Sugreeva orders vanara-s to search east under the leadership of Vinata, a mighty vanara. Firstly he dedicates all the vanara forces to Rama, but Rama desired to know whether Seetha is alive or not, and if so at what place. Then Sugreeva commissioning Vinata explains the topography and geography of Eastern side of the jambuu dwiipa, 'the Indian subcontinent,' and its eastward, comprising whole of South-East Asia. This is the first chronicle ever recorded about the lands and oceans, islands and dwellers in there, as far as Ancient Indian Geography is concerned.
atha rājā samṛddha arthaḥ sugrīvaḥ plavageśvaraḥ |
uvāca naraśārdūlam rāmam parabalārdanam || 4-40-1
1. plavaga iishvaraH = fly-jumper's, lord; raajaa sugriivaH = king, Sugreeva; samR^iddha arthaH = abound, in means; atha = then; nara shaarduulam = to tigerly-man; para bala ardanam = enemy, might, to vanquisher; raamam uvaaca = to Rama, said.
The lord of fly-jumpers, king Sugreeva, who by now is replete with every means, then spoke to the tigerly-man and the vanquisher of enemy's might, Rama. [4-40-1]
āgatā viniviṣṭāḥ ca balinaḥ kāmarūpiṇaḥ |
vānarendrā mahendra ābhā ye mat viṣaya vāsinaḥ || 4-40-2
2. ye mat viSaya vaasinaH = those, my, in province, dwellers; balinaH kaama ruupiNaH = mighty ones, at wish, guise-changers; mahendra aabhaa = like that of Mahendra, whose sheen is; vaanara indraa = vanara, chiefs; aagataaH = arrived; vi niviSTaaH ca = properly encamped, also.
"The mighty vanara chiefs who are guise-changers by their wish and who in sheen are like Mahendra, and who dwell in my province have arrived and they are properly encamped too. [4-40-2]
ta ime bahu vikrāntaiḥ balibhiḥ bhīma vikramaiḥ |
āgatā vānarā ghorā daitya dānava saṃnibhāḥ || 4-40-3
3. ghoraaH = ghastly ones; daitya daanava sannibhaaH = to monsters, ogres, matching to; ta ime [te ime = those [vanara-chiefs, these [with their soldiers]; vaanaraaH = vanara-s; bhiima vikramaiH = terribly, victorious ones; balibhiH = mighty ones; bahu vikraantaiH = diversely, triumphant ones; aagataa = arrived.
"Those ghastly vanara-chiefs who are a match to the monsters and ogres have arrived with these diversely triumphant, terribly victorious and mighty vanara-soldiers. [4-40-3]
khyāta karma apadānāḥ ca balavanto jita klamāḥ |
parākrameṣu vikhyātā vyavasāyeṣu ca uttamāḥ || 4-40-4
pṛthivi aṃbu carā rāma nānā naga nivāsinaḥ |
koṭi oghāḥ ca ime prāptā vānarāḥ tava kiṃkarāḥ || 4-40-5
4. raama = oh, Rama; khyaata karma = acclaimed, deeds; apadaanaaH ca = accomplished tasks, also; balavantaH = powerful ones; jita klamaaH = they overcame, their weariness; paraakrameSu vikhyaataa = in confrontation, renowned ones; vyavasaayeSu uttamaaH ca = in manoeuvres, also, noteworthy ones; pR^ithivi ambu caraa = on earth, on water, they travel; naanaa naga nivaasinaH = on diverse, mountains, dwellers; such as they are; ime vaanaraaH = these, vanara-s; koTi oghaaH = in crores, of clusters [millionfold]; tava kinkaraaH = as your, servants; praaptaaH = they came.
"Oh, Rama, these vanara-s are acclaimed for undertaking impossible deeds, and they will accomplish whatever task they have undertaken. They are powerful ones who have overcome weariness. They are renowned for their confrontation and noteworthy in their manoeuvres. These who are the dwellers on diverse mountains can travel either on earth or on water. Such as they are these vanara-s have come in millionfold as your servants. [4-40-4, 5]
Vividly: 'These vanara-s are acclaimed for their impossible deeds like jumping over oceans, swinging from mountains to mountains, even lifting mountainous mass etc., thus any impracticable task is assignable to them, and hitherto each and every infeasible task undertaken by them is accomplished by each of them, thus they all are dependable... these are not only powerful individually, but they also have overpowered their individual weariness, thus they pursue any task unweariedly... and these are renowned for their complicate confrontations and noteworthy manoeuvres...'
nideśa vartinaḥ sarve sarve guru hite sthitāḥ |
abhipretam anuṣṭhātum tava śakṣyanti ariṃdama || 4-40-6
6. arindama = oh, enemy-repressor, Rama; sarve nidesha vartinaH = all of them, in orderliness, they abide; sarve guru hite sthitaaH = all, in mentor's [king's, welfare, abide by; tava abhipretam anuSThaatum shakSyanti = at your, discretion, to discharge, they will be able to.
"All of them will conduct themselves in orderliness and all abide by the welfare of their king, and oh, Rama, the enemy-repressor, they will be able to discharge whatever task entrusted to them at your discretion. [4-40-6]
ta ime bahu sāhasraiḥ anekaiḥ bahu vikramaiḥ |
āgatā vānarā ghorā daitya dānava saṃnibhāḥ || 4-40-7
7. ghoraaH = ghastly ones; daitya daanava sannibhaaH = to monsters, ogres, matching to; ta ime [te ime = those [vanara-chiefs, these [with their soldiers]; vaanaraaH = vanara-s; bhiima vikramaiH = terribly, victorious ones; balibhiH = mighty ones; bahu vikraantaiH = diversely, triumphant ones; aagataa = arrived.
