Sugreeva orders vanara-s to search east under the leadership of Vinata, a mighty vanara. Firstly he dedicates all the vanara forces to Rama, but Rama desired to know whether Seetha is alive or not, and if so at what place. Then Sugreeva commissioning Vinata explains the topography and geography of Eastern side of the jambuu dwiipa, 'the Indian subcontinent,' and its eastward, comprising whole of South-East Asia. This is the first chronicle ever recorded about the lands and oceans, islands and dwellers in there, as far as Ancient Indian Geography is concerned.
अथ राजा समृद्ध अर्थः सुग्रीवः प्लवगेश्वरः |
उवाच नरशार्दूलम् रामम् परबलार्दनम् || ४-४०-१
1. plavaga iishvaraH = fly-jumper's, lord; raajaa sugriivaH = king, Sugreeva; samR^iddha arthaH = abound, in means; atha = then; nara shaarduulam = to tigerly-man; para bala ardanam = enemy, might, to vanquisher; raamam uvaaca = to Rama, said.
The lord of fly-jumpers, king Sugreeva, who by now is replete with every means, then spoke to the tigerly-man and the vanquisher of enemy's might, Rama. [4-40-1]
आगता विनिविष्टाः च बलिनः कामरूपिणः |
वानरेन्द्रा महेन्द्र आभा ये मत् विषय वासिनः || ४-४०-२
2. ye mat viSaya vaasinaH = those, my, in province, dwellers; balinaH kaama ruupiNaH = mighty ones, at wish, guise-changers; mahendra aabhaa = like that of Mahendra, whose sheen is; vaanara indraa = vanara, chiefs; aagataaH = arrived; vi niviSTaaH ca = properly encamped, also.
"The mighty vanara chiefs who are guise-changers by their wish and who in sheen are like Mahendra, and who dwell in my province have arrived and they are properly encamped too. [4-40-2]
त इमे बहु विक्रान्तैः बलिभिः भीम विक्रमैः |
आगता वानरा घोरा दैत्य दानव संनिभाः || ४-४०-३
3. ghoraaH = ghastly ones; daitya daanava sannibhaaH = to monsters, ogres, matching to; ta ime [te ime = those [vanara-chiefs, these [with their soldiers]; vaanaraaH = vanara-s; bhiima vikramaiH = terribly, victorious ones; balibhiH = mighty ones; bahu vikraantaiH = diversely, triumphant ones; aagataa = arrived.
"Those ghastly vanara-chiefs who are a match to the monsters and ogres have arrived with these diversely triumphant, terribly victorious and mighty vanara-soldiers. [4-40-3]
ख्यात कर्म अपदानाः च बलवन्तो जित क्लमाः |
पराक्रमेषु विख्याता व्यवसायेषु च उत्तमाः || ४-४०-४
पृथिवि अंबु चरा राम नाना नग निवासिनः |
कोटि ओघाः च इमे प्राप्ता वानराः तव किंकराः || ४-४०-५
4. raama = oh, Rama; khyaata karma = acclaimed, deeds; apadaanaaH ca = accomplished tasks, also; balavantaH = powerful ones; jita klamaaH = they overcame, their weariness; paraakrameSu vikhyaataa = in confrontation, renowned ones; vyavasaayeSu uttamaaH ca = in manoeuvres, also, noteworthy ones; pR^ithivi ambu caraa = on earth, on water, they travel; naanaa naga nivaasinaH = on diverse, mountains, dwellers; such as they are; ime vaanaraaH = these, vanara-s; koTi oghaaH = in crores, of clusters [millionfold]; tava kinkaraaH = as your, servants; praaptaaH = they came.
"Oh, Rama, these vanara-s are acclaimed for undertaking impossible deeds, and they will accomplish whatever task they have undertaken. They are powerful ones who have overcome weariness. They are renowned for their confrontation and noteworthy in their manoeuvres. These who are the dwellers on diverse mountains can travel either on earth or on water. Such as they are these vanara-s have come in millionfold as your servants. [4-40-4, 5]
Vividly: 'These vanara-s are acclaimed for their impossible deeds like jumping over oceans, swinging from mountains to mountains, even lifting mountainous mass etc., thus any impracticable task is assignable to them, and hitherto each and every infeasible task undertaken by them is accomplished by each of them, thus they all are dependable... these are not only powerful individually, but they also have overpowered their individual weariness, thus they pursue any task unweariedly... and these are renowned for their complicate confrontations and noteworthy manoeuvres...'
निदेश वर्तिनः सर्वे सर्वे गुरु हिते स्थिताः |
अभिप्रेतम् अनुष्ठातुम् तव शक्ष्यन्ति अरिंदम || ४-४०-६
6. arindama = oh, enemy-repressor, Rama; sarve nidesha vartinaH = all of them, in orderliness, they abide; sarve guru hite sthitaaH = all, in mentor's [king's, welfare, abide by; tava abhipretam anuSThaatum shakSyanti = at your, discretion, to discharge, they will be able to.
"All of them will conduct themselves in orderliness and all abide by the welfare of their king, and oh, Rama, the enemy-repressor, they will be able to discharge whatever task entrusted to them at your discretion. [4-40-6]
त इमे बहु साहस्रैः अनेकैः बहु विक्रमैः |
आगता वानरा घोरा दैत्य दानव संनिभाः || ४-४०-७
7. ghoraaH = ghastly ones; daitya daanava sannibhaaH = to monsters, ogres, matching to; ta ime [te ime = those [vanara-chiefs, these [with their soldiers]; vaanaraaH = vanara-s; bhiima vikramaiH = terribly, victorious ones; balibhiH = mighty ones; bahu vikraantaiH = diversely, triumphant ones; aagataa = arrived.
"Such of those ghastly vanara-chiefs who are a match to the monsters and ogres have arrived with these diversely triumphant, terribly victorious and mighty vanara-soldiers. [4-40-7]
This verse may appear similar to verse 3 above but differs in mood of the dialogue.
यत् मन्यसे नरव्याघ्र प्राप्त कालम् तत् उच्यताम् |
तत् सैन्यम् त्वत् वशे युक्तम् आज्ञापयितुम् अर्हसि || ४-४०-८
8. nara vyaaghra = oh, manly, tiger Rama; yat = whichever; praapta kaalam = chanced, according to time [seasonable]; manyase = you think fit; tat ucyataam = that, may be said; tvat vashe = under your, control; yuktam = that has joined; tat sainyam = that, military force; aaj~naapayitum arhasi = to give orders, apt of you.
"Oh, the manly-tiger Rama, whichever you think fit and seasonable that may be said. It will be apt of you to give orders to this vanara force since this has joined up under your command. [4-40-8]
कामम् एषाम् इदम् कार्यम् विदितम् मम तत्त्वतः |
तथा अपि तु यथा युक्तम् आज्ञापयितुम् अर्हसि || ४-४०-९
9. idam kaaryam = this, task - of yours; mama = to me; tattvataH = in its nature; viditam kaamam = is known, in fact; tathaa api = then, even; yathaa yuktam = as, befitting; eSaam = them; aaj~naapayitum arhasi = to give orders [to them, apt of you.
"In fact, this task of yours is known to me in its nature. Even then, it will be apt of you to give them orders as befitting." Thus Sugreeva spoke to Rama. [4-40-9]
This verse has different shades in different mms. Dharmaakuutam has this as kaamam eSaam idam kaarye viditam viira tattvataH then it means that 'I know how to use them in this task...' Some other mms have it to mean: 'Myself and these vanara-s know the task but we are waiting for formal orders from you...' anena prabhu sannidhau svena svaatantryam na avalambaniiyam | kintu tad uktam eva srotavyam iti suucitam - dk'In the presence of the supreme commander, a lower level commander cannot and should not act independently. Whatever is said by the chief is to be carried out...' This is the foremost discipline required of any army personnel.
