Book VI : Yuddha Kanda - Book Of War
Ravana reproached the charioteer for having turned back his chariot away from the battle-field. The charioteer explains to Ravana, the various reasons as to why he has taken back the chariot. Satisfied with the explanation given by his charioteer, Ravana instructs him to take the chariot back to the battle-field. Thereupon, the charioteer brings the chariot in an instant before Rama on the battle-field.
sa tu mohAtsusa~NkruddhaH kR^itAntabalachoditaH |
krodhasanraktanayano rAvaNo sUtamabravIt ||6-104-1
1. saH raavaNaH= that Ravana; kR^itaanta bala choditaH= impelled by strength of Destiny; krodha samraktanayanaH= with his red-blood eyes through anger; mohaat= due to infatnation; abraviit= spoke; suutam= to his charioteer (as follows):
Impelled by force of Destiny and with his red-blood eyes through anger due to infatuation, that Ravana spoke to his charioteer as follows:
hInavIryamivAshaktaM pauruSheNa vivarjitam |
bhIrun laghumivAsattvaM vihInamiva tejasA ||6-104-2
vimuktamiva mAyAbhirastrairiva bahiShkR^itam |
mAmavaGYAya durbuddhe svayA buddhyA vicheShTase ||6-104-3
2, 3. durbuddhe= O evil-minded fellow!; avaGYaa= despising; maam= me; vivarjitam= as though I were bereft; pauruSheNa= of manliness; ashaktam= incapable; hiina viiryamiva= deficient in prowess; bhiirum= cowardly; laghumiva= petty-minded; asattvam= devoid of energy; vihiinamiva tejasaa= deserted of conjuring tricks; bahiShkR^itam iva astraiH= and abandoned by mystic missiles; vicheShTase= you are acting; svayaa buddhyaa= as per your discretion!
"O evil-minded fellow! Despising me as though I were bereft of manliness, incapable, deficient in prowess, cowardly, petty-minded, devoid of energy, bereft of brilliance, deserted of conjuring tricks and abandoned by mystic missiles, you are acting as per your discretion!"
kimarthaM mAmavaGYAya machchhandamanavekShya cha |
tvayA shatrusamakShaM me rathoayamapavAhitaH ||6-104-4
4. kimartham= why have you; apavaahitaH= carried away; me ayam rathaH= this chariot of mine; avajNaaya= humiliating; maam= me; shatrusamakSham= before my enemies; anavekShya cha= and overlooking; machchhandam= my will?
"Why have you carried away this chariot of mine, thus humiliating me in the presence of my enemies and overlooking my will?"
tvayAdya hi mamAnArya chirakAlasamArjitam |
yasho vIryan cha tejashcha pratyayashcha vinAshitha ||6-104-5
5. anaarya= O vulgar fellow!; mama= my; yashaH= fame; chirakaala samaarjitam= which was earned through a long period; tejashcha= vital power; pratyayashcha= and trust; vinaashitaH= have been destroyed; tvayaa= by you; adya= today.
"O vulgar fellow! You have destroyed my fame which was earned through a long period, prowess, vital power and the trust of people today."
shatroH prakhyAtavIryasya ra~njanIyasya vikramaiH |
pashyato yuddhalubdhoahan kR^itaH kApuruShastvayA ||6-104-6
6. aham= I; yuddha lubdhaH= having an ardent desire for battle; kR^itaH= was made; kaapuruShaH= a contemptible person; tvayaa= by you; shatroH= while my enemy; prakhyaata viirasya= having an illustrious prowess; raN^janiiyasya= making others delightful; vikramaiH= through feats of his; pashyataH= stood looking on.
"While my adversary, having an illustrious prowess and making others delightful through feats of his valour, stood looking on, myself, who has an ardent desire for fighting and who was made contemptible by you!"
yastvan rathamimaM mohAnna chodvahasi durmate |
satyoayaM pratitarko me pareNa tvamupaskR^itaH ||6-104-7
7. durmate= O evil-minded fellow!; yaH tvam= in case you; na= do not; mohaat= by perversity; vahasi= carry away; idam chariot= this chariot; chet= at any event; ayam pratitarkaH= this expectation of mine; tvam= that you; upaskR^itaH= stand corrupted; pareNa= by the enemy; satyaH= will be a fact.