"Such of those ghastly vanara-chiefs who are a match to the monsters and ogres have arrived with these diversely triumphant, terribly victorious and mighty vanara-soldiers. [4-40-7]
This verse may appear similar to verse 3 above but differs in mood of the dialogue.
yat manyase naravyāghra prāpta kālam tat ucyatām |
tat sainyam tvat vaśe yuktam ājñāpayitum arhasi || 4-40-8
8. nara vyaaghra = oh, manly, tiger Rama; yat = whichever; praapta kaalam = chanced, according to time [seasonable]; manyase = you think fit; tat ucyataam = that, may be said; tvat vashe = under your, control; yuktam = that has joined; tat sainyam = that, military force; aaj~naapayitum arhasi = to give orders, apt of you.
"Oh, the manly-tiger Rama, whichever you think fit and seasonable that may be said. It will be apt of you to give orders to this vanara force since this has joined up under your command. [4-40-8]
kāmam eṣām idam kāryam viditam mama tattvataḥ |
tathā api tu yathā yuktam ājñāpayitum arhasi || 4-40-9
9. idam kaaryam = this, task - of yours; mama = to me; tattvataH = in its nature; viditam kaamam = is known, in fact; tathaa api = then, even; yathaa yuktam = as, befitting; eSaam = them; aaj~naapayitum arhasi = to give orders [to them, apt of you.
"In fact, this task of yours is known to me in its nature. Even then, it will be apt of you to give them orders as befitting." Thus Sugreeva spoke to Rama. [4-40-9]
This verse has different shades in different mms. Dharmaakuutam has this as kaamam eSaam idam kaarye viditam viira tattvataH then it means that 'I know how to use them in this task...' Some other mms have it to mean: 'Myself and these vanara-s know the task but we are waiting for formal orders from you...' anena prabhu sannidhau svena svaatantryam na avalambaniiyam | kintu tad uktam eva srotavyam iti suucitam - dk'In the presence of the supreme commander, a lower level commander cannot and should not act independently. Whatever is said by the chief is to be carried out...' This is the foremost discipline required of any army personnel.
tathā bruvāṇam sugrīvam rāmo daśarathātmajaḥ |
bāhubhyām saṃpariṣvajya idam vacanam abravīt || 4-40-10
10. dasharatha aatmajaH raamaH = Dasharatha's, son, Rama; tathaa bruvaaNam sugriivam = thus, who is speaking, to Sugreeva; baahubhyaam sam pariSvajya = with both arms, well [heartily hugging; idam vacanam abraviit = this, word, said.
While Sugreeva is speaking thus, Rama the son of Dasharatha heartily hugged him with both of his arms and said this word to him. [4-40-10]
jñāyatām saumya vaidehī yadi jīvati vā na vā |
sa ca deśo mahāprājña yasmin vasati rāvaṇaḥ || 4-40-11
11. mahaa praaj~na = oh, well-informed one [Sugreeva]; saumya = oh, gracious one; yadi vaidehii jiivati vaa = whether, Vaidehi, alive, either; na vaa = not, or; raavaNaH yasmin vasati = Ravana, wherein, dwells; sa deshaH ca = that, place, likewise; j~naayataam = it is to be known.
"Oh, gracious Sugreeva, whether Vaidehi is alive or not - it shall be known. Likewise, oh, well-informed one that place in which Ravana dwells - it is to be determined, at the outset. [4-40-11]
adhigamya tu vaidehīm nilayam rāvaṇasya ca |
prāpta kālam vidhāsyāmi tasmin kāle saha tvayā || 4-40-12
12. vaidehiim = about Vaidehi; raavaNasya nilayam ca = Ravana's, dwelling place, also; adhigamya tu = on knowing, only; tasmin kaale = at that, time; tvayaa saha = with you, in association - on deliberating with you; praapta kaalam = befitting, to time [timely action]; vidhaasyaami = I will order for.
"Only on knowing about Vaidehi, also about the dwelling place of Ravana, I will order for the timely action at that time, that too, after deliberating with you. [4-40-12]
na aham asmin prabhuḥ kārye vānarendra na lakṣmaṇaḥ |
tvam asya hetuḥ kāryasya prabhuḥ ca plavageśvara || 4-40-13
13. plavaga iishvara = oh, fly-jumper's king; vaanarendra = vanara chief; aham asmin kaarye prabhuH na = I am, in this, task, capable [sufficient unto, master, not; lakSmaNaH na = Lakshmana, is not; tvam asya kaaryasya = you are, this, task's; hetuH prabhuH ca = catalyst, and master, also.
"Oh, chief of vanara-s, I am not the master of this task, nor Lakshmana is, but you, oh king of fly-jumpers, are the catalyst and master of this task of searching Seetha. [4-40-13]
tvam eva ājñāpaya vibho mama kārya viniścayam |
tvam hi jānāsi yat kāryam mama vīra na saṃśayaḥ || 4-40-14
14. vibhoH = oh, lord [of vanara-s]; mama kaarya vi nishcayam = in my, of task, for the right determination - what is to be done in my task; tvam eva aaj~naapaya = you, alone, give orders; viira = oh, valiant one; mama yat kaaryam = my, what, task is there; tvam jaanaasi hi = you are, aware of it, isn't it; na samshayaH = need not, have doubt - about it, your giving orders is inoffensive.