तथा ब्रुवाणम् सुग्रीवम् रामो दशरथात्मजः |
बाहुभ्याम् संपरिष्वज्य इदम् वचनम् अब्रवीत् || ४-४०-१०
10. dasharatha aatmajaH raamaH = Dasharatha's, son, Rama; tathaa bruvaaNam sugriivam = thus, who is speaking, to Sugreeva; baahubhyaam sam pariSvajya = with both arms, well [heartily hugging; idam vacanam abraviit = this, word, said.
While Sugreeva is speaking thus, Rama the son of Dasharatha heartily hugged him with both of his arms and said this word to him. [4-40-10]
ज्ञायताम् सौम्य वैदेही यदि जीवति वा न वा |
स च देशो महाप्राज्ञ यस्मिन् वसति रावणः || ४-४०-११
11. mahaa praaj~na = oh, well-informed one [Sugreeva]; saumya = oh, gracious one; yadi vaidehii jiivati vaa = whether, Vaidehi, alive, either; na vaa = not, or; raavaNaH yasmin vasati = Ravana, wherein, dwells; sa deshaH ca = that, place, likewise; j~naayataam = it is to be known.
"Oh, gracious Sugreeva, whether Vaidehi is alive or not - it shall be known. Likewise, oh, well-informed one that place in which Ravana dwells - it is to be determined, at the outset. [4-40-11]
अधिगम्य तु वैदेहीम् निलयम् रावणस्य च |
प्राप्त कालम् विधास्यामि तस्मिन् काले सह त्वया || ४-४०-१२
12. vaidehiim = about Vaidehi; raavaNasya nilayam ca = Ravana's, dwelling place, also; adhigamya tu = on knowing, only; tasmin kaale = at that, time; tvayaa saha = with you, in association - on deliberating with you; praapta kaalam = befitting, to time [timely action]; vidhaasyaami = I will order for.
"Only on knowing about Vaidehi, also about the dwelling place of Ravana, I will order for the timely action at that time, that too, after deliberating with you. [4-40-12]
न अहम् अस्मिन् प्रभुः कार्ये वानरेन्द्र न लक्ष्मणः |
त्वम् अस्य हेतुः कार्यस्य प्रभुः च प्लवगेश्वर || ४-४०-१३
13. plavaga iishvara = oh, fly-jumper's king; vaanarendra = vanara chief; aham asmin kaarye prabhuH na = I am, in this, task, capable [sufficient unto, master, not; lakSmaNaH na = Lakshmana, is not; tvam asya kaaryasya = you are, this, task's; hetuH prabhuH ca = catalyst, and master, also.
"Oh, chief of vanara-s, I am not the master of this task, nor Lakshmana is, but you, oh king of fly-jumpers, are the catalyst and master of this task of searching Seetha. [4-40-13]
त्वम् एव आज्ञापय विभो मम कार्य विनिश्चयम् |
त्वम् हि जानासि यत् कार्यम् मम वीर न संशयः || ४-४०-१४
14. vibhoH = oh, lord [of vanara-s]; mama kaarya vi nishcayam = in my, of task, for the right determination - what is to be done in my task; tvam eva aaj~naapaya = you, alone, give orders; viira = oh, valiant one; mama yat kaaryam = my, what, task is there; tvam jaanaasi hi = you are, aware of it, isn't it; na samshayaH = need not, have doubt - about it, your giving orders is inoffensive.
"Oh, lord of vanara-s, you alone have to give orders for the right determination of my task, and what my task is, oh, valiant one, you are fully aware of it, isn't it. And it is inoffensive of you to issue orders in this regard. [4-40-14]
सुहृद् द्वितीयो विक्रान्तः प्राज्ञः काल विशेष वित् |
भवान् अस्मत् हिते युक्तः सुहृद् आप्तो अर्थवित्तमः || ४-४०-१५
15. bhavaan suhR^it = you are, kind-hearted; dvitiiyaH [viniitaH = second-best one [first one is Lakshmana, if it is vinnita = a benign one]; vikraantaH = valorous one; praaj~naH = an intellectual; kaala visheSa vit = time's, speciality [scope, knower of; asmat hite yuktaH = you, in our, welfare, join forces with; suhR^it = good-hearted [partner]; aaptaH = helpful one [patron]; artha vit tamaH = intention, knower, the best - best one among the knowers of our intentions.
"You are a kind-hearted one. To me you are the second-best one, first being Lakshmana. More so, you are a valorous vanara, an intellectual, a knower of the scope of the time and you joined forces with us in our welfare, a partner and a patron of ours, and the best one among all those who are aware of our intentions." Thus Rama said to Sugreeva. [4-40-15]
The often repeated word of Rama 'my task, my mission...' is not just regaining Seetha, but the complete elimination of demon's clan, for which Seetha is the conditional and instrumental entity. The masters have to repose absolute confidence in servants unconditionally to get things done: anena prabhuNaa api aaptatame abhij~ne artha saadhake svaatantryam aadhaaya kaaryam saadhaniiyam iti suucitam - dk
एवम् उक्तः तु सुग्रीवो विनतम् नाम यूथपम् |
अब्रवीत् राम सांनिध्ये लक्ष्मणस्य च धीमतः || ४-४०-१६
शैलाभम् मेघ निर्घोषम् ऊर्जितम् प्लवगेश्वरम् |
16, 17a. evam uktaH tu sugriivaH = thus, said to, on his part, Sugreeva; raama saannidhye = in Rama's, presence; dhiimataH lakSmaNasya ca = the observant, of Lakshmana's [in presence, also; yuuthapam = to vanara-commander; shaila aabham = mountain, in sheen; megha nirghoSam = cloudlike, in thundering; uurjitam = mightiest; vinatam naama = to Vinata, named; plavageshvaram abraviit = to fly-jumpers, chief, spoke.
When Rama said so, Sugreeva spoke in the presence of Rama and the observant Lakshmana, to a mightiest chief of fly-jumpers, named Vinata, who is a commander of vanara army, who is like a mountain in his sheen and who thunders like a cloud. [4-40-16, 17a]
सोम सूर्य निभैः सार्धम् वानरैः वानरोत्तम || ४-४०-१७
देश काल नयैः युक्तः विज्ञः कार्य विनिश्चये |
वृतः शत सहस्रेण वानराणाम् तरस्विनाम् || ४-४०-१८
अधिगच्छ दिशम् पूर्वाम् स शैल वन काननाम् |
17b, 18, 19a. vaanara uttama = oh, vanara [Vinata, the best; desha kaala nayaiH yuktaH = place, time, probity, in consonance with - you are aware of; kaarya vinishcaye vij~naH = task, in determination, you are an expert; such as you are you with; soma suurya nibhaiH = who are - moon, sun, in glow; vaanaraiH saardham = vanara-s, along with; tarasvinaam vaanaraaNaam shata sahasreNa = powerful ones, with vanara-s, in hundreds, thousands; vR^itaH = accompanied with; sa shaila vana kaananaam = with, mountains, woodlands, forests; puurvaam disham adhigacCha = eastern, direction, you go over.
"Oh, Vinata, the best vanara, you are an expert in determining the tasks in consonance with time, place and probity. Hence, you along with vanara-s, whose glow shall be like the moon and sun for they shall be from the progeny of Sun and Moon, and even accompanied with a hundred thousand, say one lakh, other powerful vanara-s, shall go over Eastern direction of the earth inclusive of its mountains, woodlands and forests. [4-40-17b, 18, 19a]
In some translations the second foot's gist is also attributed to Vinata, i.e., Vinata is with the glow of sun, moon etc., but it is for the progeny of the Sun and Moon gods, who are to follow Vinata.
तत्र सीताम् च वैदेहीम् निलयम् रावणस्य च || ४-४०-१९
मार्गध्वम् गिरि दुर्गेषु वनेषु च नदीषु च |
19b, 20a. tatra = there; vaidehiim siitaam ca = princes from Videha kingdom, of Seetha, also; raavaNasya nilayam ca = of Ravana, residency, also; giri durgeSu = in mountains, impassable places; vaneSu ca = in forests, even; maargadhvam = shall be searched.
