Sugreeva's knowledge of physical world is acquired when Vali put him to flight. Rama enquires with Sugreeva as to how Sugreeva has many details of lands, countries, rivers, and mountains. In reply, Sugreeva says that when repulsed by Vali he was on the run to pillar to post, until he finally settled on Mt. Rishyamuka. During such a plighted flight, Sugreeva says, he acquired a direct and personal knowledge of earth.
gateṣu vānarendreṣu rāmaḥ sugrīvam abravīt |
katham bhavān vijānīte sarvam vai maṇḍalam bhuvaḥ || 4-46-1
1. vaanara indreSu gateSu = monkey-troop, chiefs of, when gone; raamaH sugriivam abraviit = Rama, to Sugreeva, spoke; bhavaan = you; bhuvaH sarvam maNDalam = of earth, in entirety, globe; katham vi jaaniite vai = how, very-well know, indeed.
When the chiefs of monkey-troops are on their way Rama spoke to Sugreeva, "Indeed, how do you know very-well about the globe of earth in its entirety?" [4-46-1]
sugrīvaḥ ca tato rāmam uvāca praṇata ātmavān |
śrūyatām sarvam ākhyāsye vistareṇa vaco mama || 4-46-2
2. tataH = then; sugriivaH praNata aatmavaan = Sugreeva, bowing down, himself; raamam uvaaca = to Rama, spoke; sarvam vistareNa aakhyaasye = all, vividly, I will narrate; mama vacaH shruuyataam = my, words, may be heard.
Then Sugreeva bowing down before Rama said, "I will narrate all vividly, and let my words be heard." [4-46-2]
yadā tu duṃdubhim nāma dānavam mahiṣa ākṛtim |
parikālayate vālī malayam prati parvatam || 4-46-3
tadā viveśa mahiṣo malayasya guhām prati |
viveśa vālī tatra api malayam tat jighāṃsayā || 4-46-4
3. vaalii = Vali; mahiSa aakR^itim = in buffalo's, shape; dundubhim naama = Dundubhi [Dundubhi's son Maayaavi,] named; daanavam = demon; yadaa = when; malayam parvatam prati = Mt. Malaya, mountain, towards; parikaalayate = repulsed; tadaa mahiSaH = then, buffalo-demon; malayasya guhaam prati vivesha = Mt. Malaya's, cave, towards [into,][ entered; vaalii = Vali; tat jighaamsayaa = that [buffalo,] wishing to kill; tatra api malayam vivesha = even, there, Mt. Malaya's [cave,] entered.
"When Vali repulsed the buffalo-shaped demon Dundubhi towards Malaya mountain, then that buffalo entered the cave of Mt. Malaya, and even Vali entered therein wishing to kill that buffalo. [4-46-3, 4]
This buffalo-demon Dundubhi was killed by Vali in Kishkindha and its carcass was hurled into the precincts of Sage Matanga's hermitage. While that demon was killed there, Sugreeva is now telling that this demon was killed in a cave. The demon killed in cave was Maayaavi, as said in Ch. 9 of this canto. Maayaavi and Dundubhi are brothers and sons of Maya. Maheshvara Tiirtha says because Dundubhi is the son of buffalo-demon Maya, i.e., Dundubhi Sr., thus he can be called as Dundubhi. And Govindaraja says:
dundubheH puurvajaH agrajaH sutaH mayasya iti seShaH vakShyatu uttara kaaNDe mayaH - maayaavii prathamaH staat dundubhiH tat anantaram iti... 'Maayaavi is the first son and the second one is Dundubhi- as said by Maya in Uttara Kanda...' Then it is assumed that both Maayaavi and Dundubhi have come in the first instance for a fight with Vali. But on seeing Vali and Sugreeva, Dundubhi might have entered into the cave with Maayaavi and somehow escaped from there, and thus only Maayaavi is killed by Vali. Later Dundubhi came at the gate of Kishkindha and was killed by Vali. Hence, Sugreeva's referring to Dundubhi here includes both Maayaavi and Dundubhi.
tato aham tatra nikṣipto guhā dvāri vinītavat |
na ca niṣkramate vālī tadā saṃvatsare gate || 4-46-5
5. tataH = then; viniitavat = as an amenable [brother]; aham tatra guhaa dvaari = I, there, at cave's, mouth; nikSiptaH = I was kept at [by Vali]; tadaa samvatsare gate = then, a year, lapsed; vaalii na niS kramate = Vali, not, out, coming - exiting from cave.