"Oh, lord of vanara-s, you alone have to give orders for the right determination of my task, and what my task is, oh, valiant one, you are fully aware of it, isn't it. And it is inoffensive of you to issue orders in this regard. [4-40-14]
suhṛd dvitīyo vikrāntaḥ prājñaḥ kāla viśeṣa vit |
bhavān asmat hite yuktaḥ suhṛd āpto arthavittamaḥ || 4-40-15
15. bhavaan suhR^it = you are, kind-hearted; dvitiiyaH [viniitaH = second-best one [first one is Lakshmana, if it is vinnita = a benign one]; vikraantaH = valorous one; praaj~naH = an intellectual; kaala visheSa vit = time's, speciality [scope, knower of; asmat hite yuktaH = you, in our, welfare, join forces with; suhR^it = good-hearted [partner]; aaptaH = helpful one [patron]; artha vit tamaH = intention, knower, the best - best one among the knowers of our intentions.
"You are a kind-hearted one. To me you are the second-best one, first being Lakshmana. More so, you are a valorous vanara, an intellectual, a knower of the scope of the time and you joined forces with us in our welfare, a partner and a patron of ours, and the best one among all those who are aware of our intentions." Thus Rama said to Sugreeva. [4-40-15]
The often repeated word of Rama 'my task, my mission...' is not just regaining Seetha, but the complete elimination of demon's clan, for which Seetha is the conditional and instrumental entity. The masters have to repose absolute confidence in servants unconditionally to get things done: anena prabhuNaa api aaptatame abhij~ne artha saadhake svaatantryam aadhaaya kaaryam saadhaniiyam iti suucitam - dk
evam uktaḥ tu sugrīvo vinatam nāma yūthapam |
abravīt rāma sāṃnidhye lakṣmaṇasya ca dhīmataḥ || 4-40-16
śailābham megha nirghoṣam ūrjitam plavageśvaram |
16, 17a. evam uktaH tu sugriivaH = thus, said to, on his part, Sugreeva; raama saannidhye = in Rama's, presence; dhiimataH lakSmaNasya ca = the observant, of Lakshmana's [in presence, also; yuuthapam = to vanara-commander; shaila aabham = mountain, in sheen; megha nirghoSam = cloudlike, in thundering; uurjitam = mightiest; vinatam naama = to Vinata, named; plavageshvaram abraviit = to fly-jumpers, chief, spoke.
When Rama said so, Sugreeva spoke in the presence of Rama and the observant Lakshmana, to a mightiest chief of fly-jumpers, named Vinata, who is a commander of vanara army, who is like a mountain in his sheen and who thunders like a cloud. [4-40-16, 17a]
soma sūrya nibhaiḥ sārdham vānaraiḥ vānarottama || 4-40-17
deśa kāla nayaiḥ yuktaḥ vijñaḥ kārya viniścaye |
vṛtaḥ śata sahasreṇa vānarāṇām tarasvinām || 4-40-18
adhigaccha diśam pūrvām sa śaila vana kānanām |
17b, 18, 19a. vaanara uttama = oh, vanara [Vinata, the best; desha kaala nayaiH yuktaH = place, time, probity, in consonance with - you are aware of; kaarya vinishcaye vij~naH = task, in determination, you are an expert; such as you are you with; soma suurya nibhaiH = who are - moon, sun, in glow; vaanaraiH saardham = vanara-s, along with; tarasvinaam vaanaraaNaam shata sahasreNa = powerful ones, with vanara-s, in hundreds, thousands; vR^itaH = accompanied with; sa shaila vana kaananaam = with, mountains, woodlands, forests; puurvaam disham adhigacCha = eastern, direction, you go over.
"Oh, Vinata, the best vanara, you are an expert in determining the tasks in consonance with time, place and probity. Hence, you along with vanara-s, whose glow shall be like the moon and sun for they shall be from the progeny of Sun and Moon, and even accompanied with a hundred thousand, say one lakh, other powerful vanara-s, shall go over Eastern direction of the earth inclusive of its mountains, woodlands and forests. [4-40-17b, 18, 19a]
In some translations the second foot's gist is also attributed to Vinata, i.e., Vinata is with the glow of sun, moon etc., but it is for the progeny of the Sun and Moon gods, who are to follow Vinata.
tatra sītām ca vaidehīm nilayam rāvaṇasya ca || 4-40-19
mārgadhvam giri durgeṣu vaneṣu ca nadīṣu ca |
19b, 20a. tatra = there; vaidehiim siitaam ca = princes from Videha kingdom, of Seetha, also; raavaNasya nilayam ca = of Ravana, residency, also; giri durgeSu = in mountains, impassable places; vaneSu ca = in forests, even; maargadhvam = shall be searched.
"There in the East, the forests, mountains and impassable places shall be searched for the princess from Videha kingdom, namely Seetha, and even for the residency of Ravana. [4-40-19b, 20a]
The eastside is not the eastside of Kishkindha, but to the East of jambuu dviipa 'Indian subcontinent... inclusive of South-East Asia...' The meridian of the Saraswati Triveni - the confluence of rivers Ila, Bharati, and Saraswati - is still the prime meridian for Indian astronomers. The first observatory Ujjain Observatory is on this meridian. uddicya pascimottaraH tasyaaH sharaavatyaaH avadheH yaH pascimottaH - sa uddicya iti ucyate Taking Ujjain, the place where one ancient river flowed circuitously in Central India, named Sharavati, as the centre of the country, the ancient astronomers have decided the quarters. So, Sugreeva said about the absolute east of India but not about the east of his small kingdom.