"There in the East, the forests, mountains and impassable places shall be searched for the princess from Videha kingdom, namely Seetha, and even for the residency of Ravana. [4-40-19b, 20a]
The eastside is not the eastside of Kishkindha, but to the East of jambuu dviipa 'Indian subcontinent... inclusive of South-East Asia...' The meridian of the Saraswati Triveni - the confluence of rivers Ila, Bharati, and Saraswati - is still the prime meridian for Indian astronomers. The first observatory Ujjain Observatory is on this meridian. uddicya pascimottaraH tasyaaH sharaavatyaaH avadheH yaH pascimottaH - sa uddicya iti ucyate Taking Ujjain, the place where one ancient river flowed circuitously in Central India, named Sharavati, as the centre of the country, the ancient astronomers have decided the quarters. So, Sugreeva said about the absolute east of India but not about the east of his small kingdom.
नदीम् भागीरथीम् रम्याम् सरयूम् कौशिकीम् तथा || ४-४०-२०
कालिंदीम् यमुनाम् रम्याम् यामुनम् च महागिरिम् |
सरस्वतीम् च सिंधुम् च शोणम् मणि निभ उदकम् || ४-४०-२१
महीम् कालमहीम् चैव शैल कानन शोभिताम् |
ब्रह्ममालान् विदेहान् च मालवान् काशि कोसलान् || ४-४०-२२
मागधाम् च महाग्रामान् पुण्ड्रान् अंगाम् तथैव च |
भूमिम् च कोशकाराणाम् भूमिम् च रजत आकराम् || ४-४०-२३
20b, 21, 22, 23. nadiim bhaagiirathiim = River, Bhaagiirathi [Ganga]; ramyaam sarayuum = delightful one, River Sarayu; tathaa kaushikiim = likewise, River Kaushiki; kaalindiim ramyaam yamunaam = river emerging from Mt. Kalinda, pleasing [river,] River Yamuna; yaamunam ca mahaa girim = the source of River Yamuna, also, great, mountain; sarasvatiim ca sindhum ca = River Saraswati, also, River Sindhu, also; maNi nibha udakam = one with - gemlike, lustrous, waters; shoNam = River Shona; mahiim = River Mahii; shaila kaanana shobhitaam = with mountains, forests, brightened by; kaalamahiim = River Kaalamahi; ca eva = also thus; brahmamaalaan = [kingdoms like Brahmamaala; videhaan ca = Videha, also; maalavaan kaashi kosalaan = Malava, Kaashi, Kosala; maagadhaam mahaa graamaan ca = pertaining to Maagadha kingdom, also, grand villages; puNDraan angaam = Pundra, Anga [kingdoms]; tathaa eva ca = like, that, only; koshakaaraaNaam bhuumim ca = of Koshakaara kings, provinces, also; rajata aakaraam = [places pertaining to silver, mines; bhuumim ca = lands [provinces, also; [maargadhvam = shall be searched.
"Search shall be conducted at the riversides of heartening rivers like River Bhaagiirathi, another name for River Ganga, and River Sarayu, like that at River Kaushiki, and at the pleasing surrounds of River Yamuna, and on Mt. Kalinda, as well at River Saraswati, River Sindhu and at the river whose waters are lustrous like gems, namely River Shona, and further at River Mahi and River Kaalamahi which rivers are brightened by mountains and forests surrounding them. And the kingdoms like Brahmamaala, Videha, Maalva, Kaashi, and Kosala, and in Maagadha, which kingdom has grand villages, and in that way, also in the kingdoms of Pundra and Anga, and in the countries of the kings called Koshakaara, and in the provinces of silver mines search is to be conducted. [4-40-20b, 21, 22, 23]
The mention of these two western rivers, Saraswati and Sindhu, at this eastern place, to where Vinata is being sent, is a disputed matter. The River Saraswati is the river of Vedic period that once coursed but later disappeared or is coursing underground. This river is 'this creative centre of Man, River Saraswati, was made by the deva-s...' Rig Veda, 3.33.4, and 'all life takes its origin from your [Saraswati womb... Rig Veda, 2-4, 9-17. Presently research work is undertaken to find out this river under the banner 'Saraswati Nadi Shodh Abhiyaan' and they are trying to find out the palaeodrainage, the buried course of this river. It is believed that this perennial river was flowing from Himalayas through Punjab, Haryana, Western Rajasthan, and through the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, and it is said that if this could be traced an abundant source of underground water could be established.
Likewise, the mention about Sindhu at this place does not relate to westerly Indus River, because any river or rivulet is generally called Sindhu: deshe nada visheSe abdau sindhurnaa sariti striyaam - amara kosha. Sugreeva separately indicates Indus river at 15th verse, chapter 42: sindhu saagarayoH caiva sangame... Hence it is taken as another easterly river called Indusa.
So also the river Mahi as said in next verse, on which Griffith says that 'The Mahii River rises in Malwa [Malwa Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, and falls in the Gulf of Cambay after a westerly course of 280 miles...' But the Ancient Geography of India says that 'the mention of this river is out of place here and is probably due to erroneous transposition of the verses...'
It is generally accepted that many verses in these episodes of Sugreeva's narrating the geography are shuffled. The River Shona is present day Shon, and Kaushiki is Koshi, and she is the sister of Vishvamitra. That sage explains about the emergence of this river in Bala Kanda.
Videha is Mithila, the kingdom from where Seetha came to Ayodhya, this and Anga kingdoms were roughly present West Bengal. Magadha is the famous post Buddhist period kingdom, ruling from present-day Bihar. Huen Tsong recorded that 'to the north of Magadha, River Ganga courses, to the west of it Kaashi province is there, and in east hiraNya parvata [Maanghir is there, and in south giraNa suvarNa [singa bhuumi is there... and its capital is kusuma pura [paaTalii putra present day Patna. Next, the word 'koshakaara is literally a silkworm or one who makes scabbards or a lexicographer. It is also referred to the kings of these clans.
सर्वम् च तत् विचेतव्यम् मार्गयद्भिः ततः ततः |
रामस्य दयिताम् भार्याम् सीताम् दशरथः स्नुषाम् || ४-४०-२४
24. raamasya dayitaam bhaaryaam = Rama's, dear, wife; dasharathaH snuSaam = Dasharatha's, daughter-in-law; siitaam = such Seetha; tataH tataH = there, there - thereabout; maargayadbhiH = while you are exploring; tat sarvam vicetavyam ca = that [those places, in entirety, shall be searched, also.
