ञो वेश्म प्रदुद्रुवुः || १-१८-४०
संभ्रान्तमनसः सर्वे तेन वाक्येन चोदिताः |
40b, 41a. tat vachanam shrutvaa = on listening to that words; sarve sambhraantamanasaH = all, dumbfounded at hearts; tena vaakyena choditaaH = ushered by those words ; raajnaH veshma pradudruvuH = quickly rushed to that king's [Dasharatha's] palace.
On listening those words all the doorkeepers are dumbfounded, and ushered by those words they quickly rushed to the place of Dasharatha. [1-18-40b, 41a]
ते गत्वा राजभवनं विश्वामित्रमृषिं तदा || १-१८-४१
प्राप्तमावेदयामासुर्नृपायेक्ष्वाकवे तदा |
41b, 42a. tadaa = then; te raajabhavanam gatvaa = they, having gone to king's palace ; tataH = then; vishwaamitram R^iSim praaptam = Vishvamitra, sage, as has come; ikShwaakave nR^ipaaya = to the king of Ikshwaku dynasty; aavedayaamaasuH = announced.
Then on their arriving at the king's palace the doorkeepers have announced to the king of Ikshvaku-s, namely Dasharatha, about the arrival of sage Vishvamitra. [1-18-41b, 42a]
तेषां तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा सपुरोधाः समाहितः || १-१८-४२
प्रत्युज्जगाम संहृष्टो ब्रह्माणमिव वासवः |
42b, 43a. teSaam tat vachanam shrutvaa = their [doorkeepers,] that word [that message,]on hearing; samhR^iSTaH = highly pleased, Dasharatha; sapurodhaaH = with priests; samaahitaH = collecting himself, in self-possessed manner; [tam = him, Vishvamitra]; prati ujjagaama = towards, gone - gone towards welcomingly; vaasavaH brahmaaNam iva = like Indra towards Brahma [in a ceremonial manner.]
On hearing that message from doorkeepers Dasharatha is highly pleased and he has gone towards Vishvamitra in a self-possessed manner along with royal priests, as Indra would ceremoniously go towards Brahma. [1-18-42b, 43a]
तं दृष्ट्वा ज्वलितं दीप्त्या तापसं संशितव्रतम् || १-१८-४३
प्रहृष्टवदनो राजा ततोऽर्घ्यमुपहारयत् |
43b, 44a. tataH = then; raajaa = king Dasharatha; jwalitam = who is resplendent - Vishvamitra; diiptyaa taapasam = one who is radiant, by ascesis; samshitavratam = one who has severe self-discipline; tam dR^iSTvaa = on seeing him [Vishvamitra] ; prahR^iSTavadanaH = well gladsome face [expression, aspect]; arghyam upahaarayat = water, offered.
Then on seeing the resplendent sage Vishvamitra, whose radiance is by his own ascesis and who has severe self-discipline, the king offered water with a gladsome aspect, as first customary hospitality in receiving unexpected guest. [1-18-43b, 44a]
स राज्ञः प्रतिगृह्यार्घ्यं शास्त्रदृष्टेन कर्मणा || १-१८-४४
कुशलं चाव्ययं चैव पर्यपृच्छन्नराधिपम् |
44b, 45a. saH = he, Vishvamitra; shaastradR^iSTena karmaNaa = scriptural point of view - scripturally, [also] by practice - customarily; raajnaH arghyam pratigR^ihya = receiving water from king; naraadhipam = with king; kushalam cha avyayam cha eva = well-being, also, welfare, also, thus; paryapR^icChat = enquired after.
On receiving water from the king scripturally and customarily Vishvamitra enquired after the well-being and welfare of king Dasharatha. [1-18-44b, 45a]
पुरे कोशे जनपदे बान्धवेषु सुहृत्सु च || १-१८-४५
कुशलं कौशिको राज्ञः पर्यपृच्छत् सुधार्मिकः |
45b, 46a. sudhaarmikaH kaushikaH = highly righteous, Kushi's son - Vishvamitra; raajnaH = of king; pure koshe janapade baandhaveSu = in city, in exchequer, in rural areas, among relatives; suhR^itsu = among good hearted-ones - friends; kushalam = well-being; paryapR^icChat = asked after.
That highly righteous sage Vishvamitra asked the king after the well-being of city, exchequer, rural areas, friends and relatives. [1-18-45b, 46a]
अपि ते संनताः सर्वे सामन्ता रिपवो जिताः || १-१८-४६
दैवं च मानुषं चैव कर्म ते साध्वनुष्ठितम् |
46b, 47a. saamantaaH sarve te api sannataaH = all provincial kings acquiescent to you; ripavaH jitaaH = enemies, conquered; te = your; daivam karma = deeds for propitiating gods; maanuSham cha eva = humanly, also, thus - to administer humans; saadhu anuSThitham = properly, performed.