"Vali then kept me at the mouth of the cave as I was an amenable brother, but Vali did not exit from cave even after one full year. [4-46-5]
tataḥ kṣataja vegena āpupūre tadā bilam |
tat aham vismito dṛṣṭvā bhrātuḥ śoka viṣa arditaḥ || 4-46-6
6. tataH = then; bilam = cavity; kSata ja = from gash, that emerges - blood; vegena = by its rush; aapu puure = fully filled; tadaa aham tat dR^iSTvaa = ten, I, that, having seen; vismitaH = dumbfounded; bhraatuH shoka viSa arditaH = for brother's [loss,] anguish, by venom, I was agonised.
"I was dumbfounded to see that cave is then fully filled with blood, and then a venom like anguish called the loss of my brother agonised me. [4-46-6]
atha aham gata buddhiḥ tu suvyaktam nihato guruḥ |
śilā parvata saṃkāśā bila dvāri mayā kṛtā || 4-46-7
aśaknuvan niṣkramitum mahiṣo vinaśiṣyati |
7, 8a. atha = then; guruH = brother; su vyaktam nihataH = very, clearly [unmistakably,] killed; thus; aham gata buddhiH tu = I, acquired, mind [concluded,] on my part; mahiSaH = buffalo; niS kramitum = out, to go - to exit; a shaknuvan = not, possible; vi nashiSyati = completely, gets destroyed [in cave]; thinking so; mayaa = by me; parvata sankaashaa shilaa = mountain, similar, boulder; bila dvaari kR^itaa = cavity, in mouth, made [fixed];
"Then I concluded that 'my brother is unmistakably killed,' and then I fixed a mountain similar boulder in the mouth of that cavity with a thinking that it will be impossible for that buffalo to exit and it will get destroyed within that cave itself. [4-46-7, 8a]
tato aham āgām kiṣkiṃdhām nirāśaḥ tasya jīvite || 4-46-8
rājyam ca sumahat prāpya tārām ca rumayā saha |
mitraiḥ ca sahitaḥ tatra vasāmi vigata jvaraḥ || 4-46-9
8b, 9. tataH = then; aham = I; tasya jiivite = in his [Vali's,] aliveness; nir aashaH = without, hope; kiSkindhaam aagaam = to Kishkindha, I came; su mahat raajyam ca = very magnificent, kingdom, also; rumayaa saha taaraam ca = Ruma, along with Lady Tara, also; praapya = on getting; mitraiH sahitaH ca = friends, along with, also; vigata jvaraH = without, febrility [disquiet, owing to brother's loss, i.e., peaceably]; tatra vasaami = there [in Kishkindha,] I was staying.
"Unhopeful of Vali's aliveness then I arrived in Kishkindha, and on getting the very magnificent kingdom of Kishkindha, and also Ruma along with Tara, I was peaceably staying there with friends. [4-46-8, 9]
ājagāma tato vālī hatvā tam dānavarṣabhaḥ |
tato aham adadām rājyam gauravāt bhaya yaṃtritaḥ || 4-46-10
10. tataH = then; tam daanava R^iSabhaH [R^iSabham] hatvaa = him, demon, great one, on killing; vaalii aajagaama = Vali, came back; tataH aham = then, I; bhaya yantritaH = by fear, spellbound; gauravaat raajyam adadaam = owing to deference, kingdom, gave back.