"O evil-minded fellow! In case you do not, by perversity, carry away this chariot at any event, this expectation of mine that you stand corrupted by the enemy, will be a fact."
na hIdan vidyate karma suhR^ido hitakA~NkShiNaH |
ripUNAn sadR^ishan chaitanna tvayaitatsvanuShThitam ||6-104-8
8. etat= this act; yat= which; anuShThitam= has been done; tvayaa= by you; etat= this; sadR^isham= is befitting; ripuuNaam= of enemies; tat= that; na vidyate hi= is indeed not; karma= the work; suhR^idaH= of a friend; hitakaaN^kShiNaH= who wishes me well.
"This act, which has been done by you, is only befitting of enemies. This is indeed not the work of a friend, who wishes me well."
nivartaya rathan shIghraM yAvannApaiti me ripuH |
yadi vApyuShitoasi tvan smaryante yadi vA guNAH ||6-104-9
9. asi yadi tvam= If you; adhyuShitaH= inhabited with me for a long time; yadismaryate= and if you remember; me= my; guNah= merit; nivartaya= drive back; ratham= the chariot; shiighram= swiftly; yaavat= till; me ripuH= my enemy; naapaiti= does not withdraw.
"If you inhabited with me in Lanka for a long time and if you remember my merit, drive back the chariot swiftly till my enemy does not withdraw."
evaM paruShamuktastu hitabuddhirabuddhinA |
abravIdrAvaNan sUto hitaM sAnunayaM vachaH ||6-104-10
10. evam uktaH= thus spoken; paruSham= harshly; abuddhinaa= by the foolish Ravana; hita buddhiH= the friendly-minded; suutaH= charioteer; abraviit= spoke; saannyam vachaH= conciliatory words; raavaNam= to Ravana (as follows):
Hearing those harsh words of the foolish Ravana, the friendly-minded charioteer spoke the following conciliatory words of Ravana:
na bhItoasmi na mUDhoasmi nopajaptoasmi shatrubhiH |
na pramatto na niHsneho vismR^itA na cha satkriyA ||6-104-11
11. naasmi= I was not; bhiitaH= frightened; na asmi= I was not; muuDhaH= stupid; na asmi= I was not; upajaptaH= bribed; shatrubhiH= by the enemies; na asmi= I was not; pramattaH= a blunderer; na niH snehaH= I was not disloyal; satkriyaacha= your good; na vismR^itaa= was not forgotten.
"I was neither frightened nor I was stupid. I was not bribed by the enemies, nor was I a blunderer. I was not disloyal to you. I have not forgotten the benefits conferred by you."
mayA tu hitakAmena yashashcha parirakShatA |
snehapraskannamanasA priyamityapriyan kR^itam ||6-104-12
12. mayaa= by me; hita kaamena= who wish well to you; parikShataa= who protect; yashashcha= your honour; sneha prasanna manasaa= with a mind affectionately disposed towards you through attachment; apriyam= an act which was not to your liking; kR^itam= was done; hitam iti= as something conducive to your interest.
"An act which was not to your taste was done by me as something conducive to your interest, by wishing well of you, for protecting your honour and with mind affectionately disposed towards you through attachment."
nAsminnarthe mahArAja tvaM mAM priyahite ratam |
kashchillaghurivAnAryo doShato gantumarhasi ||6-104-13
13. mahaaraaja= O monarch!; kashchit laghuH anaaryaH iva= like somebody who is petty-minded and unworthy; tvam na arhasi= you ought not; maam gantum= to hold me; priyahite ratam= devoted as I am to your pleasure and good; doShataH= guilty; asmin arthe= in this matter.
"O monarch! Like somebody who is petty-minded and unworthy, you ought not to hold me, devoted as I am to your pleasure and good, quilty in this matter."
shrUyatAmabhidhAsyAmi yannimittaM mayA rathaH |
nadIvega ivAmbhobhiH sanyuge vinivartitaH ||6-104-14
14. mahaaraaja= O monarch!; kashchit laghuH anaaryaH iva= like somebody who is petty-minded and unworthy; tvam na arhasi= you ought not; maam gantum= to hold me; priyahite ratam= devoted as I am to your pleasure and good; doShataH= guilty; asmin arthe= in this matter.