"While you explore those places in their entirety, thereabout you have to search for Rama's dear wife and king Dasharatha's daughter-in-law Seetha. [4-40-24]
समुद्रम् अवगाढान् च पर्वतान् पत्तनानि च |
मंदरस्य च ये कोटिम् संश्रिताः केचित् आलयाः || ४-४०-२५
कर्ण प्रावरणाः चैव तथा च अपि ओष्ठ कर्णकाः |
घोर लोह मुखाः चैव जवनाः च एक पादकाः || ४-४०-२६
अक्षया बलवंतः च तथैव पुरुष आदकाः |
किराताः तीक्ष्ण चूडाः च हेमाभाः प्रिय दर्शनाः || ४-४०-२७
आम मीन अशनाः चापि किराता द्वीप वासिनः |
अंतर् जल चरा घोरा नरव्याघ्रा इति स्मृताः || ४-४०-२८
एतेषाम् आश्रयाः सर्वे विचेयाः कानन ओकसः |
गिरिभिर् ये च गम्यन्ते प्लवनेन प्लवेन च || ४-४०-२९
25, 26, 27, 28, 29. kaanana okasaH = oh, forest, dwellers [vanara-s]; samudram avagaaDhaan = in ocean, [places steeped deep into; parvataan pattanaani ca = mountains, townships, also; mandarasya = of Mt. Mandara; aalayaaH [aayataam = as their dwelling [extensive beings, as in some mms, thereby unsightly beings]; koTim = on peak of; samshritaaH = harbouring; kecit = some beings; karNa pra aavaraNaaH = ears, verily, covered ones [ears covered over, i.e., with invisible ears, or without ears like snakes]; tathaa ca api = like that, also, even; oSTha karNakaaH = lips, as their ears; ghora loha mukhaaH caiva = grisly, iron, faced ones, also thus; javanaaH = very rapid beings; eka paadakaaH ca = single, footed beings, also; a kSayaa = not, deteriorating - unkillable beings; balavantaH ca = mighty ones, also; tathaiva = also thus; puruSa aadakaaH = men, eaters; kiraataaH = [other tribals; tiikshNa cuuDaaH ca = those with towering, wisps, also; priya darshanaaH = [some more pleasant, in appearance; hema aabhaaH = golden, in shine - complexioned; aama miina ashanaaH = uncooked [raw, fish, eaters; caapi = also, even; dviipa vaasinaH = on islands, dwellers; kiraataa = [other tribals; nara vyaaghraa iti smR^itaaH = man, tiger, thus, renowned - tigers like men; antar jala caraa = inside, water, those who budge up; ghoraa = horrific beings; eteSaam sarve aashrayaaH = of these beings, all of the, dwelling places; viceyaaH = are to be searched; ye = which - which of those dwelling places; giribhiH = by [climbing mountains; plavanena = by hopping; plavena ca = by boating, also; gamyante = reachable - you have to reach them in those modes of transport.
"Oh, forest dwelling vanara-s, you shall search on the mountains and in the townships that are steeped in the ocean. And you have to search on the peak of Mt. Mandara, where some extensive and unsightly beings are harboured, and at places where some other beings live with odd physical features. Some of them have no ears, while some have their lips as their ears. Some are with grisly faces like iron-faced-beings while some beings, although they are single-footed, yet they are very rapid. While some tribals are unkillable and mighty man-eaters, some other have golden complexion, and they will be pleasant in their appearance with towering wisps. Some other tribals who live on islands budging underwater as they are raw fish eaters and they are observed upon as horrific man-tigers i.e., half-man and half-tiger, like mermaids. All of their dwellings are to be searched in jambuu dwiipa, the tableland that contains bharata varSa, namely India. And you have to go beyond this to other easterly places that are reachable either by mountaineering, or by hopping, or even by boating. [4-40-25, 26, 27, 28, 29]
यत्नवन्तो यव द्वीपम् सप्त राज्य उपशोभितम् |
सुवर्ण रूप्यकम् द्वीपम् सुवर्ण आकर मण्डितम् || ४-४०-३०
यव द्वीपम् अतिक्रम्य शिशिरो नाम पर्वतः |
दिवम् स्पृशति शृन्गेण देव दानव सेवितः || ४-४०-३१
एतेषाम् गिरि दुर्गेषु प्रपातेषु वनेषु च |
मार्गध्वम् सहिताः सर्वे राम पत्नीम् यशस्विनीम् || ४-४०-३२
30, 31, 32. sapta raajya upa shobhitam = with seven, kingdoms, splendorous; yava dviipam = Yava, in island; suvarNa aakara maNDitam = with gold, mines, enwreathed; suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam = Golden, Silver, islands; yatnavantaH = you strive in there; yava dviipam atikramya = Yava, island, crossing over; shishiraH naama = Shishira, named; deva daanava sevitaH = god, demons, which is adored by; parvataH = [there is a mountain; shR^ingeNa divam spR^ishati = with its peak, heaven, which touches; sarve sahitaaH = you all, collectively; eteSaam = in these - islands; giri durgeSu = mountains, impassable [mountains]; pra paateSu = in great, falls [waterfalls]; vaneSu ca = in forests, also; yashasviniim raama patniim maargadhvam = for glorious one, Rama's, wife, you rake through.
"You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama. [4-40-30, 31, 32]
The Yava Island is taken as the present day Jawa Island, and the seven kingdoms referred may compare to Jawa, Sumatra, Bali, Indonesia etc. It is believed that around 10 to 8 millennia B.C., there used to be a continuous landmass from Burma to Central America, which is why Maya civilization has flourished there via this route. Later in time due to tectonic activity, the northern India's landmass rose up and southern sunk down. [Chronology of Ancient Bharath, by Prof. K. Srinivasa Raghavan, published by 'Sri Aurobindo Study Circle, Triplicane, Chennai, in year 1896. It is therefore presumable that the islands of Indian Archipelago are so numerous and so nearly situated. However, this splintering of islands may have happened by the time of Ramayana, since the Sage-poet of Ramayana is citing them as dwiipa, islands.
Regarding the difference between the names of Yava and Jawa the word ya in Sanskrit becomes ja in vernaculars tadbhava pada. Hence Yava became Java, as simha pruri 'lion-city' became the present day Singapore.
On this point of Yava/Java island as said in Ramayana, Sri Kedarnath Basu notes in his 'Hindu Civilization': 'The reader may note here that java dwiipa described as consisting of seven kingdoms was probably the group of islands now called the Indian Archipelago, of which Java was at that time the most powerful. The chief islands of this group are Sumatra, [say, su mitra= good friend, Java, Bali, [the benefactor; Borneo, [or varuNa, the Rain-god, and Celebes. More details are with: Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari, who are publishing 'Vivekananda Kendra Patrika' an encyclopaedic journal on Ancient India.
ततो रक्त जलम् प्राप्य शोण आख्यम् शीघ्र वाहिनीम् |
गत्वा पारम् समुद्रस्य सिद्ध चारण सेवितम् || ४-४०-३३
तस्य तीर्थेषु रम्येषु विचित्रेषु वनेषु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्यः ततः ततः || ४-४०-३४
33. tataH = then; rakta jalam = that has - red, waters; shiighra vaahiniim = speedily, drifting; shoNa aakhyam [agaadham = Shona, reputed as, [or a very deep river]; praapya = on getting at; samudrasya = of ocean; siddha caaraNa sevitam = siddha-s, carana-s, adored; such a; paaram = other coast; gatvaa = having gone to; tasya ramyeSu tiirtheSu = at its [Shona river's, beautiful, ghats [declivities]; vicitreSu vaneSu ca = in amazing, forests [alongshore, also; tataH tataH = there, and there; vaidehyaaH = of Vaidehi; saha = together with - as well as; raavaNaH = Ravana; maargitavyaH = be scouted around; thnen you proceed to Plaksha Island.
"Then, having gone to the other coast of the ocean you reach River Shona, waters of which will be reddish with deep and speedy drift, and which is adored by siddha-s and carana-s. You have to scout thereabout for Vaidehi as well as for Ravana, at those beautiful ghats, say littorals of that Shona River, and in the amazing forests alongshore. Then proceed to an island called Plaksha Island. [4-40-34]
पर्वत प्रभवा नद्यः सुभीम बहु निष्कुटाः |
मार्गितव्या दरीमन्तः पर्वताः च वनानि च || ४-४०-३५
35. su bhiima = very, vast; bahu niSkuTaaH = with many, [pleasure gardens; parvata prabhavaa nadyaH = from mountain, emerging, rivers; dariimantaH parvataaH ca = cavernous, mountains, also; vanaani ca = forests, also; maargitavyaa = are to be searched; then proceed to Ikshu island.
"On that Plaksha Island very vast rivers emerge from mountains, but alongshore they have many pleasure gardens. You have to search in those gardens and at rivers together with cavernous mountains and forests of that island, and then proceed to Ikshu Island. [4-40-35]
ततः समुद्र द्वीपान् च सुभीमान् द्रष्टुम् अर्हथ |
ऊर्मिमंतम् महारौद्रम् क्रोशंतम् अनिल उद्धितम् || ४-४०-३६
36. tataH = then; su bhiimaan samudra dviipaan ca = extremely, ghastly, ocean's, [Ikshu islands, also; mahaa raudram = terribly, furious; anila uddhitam = by wind, up-heaved - tempestuous; kroshantam = blaring; uurmimantam = tide-ripped; [ikshu samudram ca = salt ocean, also]; draSTum arhatha = to see, apt of you.