nadīm bhāgīrathīm ramyām sarayūm kauśikīm tathā || 4-40-20
kāliṃdīm yamunām ramyām yāmunam ca mahāgirim |
sarasvatīm ca siṃdhum ca śoṇam maṇi nibha udakam || 4-40-21
mahīm kālamahīm caiva śaila kānana śobhitām |
brahmamālān videhān ca mālavān kāśi kosalān || 4-40-22
māgadhām ca mahāgrāmān puṇḍrān aṃgām tathaiva ca |
bhūmim ca kośakārāṇām bhūmim ca rajata ākarām || 4-40-23
20b, 21, 22, 23. nadiim bhaagiirathiim = River, Bhaagiirathi [Ganga]; ramyaam sarayuum = delightful one, River Sarayu; tathaa kaushikiim = likewise, River Kaushiki; kaalindiim ramyaam yamunaam = river emerging from Mt. Kalinda, pleasing [river,] River Yamuna; yaamunam ca mahaa girim = the source of River Yamuna, also, great, mountain; sarasvatiim ca sindhum ca = River Saraswati, also, River Sindhu, also; maNi nibha udakam = one with - gemlike, lustrous, waters; shoNam = River Shona; mahiim = River Mahii; shaila kaanana shobhitaam = with mountains, forests, brightened by; kaalamahiim = River Kaalamahi; ca eva = also thus; brahmamaalaan = [kingdoms like Brahmamaala; videhaan ca = Videha, also; maalavaan kaashi kosalaan = Malava, Kaashi, Kosala; maagadhaam mahaa graamaan ca = pertaining to Maagadha kingdom, also, grand villages; puNDraan angaam = Pundra, Anga [kingdoms]; tathaa eva ca = like, that, only; koshakaaraaNaam bhuumim ca = of Koshakaara kings, provinces, also; rajata aakaraam = [places pertaining to silver, mines; bhuumim ca = lands [provinces, also; [maargadhvam = shall be searched.
"Search shall be conducted at the riversides of heartening rivers like River Bhaagiirathi, another name for River Ganga, and River Sarayu, like that at River Kaushiki, and at the pleasing surrounds of River Yamuna, and on Mt. Kalinda, as well at River Saraswati, River Sindhu and at the river whose waters are lustrous like gems, namely River Shona, and further at River Mahi and River Kaalamahi which rivers are brightened by mountains and forests surrounding them. And the kingdoms like Brahmamaala, Videha, Maalva, Kaashi, and Kosala, and in Maagadha, which kingdom has grand villages, and in that way, also in the kingdoms of Pundra and Anga, and in the countries of the kings called Koshakaara, and in the provinces of silver mines search is to be conducted. [4-40-20b, 21, 22, 23]
The mention of these two western rivers, Saraswati and Sindhu, at this eastern place, to where Vinata is being sent, is a disputed matter. The River Saraswati is the river of Vedic period that once coursed but later disappeared or is coursing underground. This river is 'this creative centre of Man, River Saraswati, was made by the deva-s...' Rig Veda, 3.33.4, and 'all life takes its origin from your [Saraswati womb... Rig Veda, 2-4, 9-17. Presently research work is undertaken to find out this river under the banner 'Saraswati Nadi Shodh Abhiyaan' and they are trying to find out the palaeodrainage, the buried course of this river. It is believed that this perennial river was flowing from Himalayas through Punjab, Haryana, Western Rajasthan, and through the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, and it is said that if this could be traced an abundant source of underground water could be established.
Likewise, the mention about Sindhu at this place does not relate to westerly Indus River, because any river or rivulet is generally called Sindhu: deshe nada visheSe abdau sindhurnaa sariti striyaam - amara kosha. Sugreeva separately indicates Indus river at 15th verse, chapter 42: sindhu saagarayoH caiva sangame... Hence it is taken as another easterly river called Indusa.
So also the river Mahi as said in next verse, on which Griffith says that 'The Mahii River rises in Malwa [Malwa Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, and falls in the Gulf of Cambay after a westerly course of 280 miles...' But the Ancient Geography of India says that 'the mention of this river is out of place here and is probably due to erroneous transposition of the verses...'
It is generally accepted that many verses in these episodes of Sugreeva's narrating the geography are shuffled. The River Shona is present day Shon, and Kaushiki is Koshi, and she is the sister of Vishvamitra. That sage explains about the emergence of this river in Bala Kanda.
Videha is Mithila, the kingdom from where Seetha came to Ayodhya, this and Anga kingdoms were roughly present West Bengal. Magadha is the famous post Buddhist period kingdom, ruling from present-day Bihar. Huen Tsong recorded that 'to the north of Magadha, River Ganga courses, to the west of it Kaashi province is there, and in east hiraNya parvata [Maanghir is there, and in south giraNa suvarNa [singa bhuumi is there... and its capital is kusuma pura [paaTalii putra present day Patna. Next, the word 'koshakaara is literally a silkworm or one who makes scabbards or a lexicographer. It is also referred to the kings of these clans.
sarvam ca tat vicetavyam mārgayadbhiḥ tataḥ tataḥ |
rāmasya dayitām bhāryām sītām daśarathaḥ snuṣām || 4-40-24
24. raamasya dayitaam bhaaryaam = Rama's, dear, wife; dasharathaH snuSaam = Dasharatha's, daughter-in-law; siitaam = such Seetha; tataH tataH = there, there - thereabout; maargayadbhiH = while you are exploring; tat sarvam vicetavyam ca = that [those places, in entirety, shall be searched, also.