"O monarch! Like somebody who is petty-minded and unworthy, you ought not to hold me, devoted as I am to your pleasure and good, guilty in this matter."
shraman tavAvagachchhAmi mahatA raNakarmaNA |
na hi te vIra saumukhyaM praharShan vopadhAraye ||6-104-15
15. pratidaasyaami= I am giving a reply; shruuyataam= let it be listened (by you); yannimittam= why; rathaH= the chariot; vinivartitam= was carried away; samyuge= in the battle-field; nadiivegaH iva= as the onrush of a stream; aabhoge= (is pushed back) by a tide.
"I understand your exhaustion, due to your strenuous fighting in the great battle. I am not reflecting on the inclination of your valour or on your superiority over your enemy."
rathodvahanakhinnAshcha ta ime rathavAjinaH |
dInA gharmaparishrAntA gAvo varShahatA iva ||6-104-16
16. me rathavaajinaH= the horses of my chariot; bhagnaaH= were broken down; rathodvahanakhinnaaH= and were exhausted by drawing the chariot; diinaaH= they became miserable; gharmaparishraantaaH= and thoroughly fatigued; gaavaH iva= like the cows; varSha hataaH= lashed by rain.
"The horses of my chariot were broken down and were exhausted by drawing the chariot. They became miserable and thoroughly fatigued, like the cows lashed by heavy rain."
nimittAni cha bhUyiShThan yAni prAdurbhavanti naH |
teShu teShvabhipanneShu lakShayAmyapradakShiNam ||6-104-17
17. lakShayaami= I am seeing; apradakShiNam= inauspiciousness; yaani nimittaani= in those portents; praadurbhavanti= which appear; naH= to us; bhuuyiShTham= in large numbers; abhipanneShu= and examined; teShu teShu= in all of them.
"I am seeing inauspiciousness in all the portents, which appear to us in large numbers and duly examined by me."
deshakAlau cha viGYeyau lakShmaNAnI~NgitAni cha |
dainyan harShashcha khedashcha rathinashcha balAbalam ||6-104-18
18. desha kaalaucha= (propitious and unpropitious) time and place; lakShaNaani= (good and bad) omens; inN^gitaani= facial expressions; dainyam harShashcha= depression and liveliness; khedashcha= the measure of fatigue; balaabalam= as also the strength andweakness; rathinaH= of the warrior occupying the chariot; viJNeyau= must be ascertained (by a charioteer).
"(Propitious and unpropitious) time and place, (good and bad) omens, facial as also the strength and weakness of the warrior occupying the chariot must be ascertained (by a charioteer)."
sthalanimnAni bhUmeshcha samAni viShamANi cha |
yuddhakAlashcha viGYeyaH parasyAntaradarshanam ||6-104-19
19. sthala nimnaani= the eminences and depressions; bhuumeH= of the ground; samaani viShamaanicha= as well as the parts which are level and rugged; yuddhakaalaashcha= the time appropriate for the combat; antaradarshanam= and the visible weak points; parasya= of the enemy; viJNeya= must be known (by a charioteer).
"The eminences and depressions of the ground as well as the parts which are level and rugged, the time appropriate for the combat and the visible weak points of the enemy must be known (by a charioteer)."
upayAnApayAne cha sthAnaM pratyapasarpaNam |
sarvametadrathasthena GYeyan rathakuTumbinA ||6-104-20
20. upayaanaapayaane= arrival and retreat; sthaanam pratyapasarpaNam= how to hold one's position and how to recede; etat sarvam= all this; JNeyam= must be known; rathakuTumbinaa= by charioteer; rathasthena= seated in the chariot.
"How to arrive and retreat, how to hold one's position and to recede all this must be known by a charioteer, seated in the chariot."
tava vishrAmahetostu tathaiShAn rathavAjinAm |
raudran varjayatA khedan kShamaM kR^itamidaM mayA ||6-104-21
21. idam= this; kShamam= appropriate action; kR^itam= was taken; mayaa= by me; tava vishraanta hetoH= in order to give rest to you; tathaa= and; eShaam rathavaajinaam= to these horses of the chariot; varjayataa= and to relieve; raudram khedam= your terrible fatigue.