"It will be apt of you to proceed from there and see the terribly furious, tempestuous, blaring, and tide-ripped ocean called ikshu samudra, Salt Ocean, and that ocean's islands which will be extremely ghastly. [4-40-36]
तत्र असुरा महाकायाः छायाम् गृह्णन्ति नित्यशः |
ब्रह्मणा समनुज्ञाता दीर्घ कालम् बुभुक्षिताः || ४-४०-३७
तम् काल मेघ प्रतिमम् महोरग निषेवितम् |
अभिगम्य महानादम् तीर्थेन एव महोदधिम् || ४-४०-३८
37, 38. kaala megha pratimam = dark, cloud, mirroring; mahaa uraga niSevitam = great, by serpents, hallowed by; mahaa naadam = blatantly, blaring; such a; tam mahaa udadhim = that, great, ocean; tiirthena eva = by shores [or by tact, only; abhigamya = traversing, on navigating; tatra = there; mahaa kaayaaH = colossal, bodied ones; diirgha kaalam bubhukSitaaH = for a long, time, who are in hungriness; brahmaNaa sam anuj~naataa = by Brahma, well, endued by; nityashaH Cchaayaam gR^ihNanti = always, by shadow, who capture; such; asuraa = demons; [prekSyatha = you will see.
"That ocean which mirrors a dark cloud and hallowed by great serpents, and which blares blatantly is to be traversed only by it shores or tactfully, to avoid shadow-capturing of its inhabitants. There you will see colossal bodied demons with everlasting hunger inhibiting that ocean, which demons always capture prey by the shadow of prey as endued by Brahma. [4-40-37, 38]
ततो रक्तजलम् भीमम् लोहितम् नाम सागरम् |
गत्वा प्रेक्ष्यथ ताम् चैव बृहतीम् कूटशाल्मलीम् || ४-४०-३९
39. tataH rakta jalam = from there, red, water; bhiimam disastrous; lohitam naama saagaram = Lohita [Red Ocean, named, ocean; gatvaa = on getting at; bR^ihatiim taam kuuTashaalmaliim = colossal, that one, Kutashalmali tree; prekSyatha = you shall see.
"From there, on going to the disastrous ocean named Lohita, Red Ocean, for its waters are red, you shall see the colossal tree Kuuta-shalmali. This island is called shaalmali dwiipa, Shaalmali Island because oif this tree. [4-40-39]
This kuuTa-shalmali tree in Indian variety is Andersonia Rohitaka, and in Malayan, Malaysian variety, it is Kapok tree, [Ceiba pentandra, the seeds of which are covered with silk cotton. Because it is on Shalmali Island, one among Java, Sumatra etc., islands, it is called kuuTa shalmali tree. The Red Ocean is also called madhu samudra 'Wine Ocean.'
गृहम् च वैनतेयस्य नाना रत्न विभूषितम् |
तत्र कैलास संकाशम् विहितम् विश्वकर्मणा || ४-४०-४०
40. tatra = there; naanaa ratna vibhuuSitam = numerous, jewels, decorated with; kailaasa sankaasham = to Mt. Kailash, in similarity; vishvakarmaNaa vihitam = by Vishvakarma, ordered [constructed by]; vainateyasya gR^iham ca = Vinata's son [Garuda's, mansion, also; [prekSyatha = you shall see.
"On that Shalmali Island in Wine Ocean you will be seeing the mansion of Vinata's son, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu, which is decorated with numerous jewels, and which in sheen will be like Mt. Kailash, the abode of Shiva. This mansion is a construction of Vishvakarma, the Heavenly Architect. [4-40-40]
तत्र शैल निभा भीमा मन्देहा नाम राक्षसाः |
शैल शृंगेषु लंबन्ते नाना रूपा भयावहाः || ४-४०-४१
41. tatra = thereabout; shaila shR^ingeSu = from mountain, peaks; shaila nibhaa = mountain, similar; bhiimaa = merciless ones; naanaa ruupaaH = with various, shapes; bhaya aavahaaH = horror, bringing - horrifying beings; mandehaa naama raakSasaaH = Mandeha, named demons; lambante = will be dangling [upside down.
"Thereabout horrifying and merciless demons of various shapes and similar to mountains in size, called Mandeha-s, will be dangling upside down from mountain peaks. [4-40-41]
ते पतन्ति जले नित्यम् सूर्यस्य उदयनम् प्रति |
अभितप्ताः च सूर्येण लंबन्ते स्म पुनः पुनः || ४-४०-४२
निहता ब्रह्म तेजोभिः अहनि अहनि राक्षसाः |
42, 43a. te = those; raakshasaaH = demons [Mandeha-s]; ahani ahani = day, [after day; suuryasya udayanam prati = Sun's, rising, towards [at the time of]; nityam suuryeNa abhi taptaaH ca = always [every day, by Sun, verily, burnt down, also; brahma tejobhiH = by Brahma's [Gayatri hymn's, impetus; nihataa = felled; jale patanti = in water, they will be falling; punaH punaH lambante sma = again, again, dangling, they will be.
"Day after day those demons will be falling in water when sun always burns them at sunrise and when the impetus of Gayatri hymn fells them down, yet they will be resurfacing and dangling on the mountaintops day after day. [4-40-42, 43a]
Mandeha beings will try to hinder the path of the Sun daily at the time of sunrise to grasp Him. At that time, the devout Gayatri hymn chanters will be chanting Gayatri and offering water oblations to Gayatri. These watery oblations and the force of Gayatri hymn will hit the Mandeha-s out, making the Sun's path clear of any obstruction. And the Sun proceeding on his way will burn them down. But Mandeha-s regain their lives and start repeating the same obstruction of Sun's path on next morning by dangling from the peaks of mountain and they are again tossed into oceans, by water oblations and Gayatri hymn, day after day.
The hymn in yajur veda taittariiya says about this: tadu ha vaa ete brahma vaadinaH puurvaa abhimukhaH saandhyaayaam gaayatryaa abhimantryaa aapa uurdhvam vikShipanti - taa etaa aape vajrii bhuutvaa taani rakShaamsi mandehaa aaruNe dviipe prakShipanti .
ततः पाण्डुर मेघाभम् क्षीरौदम् नाम सागरम् || ४-४०-४३
गत्वा द्रक्ष्यथ दुर्धर्षा मुक्ता हारम् इव ऊर्मिभिः |
43b, 44a. dur dharSaa = oh, unassailable [vanara-s - Sugreeva's addressing]; tataH gatvaa = from there, having gone; paaNDura megha aabham = whitish, cloud, similar in shine; uurmibhiH = with [swaying ripples; muktaa haaram iva = which will be like swaying - pearl, necklaces, like; kSiira udam = milk, having as waters - milk ocean; naama saagaram = with that - name, an ocean; drakSyatha = you shall see.
"Oh, unassailable vanara-s, on your going therefrom you shall see the milk ocean, which will be like a whitish cloud in its shine, and even like a pearly necklace while her ripples will be swaying. [4-40-43b, 44a]
Here Here some more Indian Mythological oceans like sarpi, dadhi etc., are not said. The mythological oceans are lavaNa, ikshu, suraa, sarpi, dadhi, dugdha jalaiH samam salt, sugar-cane juice, ghee [clarified butter, curds, milk - oceans. Further, some islands like Kusha, Kraunca etc., are also unsaid. Though all are not explicitly listed in the text, the vanara-s are supposed to search those unsaid oceans and islands implicitly.