Sage Vishvamitra asked Dasharatha, "Are all of the provincial kings acquiescent to you, and all your enemies conquered? Are you properly performing the devotional and social works?" [1-18-46b, 47a]
वसिष्ठं च समागम्य कुशलं मुनिपुंगवः || १-१८-४७
ऋषींश्च तान् यथान्यायं महाभागानुवाच ह |
47b, 48a. munipungavaH vasiSTham cha = the eminent sage Vashishta, also; taan = them; mahaabhaagaan R^iSiin cha = most exalted sages, also; yathaanyaayam = as per custom; samaagamya = on meeting with; kushalam uvaacha ha = well-being, spoke [asked after,] indeed.
And on meeting the eminent sage Vashishta and with them the other exalted sages according to custom Vishvamitra asked after their well-being. [1-18-47b, 48a]
ते सर्वे हृष्टमनसस्तस्य राज्ञो निवेशनम् || १-१८-४८
विविशुः पूजितास्तेन निषेदुश्च यथार्हतः |
48b, 49a. te sarve hR^iSTtamanasaH = all of them, gladdened at heart; tasya raaj~naH niveshanam = that, king's, palace; vivishuH = entered; tathaa yathaarhataH = then, according to eligibility - protocol; tena puujitaaH= by him, the king, adored - invited; niSeduH = took seats.
Then adoringly invited by the king Dasharatha all of them gladly entered the palace and they took their seats according to protocol. [1-18-48b, 49a]
अथ हृष्टमना राजा विश्वामित्रं महामुनिम् || १-१८-४९
उवाच परमोदारो हृष्टस्तमभिपूजयन् |
49b, 50a. atha = then; paramodaaraH = very generous one; raajaa = king Dasharatha; hR^iSTtamanaaH = gladdened at heart; tam mahaamunim vishvaamitram = him, the great sage, Vishvamitra; abhipuujayan hR^iSTaH = feeling happy while adoring; uvaacha [idam] = spoke, [this way.]
Then the very generous king Dasharatha is gladdened at heart at the arrival of Vishvamitra, and he spoke this way feeling happy to adore that sage. [1-18-49b, 50a]
यथामृतस्य संप्राप्तिर्यथा वर्षमनूदके || १-१८-५०
यथा सदृशदारेषु पुत्रजन्माप्रजस्य वै |
प्रणष्टस्य यथा लाभो यथा हर्षो महोदये || १-१८-५१
तथैवागमनं मन्ये स्वागतं ते महामुने |
50b, 51, 52b. mahaamune = oh great saint Vishvamitra; amR^itasya sampraaptiH yathaa = as with attaining ambrosia; anudake = without water [in droughty land]; varSam yathaa = rain, as with aprajasya = without progeny [for childless ones]; sadR^ishadaareSu = in deserving wives; putrajanma yathaa = as with son's birth; pranaSTasya laabhaH yathaa = as with regaining long lost [treasures]; mahaa udaye harSaH yathaa = as with rejoice at great happening; te aagamanam tathaa eva = your, arrival, like that, only; manye = is deemed; swaagatam [te] = welcome, to you.
"I deem your arrival is in the vein of mortals attaining ambrosia, rainfall in a droughty land, a barren father begetting a son through his deserving wife, a regain of long lost treasures, and the gladness at a great happening, oh, great saint, welcome to you." [1-18-50b, 51, 52a]
कं च ते परमं कामं करोमि किमु हर्षितः || १-१८-५२
पात्रभूतोऽसि मे ब्रह्मन् दिष्ट्या प्राप्तोऽसि मानद |
अद्य मे सफलं जन्म जीवितं च सुजीवितम् || १-१८-५३
यस्माद् विप्रेन्द्रमद्राक्षं सुप्रभाता निशा मम |
52b, 53, 54a. brahman = Oh Brahman; harSitaH = [I, who am, at our arrival] delighted; te paramam kam kaamam = what is your choicest objective; kimu = in which way; karomi = I can fulfil; me paatrabhuutaH asi = to me you are eligible recipient; maanada = oh endower of respect; diSTyaa praaptaH asi = fortunately, arrived, you are; adya me janma saphalam = today, my, birth, is fructified; jiivitam cha sujiivitam = life, also, best life - flourishing; yasmaat viprendram adraakSham = for what reason the great Brahman is seen by me [at my own house]; suprabhaataa nishaa mama = sun dawn, night, of mine.