"While you explore those places in their entirety, thereabout you have to search for Rama's dear wife and king Dasharatha's daughter-in-law Seetha. [4-40-24]
samudram avagāḍhān ca parvatān pattanāni ca |
maṃdarasya ca ye koṭim saṃśritāḥ kecit ālayāḥ || 4-40-25
karṇa prāvaraṇāḥ caiva tathā ca api oṣṭha karṇakāḥ |
ghora loha mukhāḥ caiva javanāḥ ca eka pādakāḥ || 4-40-26
akṣayā balavaṃtaḥ ca tathaiva puruṣa ādakāḥ |
kirātāḥ tīkṣṇa cūḍāḥ ca hemābhāḥ priya darśanāḥ || 4-40-27
āma mīna aśanāḥ cāpi kirātā dvīpa vāsinaḥ |
aṃtar jala carā ghorā naravyāghrā iti smṛtāḥ || 4-40-28
eteṣām āśrayāḥ sarve viceyāḥ kānana okasaḥ |
giribhir ye ca gamyante plavanena plavena ca || 4-40-29
25, 26, 27, 28, 29. kaanana okasaH = oh, forest, dwellers [vanara-s]; samudram avagaaDhaan = in ocean, [places steeped deep into; parvataan pattanaani ca = mountains, townships, also; mandarasya = of Mt. Mandara; aalayaaH [aayataam = as their dwelling [extensive beings, as in some mms, thereby unsightly beings]; koTim = on peak of; samshritaaH = harbouring; kecit = some beings; karNa pra aavaraNaaH = ears, verily, covered ones [ears covered over, i.e., with invisible ears, or without ears like snakes]; tathaa ca api = like that, also, even; oSTha karNakaaH = lips, as their ears; ghora loha mukhaaH caiva = grisly, iron, faced ones, also thus; javanaaH = very rapid beings; eka paadakaaH ca = single, footed beings, also; a kSayaa = not, deteriorating - unkillable beings; balavantaH ca = mighty ones, also; tathaiva = also thus; puruSa aadakaaH = men, eaters; kiraataaH = [other tribals; tiikshNa cuuDaaH ca = those with towering, wisps, also; priya darshanaaH = [some more pleasant, in appearance; hema aabhaaH = golden, in shine - complexioned; aama miina ashanaaH = uncooked [raw, fish, eaters; caapi = also, even; dviipa vaasinaH = on islands, dwellers; kiraataa = [other tribals; nara vyaaghraa iti smR^itaaH = man, tiger, thus, renowned - tigers like men; antar jala caraa = inside, water, those who budge up; ghoraa = horrific beings; eteSaam sarve aashrayaaH = of these beings, all of the, dwelling places; viceyaaH = are to be searched; ye = which - which of those dwelling places; giribhiH = by [climbing mountains; plavanena = by hopping; plavena ca = by boating, also; gamyante = reachable - you have to reach them in those modes of transport.
"Oh, forest dwelling vanara-s, you shall search on the mountains and in the townships that are steeped in the ocean. And you have to search on the peak of Mt. Mandara, where some extensive and unsightly beings are harboured, and at places where some other beings live with odd physical features. Some of them have no ears, while some have their lips as their ears. Some are with grisly faces like iron-faced-beings while some beings, although they are single-footed, yet they are very rapid. While some tribals are unkillable and mighty man-eaters, some other have golden complexion, and they will be pleasant in their appearance with towering wisps. Some other tribals who live on islands budging underwater as they are raw fish eaters and they are observed upon as horrific man-tigers i.e., half-man and half-tiger, like mermaids. All of their dwellings are to be searched in jambuu dwiipa, the tableland that contains bharata varSa, namely India. And you have to go beyond this to other easterly places that are reachable either by mountaineering, or by hopping, or even by boating. [4-40-25, 26, 27, 28, 29]
yatnavanto yava dvīpam sapta rājya upaśobhitam |
suvarṇa rūpyakam dvīpam suvarṇa ākara maṇḍitam || 4-40-30
yava dvīpam atikramya śiśiro nāma parvataḥ |
divam spṛśati śṛngeṇa deva dānava sevitaḥ || 4-40-31
eteṣām giri durgeṣu prapāteṣu vaneṣu ca |
mārgadhvam sahitāḥ sarve rāma patnīm yaśasvinīm || 4-40-32
30, 31, 32. sapta raajya upa shobhitam = with seven, kingdoms, splendorous; yava dviipam = Yava, in island; suvarNa aakara maNDitam = with gold, mines, enwreathed; suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam = Golden, Silver, islands; yatnavantaH = you strive in there; yava dviipam atikramya = Yava, island, crossing over; shishiraH naama = Shishira, named; deva daanava sevitaH = god, demons, which is adored by; parvataH = [there is a mountain; shR^ingeNa divam spR^ishati = with its peak, heaven, which touches; sarve sahitaaH = you all, collectively; eteSaam = in these - islands; giri durgeSu = mountains, impassable [mountains]; pra paateSu = in great, falls [waterfalls]; vaneSu ca = in forests, also; yashasviniim raama patniim maargadhvam = for glorious one, Rama's, wife, you rake through.
"You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama. [4-40-30, 31, 32]
The Yava Island is taken as the present day Jawa Island, and the seven kingdoms referred may compare to Jawa, Sumatra, Bali, Indonesia etc. It is believed that around 10 to 8 millennia B.C., there used to be a continuous landmass from Burma to Central America, which is why Maya civilization has flourished there via this route. Later in time due to tectonic activity, the northern India's landmass rose up and southern sunk down. [Chronology of Ancient Bharath, by Prof. K. Srinivasa Raghavan, published by 'Sri Aurobindo Study Circle, Triplicane, Chennai, in year 1896. It is therefore presumable that the islands of Indian Archipelago are so numerous and so nearly situated. However, this splintering of islands may have happened by the time of Ramayana, since the Sage-poet of Ramayana is citing them as dwiipa, islands.
Regarding the difference between the names of Yava and Jawa the word ya in Sanskrit becomes ja in vernaculars tadbhava pada. Hence Yava became Java, as simha pruri 'lion-city' became the present day Singapore.