तस्य मध्ये महा श्वेतो ऋषभो नाम पर्वतः || ४-४०-४४
दिव्य गन्धैः कुसुमितै आचितैः च नगैः वृतः |
सरः च राजतैः पद्मैः ज्वलितैः हेम केसरैः || ४-४०-४५
नाम्ना सुदर्शनम् नाम राजहंसैः समाकुलम् |
44b, 45, 46a. tasya madhye = in its, centre [of milk ocean]; divya gandhaiH = with heavenly, fragrances; kusumitaiH = [ever flowered; aacitaiH = closely [growing]; nagaiH vR^itaH = with trees, surrounded with; R^iSabhaH naama = Rishabha, named; mahaan parvataH = colossal, mountain; shvetaH = white - mountain; jvalitaiH hema kesaraiH = with sparkling, golden fibrils; raajataiH padmaiH = with silver [like, lotuses [- which is replete with]; raaja hamsaiH samaakulam = with kingly, swans, scampered; naamnaa sudarshanam naama = by name, as Sudarshana, renowned as; saraH ca = lake, also; [assit = are there.]
"In the centre of that milk ocean there is a white mountain of colossal size, named Rishabha, surrounded with closely growing trees ever flowered with flowers of heavenly fragrance. And a lake renowned as Lake Sudarshana is also there, which is replete with silvery lotuses whose fibrils are golden in sparkle, and in which kingly swans will be scampering about. [4-40-44b, 45, 46a]
विबुधाः चारणा यक्षाः किन्नराः स अप्सरो गणाः || ४-४०-४६
हृष्टाः समधिगच्छन्ति नलिनीम् ताम् रिरंसवः |
46b, 47a. vi budhaaH = supreme, intellectuals [gods, caaraNaa yakSaaH kinnaraaH = caarana-s, yaksha-s, kinnaraa-s; sa apsaraH gaNaaH = with, apsara, hosts of; hR^iSTaaH = gladly; riramsavaH = to enjoy frolicking - frolicsomely; taam naliniim = that, lotus-lake [Sudarshana Lake]; samadhigacChanti = they will be arriving at.
"To enjoy frolicking in that Sudarshana Lake the gods, caarana-s, yaksha-s, kinnaraa-s and hosts of apsara females will be arriving at that lotus-lake gladsomely. [4-40-46b, 47a]
क्षीरोदम् समतिक्रम्य ततो द्रक्ष्यथ वानराः || ४-४०-४७
जलोदम् सागरम् शीघ्रम् सर्व भूत भयावहम् |
47b, 48a. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; kSiirodam samatikramya = milky ocean, on crossing over; sarva bhuuta bhayaavaham = for all, beings, frightening; jala = sof-water; udam saagaram = as waters, ocean [ocean with soft water; tataH shiighram drakSyatha = then, immediately, you shall see.
"And on crossing over the milky ocean, oh vanara-s, then you will be immediately seeing the soft-water ocean which will be frightening to all beings. [4-40-47b, 48a]
तत्र तत् कोपजम् तेजः कृतम् हयमुखम् महत् || ४-४०-४८
अस्य आहुः तन् महावेगम् ओदनम् स चराचरम् |
48b, 49a. tatra = there; tat kopa jam = that, from anger, originated - originated from the anger of Aurasa; mahat = fantastic one; haya mukham = horse, face; tejaH kR^itam = by refulgent Fire, made - by the anger of Aurasa; sa cara a caram = with, mobile, not, mobile [sessile beings]; mahaa vegam = highly speedy [waves of ocean]; tat = that [water of ocean]; asya odanam aahuH = its [to the Fire,] victuals, said to be.
"There exists a fantastically refulgent Fire in the form of Horse's Face that originated from the anger of Sage Aurasa. The victuals to that Fire is said to be that highly speedy waves of the ocean, together with all of the mobile and sessile beings of the world at the close of each Era. [4-40-48b, 49a]
Aurasa derives from the word uuru, meaning 'the thigh.' The mother of this sage hid him under her thigh when some kings came to kill, as such he got this name. Then with vengeance this sage started to burn the world with his yogic fire, but his manes came to him to pacify and asked him to release his yogic fire in oceanic water. When he did so, that fire remained underwater, ready to emerge from a cavity like that of a she-horse's mouth, from beneath the ocean from the South Pole. This fire is called vaDaba agni, or baDaba anala , referred here as Horse's Face. At the time of yuga anta, End of Era, that fire emerges out, and the whole creation, with all its sessile and mobile beings, becomes its fuel, as said in next verse. This episode is detailed in aadi parva , First Canto, Maha Bharata.
तत्र विक्रोशताम् नादो भूतानाम् सागर ओकसाम् |
श्रूयते च असमर्थानाम् दृष्ट्वा तत् वडवा मुखम् || ४-४०-४९
49b, c. tatra = there; tat vaDavaa mukham dR^iSTvaa = that, Fire from Horse Mouth, on seeing [on feeling it]; a samarthaanaam = not, capable - incapacitated beings; vi kroshataam = highly, squealing; saagara okasaam bhuutaanaam = in ocean, dwellers, of beings; naadaH shruuyate = sounds, are audible.
"There the high squealing sounds of oceanic beings dwelling undersea are audible, and although they are capable ones, they are incapacitated on feeling Fire from the Horse Mouth as such they yell. [4-40-49b, c]
स्वादु उदस्य उत्तरे देशे योजनानि त्रयोदश |
जातरूप शिलो नाम सुमहान् कनक प्रभः || ४-४०-५०
50. svaadu udasya uttare deshe = soft, water's [ocean's northern, province; trayaH dasha yojanaani = three, ten [thirteen,] yojana-s - in spread; su mahaan = hugely, enormous; kanaka prabhaH = golden, in glitter; jaataruupa shilaH naama = Jaataruupa-shila, Golden, Rock, famed as [mountain; aasiit = is there.]
"On the northern province of that soft-water ocean there is a hugely enormous mountain named Jaataruupa-shila, Golden Rock Mountain, which glitters like gold and which spreads across thirteen yojana-s. [4-40-50]
तत्र चन्द्र प्रतीकाशम् पन्नगम् धरणी धरम् |
पद्म पत्र विशालाक्षम् ततो द्रक्ष्यध वानराः || ४-४०-५१
आसीनम् पर्वतस्य अग्रे सर्व भूत नमस्कृतम् |
सहस्र शिरसम् देवम् अनंतम् नील वाससम् || ४-४०-५२
51, 52. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; tataH = then; tatra = there; parvatasya agre aasiinam = on mountain's, top of, one who is sitting; candra pratiikaasham = moon, one reflecting like - in brilliance; padma patra vishaala aksham = lotus, petal, broad, eyed one; sarva bhuuta namas kR^itam = by all, beings, reverenced; sahasra shirasam = thousand, headed [hooded]; niila vaasasam = with black, clothing; devam = god; dharaNii dharam = earth, one who sustains on his head; anantam pannagam = Ananta, serpent; drakshyadha = you shall see.
"There you shall see then, oh, vanara-s, the lotus-petal broad-eyed thousand-hooded serpent god in black clothing, namely Ananta, sitting on the top of that mountain and sustaining the earth on his head, who will be like moon in his brilliance and whom all beings hold in reverence. [4-40-51, 52]
Ananta means infinite, the infinite Thousand-hooded serpent-god also called as aadi shSa the couch of Vishnu. This word ananta is also symbolic with the infinite space that is supporting the galaxies, planets, and stars, of which earth is but one globe.
त्रिशिराः कांचनः केतुः तालः तस्य महात्मनः |
स्थापितः पर्वतस्य अग्रे विराजति स वेदिकः || ४-४०-५३
53. mahaa aatmanaH = great-souled one's; tasya parvatasya = that, mountain's; agre = on peak; sthaapitaH ketuH = staked, pylon of insignia is; tri shiraaH = three, headed [branched]; kaancanaH sa vedikaH = golden one, with, podium; taalaH = palm tree; viraajati = will be lustrous.