"Vali then came back to Kishkindha on killing that great demon, and then I was spellbound in fear of Vali's killing me, and I gave back the kingdom to Vali owing to my deference to him. [4-46-10]
sa mām jighāṃsuḥ duṣṭātmā vālī pravyathita indriyaḥ |
parikālayate krodhāt dhāvaṃtam sacivaiḥ saha || 4-46-11
11. duSTa aatmaa saH vaalii = evil, minded one, he that, Vali; pra vyathita indriyaH = highly, perturbed, at senses; sacivaiH saha maam dhaavantam = ministers, along with, me, while I was running away; jighaansuH = wishing to kill - me; krodhaat pari kaalayate = furiously, further repulsed.
"That evil-minded Vali becoming highly perturbed at his senses furiously repulsed me further and further away, even though I was running away from him with my ministers, as he wished to kill me. [4-46-11]
tato aham vālinā tena sānubandhaḥ pradhāvitaḥ |
nadīḥ ca vividhāḥ paśyan vanāni nagarāṇi ca || 4-46-12
12. tataH = then; tena vaalinaa anubandhaH = by him, by Vali, pursued - chased; saH aham = such as I was; vividhaaH = diverse; nadiiH vanaani nagaraaNi ca = rivers, forest, cities, also; pashyan = on seeing; pra dhaavitaH = rapidly, made to run away - chased away.
"Such as I was, who is repulsed by Vali, I was made to run away rapidly, and during that fleeing I went on seeing diverse rivers, forests and cities. [4-46-12]
ādarśa tala saṃkāśā tato vai pṛthivī mayā |
alāta cakra pratimā dṛṣṭā goṣpadavat tadā - kṛtā || 4-46-13
13. tataH = then; mayaa = by me; pR^ithivii = earth; aadarsha tala sankaashaa = mirror's, surface [reflection on the surface of a mirror,] like; alaata cakra pratimaa = fireball, circle, akin to; dR^iSTaa = seen [by me]; tadaa goSpadavat [kR^itaa] vai = then, analogous to cow-hoof-print, [made as,] indeed.
"I have then really seen the earth as in the reflection on the surface of a mirror, where the mirror shows all the objects in exactness, and the earth is like the circle of a fireball, where it is encircled with fire-like reddish, brownish, ochreish minerals and ores, and it appeared to me in my high flight like a cow-hoof-print in the mirror, called my perception. [4-46-13]
pūrvam diśām tato gatvā paśyāmi vividhān drumān |
parvatān sa darīn ramyān sarāṃsi vividhāni ca || 4-46-14
14. tataH = then; puurvam dishaam gatvaa = eastern, to direction, on going; vividhaan drumaan = various, trees; sa dariin ramyaan parvataan = with, caves, enchanting, mountains; vividhaani saraamsi ca = numerous, lakes, also; pashyaami = I saw.
"Then on going to eastern direction I saw various trees, enchanting mountains with caves, and also numerous lakes. [4-46-14]
udayam tatra paśyāmi parvatam dhātu maṇḍitam |
kṣīrodam sāgaram caiva nityam apsara ālayam || 4-46-15
15. tatra = there; dhaatu maNDitam = with ores, wreathed in; udayam parvatam = Udaya - Sun-Rise, mountain; nityam apsara aalayam = forever, apsara-s, an abode of; kshiira udam saagaram caiva = Milk Water, oceans, also thus; pashyaami = I saw.
"There I saw the mountain wreathed in with ores, namely Mt. Udaya, the Sun-Rise, and I have also seen the Milk Water Oceans which is forever an abode for apsara-s. [4-46-15]
parikālyamānaḥ tadā vālinā abhidrutaḥ hi aham |
punaḥ āvṛtya sahasā prasthito aham tadā vibho || 4-46-16
16. vibho = oh, lord Rama; vaalinaa parikaalyamaanaH = by Vali, being repulsed; aham tadaa abhidrutaH = I was, then, fleeing speedily; tadaa = then; punaH aavR^itya = again, returned; aham = I; sahasaa = quickly; vaalinaa [punaH] prasthitaH = by Vali, [again,] made to travel - chased to flee.