On this point of Yava/Java island as said in Ramayana, Sri Kedarnath Basu notes in his 'Hindu Civilization': 'The reader may note here that java dwiipa described as consisting of seven kingdoms was probably the group of islands now called the Indian Archipelago, of which Java was at that time the most powerful. The chief islands of this group are Sumatra, [say, su mitra= good friend, Java, Bali, [the benefactor; Borneo, [or varuNa, the Rain-god, and Celebes. More details are with: Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari, who are publishing 'Vivekananda Kendra Patrika' an encyclopaedic journal on Ancient India.
tato rakta jalam prāpya śoṇa ākhyam śīghra vāhinīm |
gatvā pāram samudrasya siddha cāraṇa sevitam || 4-40-33
tasya tīrtheṣu ramyeṣu vicitreṣu vaneṣu ca |
rāvaṇaḥ saha vaidehyā mārgitavyaḥ tataḥ tataḥ || 4-40-34
33. tataH = then; rakta jalam = that has - red, waters; shiighra vaahiniim = speedily, drifting; shoNa aakhyam [agaadham = Shona, reputed as, [or a very deep river]; praapya = on getting at; samudrasya = of ocean; siddha caaraNa sevitam = siddha-s, carana-s, adored; such a; paaram = other coast; gatvaa = having gone to; tasya ramyeSu tiirtheSu = at its [Shona river's, beautiful, ghats [declivities]; vicitreSu vaneSu ca = in amazing, forests [alongshore, also; tataH tataH = there, and there; vaidehyaaH = of Vaidehi; saha = together with - as well as; raavaNaH = Ravana; maargitavyaH = be scouted around; thnen you proceed to Plaksha Island.
"Then, having gone to the other coast of the ocean you reach River Shona, waters of which will be reddish with deep and speedy drift, and which is adored by siddha-s and carana-s. You have to scout thereabout for Vaidehi as well as for Ravana, at those beautiful ghats, say littorals of that Shona River, and in the amazing forests alongshore. Then proceed to an island called Plaksha Island. [4-40-34]
parvata prabhavā nadyaḥ subhīma bahu niṣkuṭāḥ |
mārgitavyā darīmantaḥ parvatāḥ ca vanāni ca || 4-40-35
35. su bhiima = very, vast; bahu niSkuTaaH = with many, [pleasure gardens; parvata prabhavaa nadyaH = from mountain, emerging, rivers; dariimantaH parvataaH ca = cavernous, mountains, also; vanaani ca = forests, also; maargitavyaa = are to be searched; then proceed to Ikshu island.
"On that Plaksha Island very vast rivers emerge from mountains, but alongshore they have many pleasure gardens. You have to search in those gardens and at rivers together with cavernous mountains and forests of that island, and then proceed to Ikshu Island. [4-40-35]
tataḥ samudra dvīpān ca subhīmān draṣṭum arhatha |
ūrmimaṃtam mahāraudram krośaṃtam anila uddhitam || 4-40-36
36. tataH = then; su bhiimaan samudra dviipaan ca = extremely, ghastly, ocean's, [Ikshu islands, also; mahaa raudram = terribly, furious; anila uddhitam = by wind, up-heaved - tempestuous; kroshantam = blaring; uurmimantam = tide-ripped; [ikshu samudram ca = salt ocean, also]; draSTum arhatha = to see, apt of you.
"It will be apt of you to proceed from there and see the terribly furious, tempestuous, blaring, and tide-ripped ocean called ikshu samudra, Salt Ocean, and that ocean's islands which will be extremely ghastly. [4-40-36]
tatra asurā mahākāyāḥ chāyām gṛhṇanti nityaśaḥ |
brahmaṇā samanujñātā dīrgha kālam bubhukṣitāḥ || 4-40-37
tam kāla megha pratimam mahoraga niṣevitam |
abhigamya mahānādam tīrthena eva mahodadhim || 4-40-38
37, 38. kaala megha pratimam = dark, cloud, mirroring; mahaa uraga niSevitam = great, by serpents, hallowed by; mahaa naadam = blatantly, blaring; such a; tam mahaa udadhim = that, great, ocean; tiirthena eva = by shores [or by tact, only; abhigamya = traversing, on navigating; tatra = there; mahaa kaayaaH = colossal, bodied ones; diirgha kaalam bubhukSitaaH = for a long, time, who are in hungriness; brahmaNaa sam anuj~naataa = by Brahma, well, endued by; nityashaH Cchaayaam gR^ihNanti = always, by shadow, who capture; such; asuraa = demons; [prekSyatha = you will see.
"That ocean which mirrors a dark cloud and hallowed by great serpents, and which blares blatantly is to be traversed only by it shores or tactfully, to avoid shadow-capturing of its inhabitants. There you will see colossal bodied demons with everlasting hunger inhibiting that ocean, which demons always capture prey by the shadow of prey as endued by Brahma. [4-40-37, 38]
tato raktajalam bhīmam lohitam nāma sāgaram |
gatvā prekṣyatha tām caiva bṛhatīm kūṭaśālmalīm || 4-40-39
39. tataH rakta jalam = from there, red, water; bhiimam disastrous; lohitam naama saagaram = Lohita [Red Ocean, named, ocean; gatvaa = on getting at; bR^ihatiim taam kuuTashaalmaliim = colossal, that one, Kutashalmali tree; prekSyatha = you shall see.