"A golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches as its heads is established on the peak of that mountain as the insignia of that great-souled Ananta, and it will be lustrous with a golden podium. [4-40-53]
पूर्वस्याम् दिशि निर्माणम् कृतम् तत् त्रिदशेश्वरैः |
ततः परम् हेममयः श्रीमान् उदय पर्वतः || ४-४०-५४
तस्य कोटिः दिवम् स्पृष्ट्वा शत योजनम् आयता |
जातरूपमयी दिव्या विराजति स वेदिका || ४-४०-५५
54. tat = that; nirmaaNam = construction - of golden pylon of palm tree; puurvasyaam dishi = easterly, direction; tridasha iishvaraiH = by celestial, gods kR^itam = it is done; tataH param = there, after - beyond that; hemamayaH = completely golden; shriimaan udaya parvataH = august one, Undaya [Sunrise,] Mountain; is there; tasya = its; jaataruupamayii = completely golden; divyaa = divine one; sa vedikaa = with, pedestals; shata yojanam aayataa = hundred, yojana, in height; koTiH divam spR^iSTvaa = pinnacle, heavens, touching; viraajati = greatly glitters.
"That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestials gods, and beyond that a completely golden mountain is there, namely the august Udaya Mountain, the Mt. Sunrise, beyond which it is all west. The pinnacles of Mt. Sunrise will be touching heavens for their height is hundred yojana-s and that divine mountain greatly glitters for it is completely golden, and it is pedestalled with suchlike glittering mountains. [4-40-54, 55]
William's Vishnu Purana states: 'here is an interesting reference to the physical phenomena of the apparent diurnal motion of the sun, which sets in the west [America, and reappears again in the east jambu dviipa, the central continent, Asia...'
सालैः तालैः तमालैः च कर्णिकारैः च पुष्पितैः |
जातरूपमयैः दिव्यैः शोभते सूर्य सन्निभैः || ४-४०-५६
56. jaataruupamayaiH = completely golden - in hue; divyaiH = with beautiful ones; suurya sannibhaiH = sun, similar to; puSpitaiH = well flowered; saalaiH taalaiH tamaalaiH ca = with saala trees, palm trees, Tamala trees, also; karNikaaraiH ca = Karnikaara trees, also; shobhate = divine, splendorous - that Mt. Sunrise will be splendorous.
"That Mt. Sunrise will be splendorous with well flowered and beautiful saala, palm, Tamaala, and Karnikaara trees which are completely golden in hue and which will be glittering similar to sun. [4-40-56]
तत्र योजन विस्तारम् उच्छ्रितम् दश योजनम् |
शृंगम् सौमनसम् नाम जातरूपमयम् ध्रुवम् || ४-४०-५७
57. tatra yojana vistaaram = there, yojana, width; dasha yojanam ucChritam = ten, yojana-s, with height [at apex]; jaata ruupa mayam = completely golden; dhruvam = very firm; saumanasam naama shR^ingam = Saumanasa, named, pinnacle - is there.
"On the apex of that Mt. Sunrise there is another pinnacle with one yojana width and ten yojana-s height named Saumanasa, which is completely golden and very firm. [4-40-57]
तत्र पूर्वम् पदम् कृत्वा पुरा विष्णुः त्रिविक्रमे |
द्वितीयम् शिखरम् मेरोः चकार पुरुषोत्तमः || ४-४०-५८
58. puruSa uttamaH = Person, Supreme; viSNuH = Vishnu; puraa trivikrame = earlier, in Trivikrama incarnation; puurvam = firstly; tatra = there - on that peak; padam kR^itvaa = foot - foothold, making; dvitiiyam = second one - foot; meroH shikharam cakaara = on Mt. Meru's, peak, he made - he placed.
"Earlier while treading the three worlds in the incarnation of Trivikrama, the Supreme Person Vishnu made His first foothold on that pinnacle Saumanasa, and the second on the pinnacle of Mt. Meru to tread the heavens. [4-40-58]
उत्तरेण परिक्रम्य जंबू द्वीपम् दिवाकरः |
दृश्यो भवति भूयिष्ठम् शिखरम् तन् महोच्छ्रयम् || ४-४०-५९
59. divaakaraH = day-maker [Sun]; jambuu dviipam uttareNa parikramya = to Jambu Dwiipa, by north, on circling; mahat ucChrayam tat shikharam = zenithal, that, pinnacle; [praapya = on reaching]; bhuuyiSTham dR^ishyaH bhavati = by far, discernable, he will be.
"The Sun is by far discernable in Jambu Dwiipa when he rises on this zenithal pinnacle Saumanasa, after he had circled the Jambu Dwiipa in a northerly route. [4-40-59]
The sunrises in the East on the peak of this Saumanasa which is on the zenith of Udaya Mountain. Then he traverses above Jambu Dwiipa, Indian Subcontinent, including South-East Asia, and sets in the West on the mountains called asta adri, ' the Sunset Mountain.' Then he courses northerly on the other side of the globe via Mt. Meru in heavens at the other side of Jambu Dwiipa, only to rise again on this Mt. Sunrise. As Jambu Dwiipa, the subcontinent lies southerly to that heavenly Mt. Meru, and down East-South of Saumanasa, this subcontinent can happily see the First Sun, daily. This gives raise to the Indian name of India, that is Bhaarata, bhaa rataH Sun, delights...' The place where the Sun delights firstly, that is bhaarata...'
तत्र वैखानसा नाम वालखिल्या महर्षयः |
प्रकाशमाना दृश्यन्ते सूर्य वर्णाः तपस्विनः || ४-४०-६०
60. tatra = there; suurya varNaaH = in sun's, tinge - in resplendence; tapasvinaH = ascetics; vaikhaanasaa naama = Vaikhanasa, of nomenclature; vaalakhilyaa maha rSayaH = Vaalakhilyaa-s [named,] great-sages; prakaashamaanaa = while they are luminous; dR^ishyante = they come into view.
"There the great-sages with nomenclature of Vaikhanasa-s and Vaalakhilyaa-s will come into view with an ambience of luminosity, for those ascetics will be with the resplendence of the Sun. [4-40-60]
Valakhilya-s and Vaikhaanasaa-s are two different groups of ascetics and these sages Vaalakhilyaa-s are sixty thousand in number as said in Vishnu Purana. Their account is given in the opening chapters of Aranya Kanda.
अयम् सुदर्शनो द्वीपः पुरो यस्य प्रकाशते |
तस्मिन् तेजः च चक्षुः च सर्व प्राणभृताम् अपि || ४-४०-६१
61. yasya puraH = whose, in front of - in the presence of which illumination; sarva praaNa bhR^itaam api = for all, life, sustaining beings, even; cakSuH ca = eyes, even; prakaashate = will be illuminated - enlightened; tat tejaH = that, illumination - illuminating entity of the universe, namely the Sun; yasmin = where - sun will be sojourning; ayam sudarshanaH dviipaH = this is - that one, that Sudarshana, island.
"In the presence of which resplendence the eyes of all living beings will become enlightened, and whereat that illuminating entity of universe, namely the Sun, will be sojourning, this is that Sudarshana Island, named so because it contains Sudarshana lake. [4-40-61]
शैलस्य तस्य पृष्ठेषु कंदरेषु वनेषु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्यः ततः ततः || ४-४०-६२
62. tasya shailasya pR^iSTheSu = of that, mountain's - Mt. Udaya, Mt. Sunrise top of [not at behind]; kandareSu vaneSu ca = in caves, in forests, also; tataH tataH = there, and there; raavaNaH vaidehyaa saha = Ravana, together with, Vaidehi; maargitavyaH = shall be searched.
"On the top of that Mt. Sunrise, and even in its cave and forests of that island Ravana is to be searched, together with Seetha. [4-40-62]
कांचनस्य च शैलस्य सूर्यस्य च महात्मनः |
आविष्टा तेजसा संध्या पूर्वा रक्ता प्रकाशते || ४-४०-६३
63. kaancanasya ca shailasya = of golden [hue,] also, of mountain [Udaya, Mt. Sunrise]; suuryasya ca mahaatmanaH = of Sun, also great-souled [the beneficent one]; tejasaa aaviSTaa = with resplendence, imbricates; puurvaa sandhyaa = eastern, aurora; raktaa prakaashate = redly, glows.