"I fled speedily when Vali repulsed me, but oh, lord Rama, when I returned he again made me to flee forthwith. [4-46-16]
diśaḥ tasyāḥ tato bhūyaḥ prasthito dakṣiṇam diśam |
vindhya pādapa saṃkīrṇām candana druma śobhitām || 4-46-17
17. tataH = then; tasyaaH dishaH bhuuyaH = from that [east,] direction, again; vindhya paadapa samkiirNaam = [both] Vindhya Range mountains, trees, thick with; candana druma shobhitaam = with sandalwood, trees, enriched; dakshiNam disham prasthitaH = to southern, direction, I was fled.
"Then from that eastern direction I fled to southern direction, which is thick with Vindhya Range mountains and diverse trees, especially with sandalwood trees. [4-46-17]
druma śaila antare paśyan bhūyo dakṣiṇato aparāam |
aparām ca diśam prāpto vālinā samabhidrutaḥ || 4-46-18
18. druma shaila antare = trees, mountains, in interiors; dakshiNataH aparaaam = from south, another [direction]; pashyan = while I was seeing; bhuuyaH vaalinaa samabhidrutaH = again, by Vali, made to run; [samabhidrutaH = having fled]; aparaam disham praaptaH = western, direction, I reached. [Here aparaam means doubly 1. another, 2. west quarter.]
"While I was seeing the interiors of forest and mountains again I was made to run by Vali, who was setting upon me from within the interiors of those forests and mountains, and then I reached the western direction. [4-46-18]
sa paśyan vividhān deśān astam ca giri sattamam |
prāpya ca astam giri śreṣṭham uttaram saṃpradhāvitaḥ || 4-46-19
19. saH = such as I was; vividhaan deshaan = diverse, countries; giri sattamam = mountain, best one; astam ca = Asta, Dusk, also, [Astagiri, Mt. Dusk]; pashyan = on seeing; giri shreSTham astam ca = mountain, excellent one, Mt. Dusk, also; praapya = on reaching; uttaram = to north; sam pra dhaavitaH = very, much [by a long way,] ran [took to my heels.]
"Such as I was, on seeing diverse cities and the best mountain Astagiri, Mt. Dusk, I reached that excellent Mt. Dusk also, and since Vali is at my heel, I took to my heels, by a long way to north. [4-46-19]
himavaṃtam ca merum ca samudram ca tathā uttaram |
yadā na vinde śaraṇam vālinā samabhidrutaḥ || 4-46-20
tato mām buddhi saṃpanno hanumān vākyam abravīt |
20. himavantam ca merum ca = Himalayas, also, Meru, also; tathaa = likewise; uttaram samudram ca = to northern, ocean, also; I ran towards; vaalinaa sam abhi drutaH = by Vali, driven back [even from north]; yadaa = when; sharaNam = shelter [or clemency from Vali, or, foothold on earth;] na vinde = not, known - I could not see, or get; tataH = then; buddhi sampannaH hanumaan = wisdom, his prosperity, Hanuma; maam vaakyam abraviit = to me, word, said.
"Even at Himalayas, Mt. Meru, like that at the Northern Ocean, Vali drove me back, and when the clemency from Vali, or a shelter, or even a foothold on earth was indeterminable, then Hanuma, whose prosperity is his wisdom, said a word to me. [4-46-20, 21a]
idānīm me smṛtam rājan yathā vālī harīśvaraḥ || 4-46-21
mataṃgena tadā śapto hi asmin āśrama maṇḍale |
praviśet yadi vai vālī mūrdhā asya śatadhā bhavet || 4-46-22
tatra vāsaḥ sukho asmākam nirudvigno bhaviṣyati |
21b, 22, 23a. raajan = oh, king Sugreeva; hari iishvaraH vaalii = monkeys, king, Vali; tadaa = at that time; matangena yathaa shaptaH hi = by Sage Matanga, as to how, cursed, indeed; [tat = that topic]; me idaaniim smR^itam = to me, now, came to remembrance; vaalii asmin aashrama maNDale = Vali, in that [Matanga's,] hermitage, in fringes; pravishet yadi vai = enters, if, really; asya muurdhaa shatadhaa bhavet = his [Vali's,] head, in hundred ways, becomes [splinters - Vali's head gets splintered]; tatra asmaakam vaasaH sukhaH = there, for us, dwelling, peaceful; nir udvignaH = without, high tension [imperturbable]; bhaviSyati = it will be.