"Oh, Brahman, as I am the one who is delighted for your arrival, and as you are the most eligible recipient from me, what is that choicest object of yours to be fulfilled by me, and in which way. Oh, endower of respect, for me your arrival is fortunate whereby my birth is fructified and my life flourished today, and wherefore I could see a great Brahman like you visiting my home, therefore the sun appears to have dawned in my night. [1-18-52b, 53, 54a]
पूर्वं राजर्षिशब्देन तपसा द्योतितप्रभः || १-१८-५४
ब्रह्मर्षित्वमनुप्राप्तः पूज्योऽसि बहुधा मया |
54b, 55a. puurvam raajarShishabdena= earlier - originally, by kingly-saint title; dyotitaprabhaH= indicated - explicit, is your glory – such as you are; tapasaa brahmarShitwam anupraaptaH= you attained Absolute sainthood by ascesis; mayaa bahudhaa puujyaH asi = you are venerable in many ways by me.
"Originally your glory was explicit by your title kingly-sage, and subsequently you attained the Absolute-sainthood by your ascesis, and you are venerable to me, in many ways." [1-18-54b, 55a]
तदद्भुतमभूत् विप्र पवित्रं परमं मम || १-१८-५५
शुभक्षेत्रगतश्चाहं तव संदर्शनात् प्रभो |
55b, 56a. vipra = oh Brahman; tat = thereby; [idam = this arrival of yours]; adbhutam = surprising; mama = to me; pavitram paramam = sacred, ideally; prabho = oh adept one; tava samdarshanaat = by your, very appearance; aham = I have [become one who]; shubhakShetragataH = one who has gone to sacred place - on pilgrimage; abhuut = I have become.
"Oh, Brahman, thereby your arrival at my place is surprising and ideally sacred to me, and by your very appearance I have become one who has gone on a quiet pilgrimage. [1-18-55b, 56a]
Dasharatha deems that city itself is sanctified with the arrival of Vishvamitra and thinks that he is like the one who secured the merit of pilgrimage without actually going over a sacred place.
ब्रूहि यत् प्रार्थितं तुभ्यं कार्यमागमनं प्रति || १-१८-५६
इच्छाम्यनुगृहीतोऽहं त्वदर्थं परिवृद्धये |
56b, 57a. aagamanam prati = regarding arrival [the work that made you to come]; tubhyam praarthitam = by you, entreated; yat kaaryam = which, work is there [deed]; [that] bruuhi = you tell; aham anugR^ihiitaH [vai] = I am, blessed [indeed]; tvadartham = of your deed; parivR^iddhaye icChaami = I wish to flourish it [ to make happen, for fulfilling it] .
"You may tell me, entreating which work your arrival chanced here and I feel that I am indeed blessed and wish to make it happen to achieve results. [1-18-56b, 57a]
कार्यस्य न विमर्शं च गंतुमर्हसि सुव्रत || १-१८-५७
कर्ता चाहमशेषेण दैवतं हि भवान् मम |
57b, 58a. suvrata = [sage with] blest vows; kaaryasya vimarsham gantum na arhasi = to go into deliberation about work is not apt of you; aham asheSheNa kartaa cha = I am the doer without reminder [of work - thoroughly]; bhavaan mama daivatam hi = you are god for me, indeed.
"It is unapt of you to deliberate about the feasibility of the work, oh, sage with blest vows, while I am the fulfiller of it without any reminder, since you are god to me, indeed. [1-18-57b, 58a]
मम चायमनुप्राप्तो महानभ्युदयो द्विज |
तवागमनजः कृत्स्नो धर्मश्चानुत्तमो द्विज || १-१८-५८
58b, c. dwija = oh Brahman; mama ayam mahaan abhyudayaH anupraaptaH = for me, this is, great, prosperity, that bechanced; [mama = to me]; tava aagamanajaH = caused by your arrival; kR^itsnaH dharmaH anuttamaH = entire, propriety, is the unexcelled one.
"Oh, Brahman, this is the great prosperity that bechanced on me, and this is propriety in its entirety that bechanced on me, as a result of your arrival. [1-18-58b, c]
इति हृदयसुखं निशम्य वाक्यम्
श्रुतिसुखमात्मवता विनीतमुक्तम् |
परमऋषिः परमं जगाम हर्षम् || १-१८-५९
59. aatmavataa = by high-minded Dasharatha; iti = this way; viniitam uktam = humbly, when said; hR^idayasukham shrutisukham = for heart pleasing, for ears pleasing; vaakyam nishamya = words, on hearing; prathitaguNayashaaH = one who is renowned [for his personal] attributes and reputation; guNaiH vishiSTaH = exceptional one by his qualities; paramaR^iSiH = the sublime sage [Vishvamitra]; paramam harSam jagaama = high, rejoice, he obtained.
On hearing the words of high-minded Dasharatha, said that way in all his humbleness, and those that are pleasant to ears as well to heart, he who is a renowned for his personal attributes and a reputed one by his exceptional qualities, that sublime sage Vishvamitra obtained high rejoice. [1-18-59]
इति वाल्मीकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे अष्टादशः सर्गः
|Top of Page||1||2||3||4|
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: April 04]