"The eastern aurora glows redly because the golden hue of Mt. Sunrise imbricates the resplendence of the beneficent Sun. [4-40-63]
पूर्वम् एतत् कृतम् द्वारम् पृथिव्या भुवनस्य च |
सूर्यस्य उदयनम् चैव पूर्वा हि एषा दिक् उच्यते || ४-४०-६४
64. puurvam etat = in the beginning, this one [Mt. Sunrise]; pR^ithivyaa = of earth; bhuvanasya ca = of heaven, also; dvaaram is the gateway; suuryasya udayanam caiva = Sun's, rising place, also thus; kR^itam = made [ordained by Brahma, the Creator]; as such; eSaa puurvaa dik ucyate hi = this, eastern, quarter, is said, indeed.
"In the beginning Brahma, the Creator, ordained this Mt. Sunrise to be the gateway for the earth to heaven, and even as the rising place for the Sun, as such this is verily said as the 'eastern quarter' of the compass. [4-40-64]
Dharmaakuutam says that Maha Bharata defines these quarters in detail: anena purva nirmita dviipa yogaat vaa puurvam suuryasya tatra darshanaad vaa iyam dik puurve iti ucyata iti uktam | ittham ca puurvasya dishaH itaraasaam ca dishaam nirvacanam udyoga parve -dk - yasmaat udayate puurvam sarva loka pradiipaka || savitaa yatra saadhyaanaam prathamam vartate tapaH | mahaa bhaarata
तस्य शलस्य पृष्ठेषु निर्झरेषु गुहासु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गतव्या ततः ततः || ४-४०-६५
65. tasya shailasya pR^iSTheSu = of that, mountain's, on peaks; nirjhareSu guhaasu ca = in rapids, caverns, also; raavaNaH = Ravana; saha vaidehyaa = together with, Vaidehi; tataH tataH = there, there; maargatavyaa = be ransacked.
"Ransack that mountain's peak, even thereabout the rapids and caverns of that mountain for Vaidehi, and even for Ravana. [4-40-65]
ततः परम् अगम्या स्यात् दिक् पूर्वा त्रिदश आवृता |
रहिता चन्द्र सूर्याभ्याम् अदृश्या तिमिर आवृता || ४-४०-६६
66. tataH param = from there, beyond; tridasha aavR^itaa = by gods, hemmed in - gather; candra suuryaabhyaam = without, Moon, Sun, - both of them; rahitaa = without - void of; timira aavR^itaa = by oblivion, hedged in; such a; puurvaa dik = easterly, quarter; a gamyaa syaat = not, passable, it will be; a dR^ishyaa = not, discernable - it will be imperceivable.
"Beyond Mt. Sunrise the eastern quarter is impassable. It will be hemmed in with gods since it the gateway to heaven, and everything is imperceivable hedged in oblivion, since it will be void of both Sun and Moon. [4-40-66]
शैलेषु तेषु सर्वेषु कंदरेषु वनेषु च |
ये च न उक्ता मयोद्देशा विचेया तेषु जानकी || ४-४०-६७
67. teSu shaileSu = in those, mountains; sarveSu kandareSu vaneSu ca = in all, in caverns, in forests, even; mayaa ye uddeshaaH = by me, those, that are indicated; na uktaa ca = not, said, also; teSu jaanakii viceyaa = in them, Janaki, shall be searched.
"Janaki shall be scouted out on all those mountains, caverns and forests that are indicated by me, and even at places that are not indicated by me. [4-40-67]
एतावत् वानरैः शक्यम् गन्तुम् वानर पुंगवाः |
अभास्करम् अमर्यादम् न जानीमः ततः परम् || ४-४०-६८
68. vaanara pungavaaH = oh, vanara-s, the best; etaavat = up to there; vaanaraiH gantum shakyam = by vanara-s, to go, it is possible; a bhaaskaram = without, sun [sunless]; a maryaadam = not, with boundaries [boundless realms]; about them; tataH param = there, after - that are there; na jaaniimaH = not, we know - I do not know.
"It is possible for the vanara-s to go only up to there, oh, best vanara-s, and we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond. [4-40-68]
अभिगम्य तु वैदेहीम् निलयम् रावणस्य च |
मासे पूर्णे निवर्तध्वम् उदयम् प्राप्य पर्वतम् || ४-४०-६९
69. udayam parvatam praapya = Udaya [Sunrise,] mountain, on attaining at; vaidehiim = for Vaidehi; raavaNasya nilayam ca = of Ravana, residency, also; abhigamya = on reaching out - on finding; maase = a month; a puurNe = without, completion [within a month]; nivartadhvam = you shall comeback.
"You shall comeback within a month on finding out Vaidehi and the residency of Ravana after your reaching Mt. Sunrise. [4-40-69]
ऊर्ध्वम् मासात् न वस्तव्यम् वसन् वध्यो भवेन् मम |
सिद्ध अर्थाः संनिवर्तध्वम् अधिगम्य च मैथिलीम् || ४-४०-७०
70. maasaat uurdhvam = than a month, above - after more than a month; na vastavyam = not, to stay behind; vasan = if stayed behind; mama vadhyaH bhavet = to me, killable, he becomes; the words killable, executable, eliminable, eradicable are not comfortable. Hence, 'I have to exercise coupe de grace,' because it is not sure killing, but with some options; siddha arthaaH = on becoming accomplished, of purpose; maithiliim adhigamya ca = Maithili, on reaching - exploring for her; sam nivartadhvam = [you all] verily, shall return.
"And none shall stay behind for more than a month, and if anyone stays I have to exercise coup de grace. So, you shall return with your purpose accomplished in exploring for Maithili. [4-40-70]
महेन्द्र कांताम् वन षण्ड मण्डिताम्
दिशम् चरित्वा निपुणेन वानराः |
अवाप्य सीताम् रघु वंशज प्रियाम्
ततो निवृत्ताः सुखिनो भविष्यथ || ४-४०-७१
71. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; mahendra kaantaam = by Mahendra, cherished; vana SaNDa maNDitaam = forests, groves, circuited by - decorated by; such a; disham = quarter - eastern quarter; nipuNena caritvaa = expertly, on treading - on searching; raghu vamsha ja = Raghu's, dynasty's, born in [one who is born in Raghu's, dynasty, Rama]; priyaam = [Rama's dear [wife]; siitaam avaapya = Seetha, on getting - finding; tataH nivR^ittaaH = from there, on returning; sukhinaH bhaviSyatha = happily, livelong.
"On searching the eastern quarter expertly, which quarter is cherished by no less than Mahendra and which is circuited by the grooves of forests, and on attaining Seetha, the dear wife of the one born in Raghu's dynasty, namely Rama, and on returning from that Far East, you all may livelong happily." Thus Sugreeva addressed the vanara-s that are being sent to East under the leadership of Vinata. [4-40-71]
This is the irrefutablesugriiva aaj~na 'Sugreeva's order,' and it always annexes the wording 'you will be killed, executed, or eradicated, if you fail to accomplish...' which indicates his style as an autocratic disciplinarian of his subordinates in getting things done for his master, Rama. And he himself becomes one such subordinate before his masters, Rama and Lakshmana. This is the kainkarya 'dedication.' Rama's appreciation is winnable with such 'dedication to duty, friendship, of to given word.
Lakshmana's dedication is of the sort of daasya bhaava 'dedication in servitude...' while Sugreeva's is sevaa bhaava 'a dedication in servitorship...' and Hanuma's bhakti bhaava 'dedication in reverence...' a true devotee, and thus in whatever way one shall strive, everything culminates in one selfless entity, the Supreme Person..
- - -
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे चत्वारिंशः सर्गः
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© August, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : October 04]
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