"From there, on going to the disastrous ocean named Lohita, Red Ocean, for its waters are red, you shall see the colossal tree Kuuta-shalmali. This island is called shaalmali dwiipa, Shaalmali Island because oif this tree. [4-40-39]
This kuuTa-shalmali tree in Indian variety is Andersonia Rohitaka, and in Malayan, Malaysian variety, it is Kapok tree, [Ceiba pentandra, the seeds of which are covered with silk cotton. Because it is on Shalmali Island, one among Java, Sumatra etc., islands, it is called kuuTa shalmali tree. The Red Ocean is also called madhu samudra 'Wine Ocean.'
gṛham ca vainateyasya nānā ratna vibhūṣitam |
tatra kailāsa saṃkāśam vihitam viśvakarmaṇā || 4-40-40
40. tatra = there; naanaa ratna vibhuuSitam = numerous, jewels, decorated with; kailaasa sankaasham = to Mt. Kailash, in similarity; vishvakarmaNaa vihitam = by Vishvakarma, ordered [constructed by]; vainateyasya gR^iham ca = Vinata's son [Garuda's, mansion, also; [prekSyatha = you shall see.
"On that Shalmali Island in Wine Ocean you will be seeing the mansion of Vinata's son, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu, which is decorated with numerous jewels, and which in sheen will be like Mt. Kailash, the abode of Shiva. This mansion is a construction of Vishvakarma, the Heavenly Architect. [4-40-40]
tatra śaila nibhā bhīmā mandehā nāma rākṣasāḥ |
śaila śṛṃgeṣu laṃbante nānā rūpā bhayāvahāḥ || 4-40-41
41. tatra = thereabout; shaila shR^ingeSu = from mountain, peaks; shaila nibhaa = mountain, similar; bhiimaa = merciless ones; naanaa ruupaaH = with various, shapes; bhaya aavahaaH = horror, bringing - horrifying beings; mandehaa naama raakSasaaH = Mandeha, named demons; lambante = will be dangling [upside down.
"Thereabout horrifying and merciless demons of various shapes and similar to mountains in size, called Mandeha-s, will be dangling upside down from mountain peaks. [4-40-41]
te patanti jale nityam sūryasya udayanam prati |
abhitaptāḥ ca sūryeṇa laṃbante sma punaḥ punaḥ || 4-40-42
nihatā brahma tejobhiḥ ahani ahani rākṣasāḥ |
42, 43a. te = those; raakshasaaH = demons [Mandeha-s]; ahani ahani = day, [after day; suuryasya udayanam prati = Sun's, rising, towards [at the time of]; nityam suuryeNa abhi taptaaH ca = always [every day, by Sun, verily, burnt down, also; brahma tejobhiH = by Brahma's [Gayatri hymn's, impetus; nihataa = felled; jale patanti = in water, they will be falling; punaH punaH lambante sma = again, again, dangling, they will be.
"Day after day those demons will be falling in water when sun always burns them at sunrise and when the impetus of Gayatri hymn fells them down, yet they will be resurfacing and dangling on the mountaintops day after day. [4-40-42, 43a]
Mandeha beings will try to hinder the path of the Sun daily at the time of sunrise to grasp Him. At that time, the devout Gayatri hymn chanters will be chanting Gayatri and offering water oblations to Gayatri. These watery oblations and the force of Gayatri hymn will hit the Mandeha-s out, making the Sun's path clear of any obstruction. And the Sun proceeding on his way will burn them down. But Mandeha-s regain their lives and start repeating the same obstruction of Sun's path on next morning by dangling from the peaks of mountain and they are again tossed into oceans, by water oblations and Gayatri hymn, day after day. The
The hymn in yajur veda taittariiya says about this: tadu ha vaa ete brahma vaadinaH puurvaa abhimukhaH saandhyaayaam gaayatryaa abhimantryaa aapa uurdhvam vikShipanti - taa etaa aape vajrii bhuutvaa taani rakShaamsi mandehaa aaruNe dviipe prakShipanti .
tataḥ pāṇḍura meghābham kṣīraudam nāma sāgaram || 4-40-43
gatvā drakṣyatha durdharṣā muktā hāram iva ūrmibhiḥ |
43b, 44a. dur dharSaa = oh, unassailable [vanara-s - Sugreeva's addressing]; tataH gatvaa = from there, having gone; paaNDura megha aabham = whitish, cloud, similar in shine; uurmibhiH = with [swaying ripples; muktaa haaram iva = which will be like swaying - pearl, necklaces, like; kSiira udam = milk, having as waters - milk ocean; naama saagaram = with that - name, an ocean; drakSyatha = you shall see.
"Oh, unassailable vanara-s, on your going therefrom you shall see the milk ocean, which will be like a whitish cloud in its shine, and even like a pearly necklace while her ripples will be swaying. [4-40-43b, 44a]
Here some more Indian Mythological oceans like sarpi, dadhi etc., are not said. The mythological oceans are lavaNa, ikshu, suraa, sarpi, dadhi, dugdha jalaiH samam salt, sugar-cane juice, ghee [clarified butter, curds, milk - oceans. Further, some islands like Kusha, Kraunca etc., are also unsaid. Though all are not explicitly listed in the text, the vanara-s are supposed to search those unsaid oceans and islands implicitly.
tasya madhye mahā śveto ṛṣabho nāma parvataḥ || 4-40-44
divya gandhaiḥ kusumitai ācitaiḥ ca nagaiḥ vṛtaḥ |
saraḥ ca rājataiḥ padmaiḥ jvalitaiḥ hema kesaraiḥ || 4-40-45
nāmnā sudarśanam nāma rājahaṃsaiḥ samākulam |
44b, 45, 46a. tasya madhye = in its, centre [of milk ocean]; divya gandhaiH = with heavenly, fragrances; kusumitaiH = [ever flowered; aacitaiH = closely [growing]; nagaiH vR^itaH = with trees, surrounded with; R^iSabhaH naama = Rishabha, named; mahaan parvataH = colossal, mountain; shvetaH = white - mountain; jvalitaiH hema kesaraiH = with sparkling, golden fibrils; raajataiH padmaiH = with silver [like, lotuses [- which is replete with]; raaja hamsaiH samaakulam = with kingly, swans, scampered; naamnaa sudarshanam naama = by name, as Sudarshana, renowned as; saraH ca = lake, also; [assit = are there.]