"This action appropriate was taken by me in order to give rest to you and to these horses of the chariot as also to relieve your terrible fatigue."
na mayA svechchhayA vIra rathoayamapavAhitaH |
bhartR^isnehaparItena mayedan yatkR^itaM vibho ||6-104-22
22. viira prabho= O the valiant lord!; ayam= this; rathaH= chariot; na apavaahitaH= was not removed; mayaa= by me; svechchhayaa= arbitrarily; idam yat kR^itam= that which was done; mayaa= by me; (was) bhartR^isneha paritena= because I was overwhelmed with affection for my master.
"O the valiant lord! This chariot was not removed by me arbitrarily. That which was done by me was because I was overwhelmed with affection for my master."
AGYApaya yathAtattvan vakShyasyariniShUdana |
tatkariShyAmyahan vIran gatAnR^iNyena chetasA ||6-104-23
23. ariShudana= O annihilator of enemies!; viira= O hero!; aajJNaapaya= give a command!; yathaa= how; tvam= you; vakShyasi= tell me; tat= that act; tat= that; aham= I; kariShyaami= will do; chetasaa= with attention; gataanR^iNyena= with a mind which feels relieved of all that is due.
"O annihilator of enemies! O hero! Give me a command! I will do that which you will enjoin me to do, with due attention and with a mind which feels relieved of all that is due."
santuShTastena vAkyena rAvaNastasya sAratheH |
prashasyainaM bahuvidhan yuddhalubdhoabravIdidam ||6-104-24
24. samtushTaH= satisfied; tena vaakyena= with the explanation; tasya saaratheH= of that charioteer; prashasya= applauding; enam= him; bahuvidham= in many ways; raavaNaH= Ravana; yuddha labdthaH= who was avaricious of fighting; abraviit= spoke; idam= the following words:
Satisfied with the explanation given by his charioteer and applauding him in many ways, Ravana who was avaricious of fighting, spoke the following words:
rathan shIghramimaM sUta rAghavAbhimukhan kuru |
nAhatvA samare shatrUnnivartiShyati rAvaNaH ||6-104-25
25. suuta= O charioteer!; maya= take; imam= this; ratham= chariot; shiighram= quickly; raaghavaabhimukham= towards Rama; raavaNaH= Ravana; na nivartiShyati= does not turn back; samare= in battle; ahatvaa= without killing; shatruun= his enemies.
"O charioteer! Take this chariot quickly towards Rama. Ravana does not turn back in battle, without killing his enemies."
evamuktvA tatastuShTo rAvaNo rAkShaseshvaraH |
dadau tasya shubhan hyekaM hastAbharaNamuttamam ||6-104-26
26. evam uktvaa= thus speaking; raavaNaH= Ravana; raakShaseshvaraH= the lord of demons; tuShTaH= was pleased; tataH= and then; dadau= presented; ekam= one; shubham= beautiful; uttamam= and excellent; hastaabharaNam= ornament for the land; tasyam= to him; saH saarathiH= that charioteer; shrutvaa= after hearing; raavaNavaakyaami= the instructions of Ravana; nyavartata= drove the chariot back to the battle-field.
Thus speaking Ravna the lord of demons was pleased and then presented a beautiful and excellent ornament for the hand to him. That charioteer, after hearing Ravana's instruction,s drove the chariot back to the battle-field.
tato drutan rAvaNavAkyachoditaH |
prachodayAmAsa hayAnsa sArathiH |
sa rAkShasendrasya tato mahArathaH |
kShaNena rAmasya raNAgratoabhavat ||6-104-27
27. tataH= thereupon; raavaNavaakya choditaH= impelled by Ravana's command; saH saarathiH= that charioteer; drutam= quickly; prachodayaamaasa= drove forward; hayaan= the horses; tataH= then; raakShasendrasya saH mahaarathaH= that chariot of Ravana; kShaNena= within a moment; abhavat= stood; raamasya rathaagrataH= in front of Rama's chariot.
Impelled by Ravana's command, that charioteer thereupon quickly drove the horses forward. Then, that chariot of Ravana stood within a moment, before Rama's chariot on the battle-field.
ityarShe shriimadraamaayaNe aadikaavye yuddhakaaNDe chaturadhikashatatamaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 104th chapter in Yuddha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.
© June 2009, K. M. K. Murthy