" 'Oh, king Sugreeva, now I remember how Sage Matanga cursed the king of monkeys Vali at that time. If Vali really enters the fringes of the hermitage of Sage Matanga, Vali's head gets splintered in hundred ways. Hence dwelling in sage Matanga's hermitage will be peaceful and imperturbable for us.' Thus Hanuma spoke to me. [4-46-21b, 22, 23a]
tataḥ parvatam āsādya ṛśyamūkam nṛpātmaja || 4-46-23
na viveśa tadā vālī mataṃgasya bhayāt tadā |
evam mayā tadā rājan pratyakṣam upalakṣitam |
pṛthivī maṇḍalam sarvam guhām asmi āgataḥ tataḥ || 4-46-24
23b, 24. nR^ipaatmaja = oh, prince Rama; tataH = then; R^ishyamuukam parvatam aasaadya = Rishyamuka, mountain, on reaching; vaalii = Vali; matangasya bhayaat = of Sage Matanga, fearing from; tadaa na vivesha = then, not, entered - came to mountain; raajan = oh, king Rama; evam = in this way; tadaa = at that time; sarvam pR^ithivii maNDalam = entire, earth, globe; tadaa = in that way; pratyakSam mayaa upalakSitam = apparently, by me, closely seen; tataH = then; guhaam aagataH asmi = to cave, came, I am - I have come to the cave of Rishyamuka.
"Oh, prince Rama, then Vali though reached Mt. Rishyamuka, he did not enter into its precincts at that time fearing Sage Matanga and his curse, oh, king Rama, thus this globe of earth is apparently and closely sighted by me in its entirety, and then I came into the cave of Rishyamuka and did not stir out." So said Sugreeva to Rama. [4-46-23b, 24]
- - - .
Why Praise Globe
This and last few chapters that describe the topography and geography of earth may seem redundant or a wasteful narration. No purpose is apparently solved in narrating at such a length and in such vividness, when the main purpose is searching Seetha. Sugreeva might have simply said 'go and search everywhere...' This is as inquired by the commentator of Dharmaakuutam.
na anvatra janaka tanaya gaveShaNaaya prasthitaan vaanaraan prati praacyaadi dikShu gavesaNiiya pradesha visheShaNaanaam vishiShya kathanam na prayojanavat|
For this it is replied that at the outset of undertaking a high-risk task like the elimination of Ravana, some pious deeds of seeing, hearing, or telling about the pious lands, mountains, rivers, and sages that dwell thereabout, are to be undertaken. A laudatory salutation to Mother Earth is a sacred act. So Sugreeva has earned some merit in eulogising places and sending his troops to all places as a kind of tiirtha yaatra 'a pilgrimage...' as said by the commentator:
saamaanya uktyaa preShaNa sambhavaat iti cet ucyate - prabalatara shatru vadhaaadi mahaa kaaryam saadhayataa prathamataH tasmaat ardha daayakam tapaH caraNa puNya tiirtha kShetra deva brahma raaja R^iShaya samkiirtana shravaNa darshana smaraNaadiShu puNyatameShu yat kimcit kartavyam | sugriiveNa api kimcit puNyam karma kartavyam - puNya desha tiirtha maharShiNaam tat upeta bhuu golasya ca samkiirtana shravaNaadikam prashastam | - This is the same situation when Rama and Lakshmana venerated sapta jana aashrama 'the Seven-Sage's hermitage...' when Sugreeva proceeded with them for attacking Vali, in the second instance, in Kishkindha Ch. 13. Rama was not successful in the first round of attacking Vali, as he venerated none such tutelary in first round.
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe ṣaṭ catvārinśaḥ sargaḥ
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© Oct, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : November 04]