"In the centre of that milk ocean there is a white mountain of colossal size, named Rishabha, surrounded with closely growing trees ever flowered with flowers of heavenly fragrance. And a lake renowned as Lake Sudarshana is also there, which is replete with silvery lotuses whose fibrils are golden in sparkle, and in which kingly swans will be scampering about. [4-40-44b, 45, 46a]
vibudhāḥ cāraṇā yakṣāḥ kinnarāḥ sa apsaro gaṇāḥ || 4-40-46
hṛṣṭāḥ samadhigacchanti nalinīm tām riraṃsavaḥ |
46b, 47a. vi budhaaH = supreme, intellectuals [gods, caaraNaa yakSaaH kinnaraaH = caarana-s, yaksha-s, kinnaraa-s; sa apsaraH gaNaaH = with, apsara, hosts of; hR^iSTaaH = gladly; riramsavaH = to enjoy frolicking - frolicsomely; taam naliniim = that, lotus-lake [Sudarshana Lake]; samadhigacChanti = they will be arriving at.
"To enjoy frolicking in that Sudarshana Lake the gods, caarana-s, yaksha-s, kinnaraa-s and hosts of apsara females will be arriving at that lotus-lake gladsomely. [4-40-46b, 47a]
kṣīrodam samatikramya tato drakṣyatha vānarāḥ || 4-40-47
jalodam sāgaram śīghram sarva bhūta bhayāvaham |
47b, 48a. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; kSiirodam samatikramya = milky ocean, on crossing over; sarva bhuuta bhayaavaham = for all, beings, frightening; jala = sof-water; udam saagaram = as waters, ocean [ocean with soft water; tataH shiighram drakSyatha = then, immediately, you shall see.
"And on crossing over the milky ocean, oh vanara-s, then you will be immediately seeing the soft-water ocean which will be frightening to all beings. [4-40-47b, 48a]
tatra tat kopajam tejaḥ kṛtam hayamukham mahat || 4-40-48
asya āhuḥ tan mahāvegam odanam sa carācaram |
48b, 49a. tatra = there; tat kopa jam = that, from anger, originated - originated from the anger of Aurasa; mahat = fantastic one; haya mukham = horse, face; tejaH kR^itam = by refulgent Fire, made - by the anger of Aurasa; sa cara a caram = with, mobile, not, mobile [sessile beings]; mahaa vegam = highly speedy [waves of ocean]; tat = that [water of ocean]; asya odanam aahuH = its [to the Fire,] victuals, said to be.
"There exists a fantastically refulgent Fire in the form of Horse's Face that originated from the anger of Sage Aurasa. The victuals to that Fire is said to be that highly speedy waves of the ocean, together with all of the mobile and sessile beings of the world at the close of each Era. [4-40-48b, 49a]
Aurasa derives from the word uuru, meaning 'the thigh.' The mother of this sage hid him under her thigh when some kings came to kill, as such he got this name. Then with vengeance this sage started to burn the world with his yogic fire, but his manes came to him to pacify and asked him to release his yogic fire in oceanic water. When he did so, that fire remained underwater, ready to emerge from a cavity like that of a she-horse's mouth, from beneath the ocean from the South Pole. This fire is called vaDaba agni, or baDaba anala , referred here as Horse's Face. At the time of yuga anta, End of Era, that fire emerges out, and the whole creation, with all its sessile and mobile beings, becomes its fuel, as said in next verse. This episode is detailed in aadi parva , First Canto, Maha Bharata.
tatra vikrośatām nādo bhūtānām sāgara okasām |
śrūyate ca asamarthānām dṛṣṭvā tat vaḍavā mukham || 4-40-49
49b, c. tatra = there; tat vaDavaa mukham dR^iSTvaa = that, Fire from Horse Mouth, on seeing [on feeling it]; a samarthaanaam = not, capable - incapacitated beings; vi kroshataam = highly, squealing; saagara okasaam bhuutaanaam = in ocean, dwellers, of beings; naadaH shruuyate = sounds, are audible.
"There the high squealing sounds of oceanic beings dwelling undersea are audible, and although they are capable ones, they are incapacitated on feeling Fire from the Horse Mouth as such they yell. [4-40-49b, c]
svādu udasya uttare deśe yojanāni trayodaśa |
jātarūpa śilo nāma sumahān kanaka prabhaḥ || 4-40-50
50. svaadu udasya uttare deshe = soft, water's [ocean's northern, province; trayaH dasha yojanaani = three, ten [thirteen,] yojana-s - in spread; su mahaan = hugely, enormous; kanaka prabhaH = golden, in glitter; jaataruupa shilaH naama = Jaataruupa-shila, Golden, Rock, famed as [mountain; aasiit = is there.]
"On the northern province of that soft-water ocean there is a hugely enormous mountain named Jaataruupa-shila, Golden Rock Mountain, which glitters like gold and which spreads across thirteen yojana-s. [4-40-50]
tatra candra pratīkāśam pannagam dharaṇī dharam |
padma patra viśālākṣam tato drakṣyadha vānarāḥ || 4-40-51
āsīnam parvatasya agre sarva bhūta namaskṛtam |
sahasra śirasam devam anaṃtam nīla vāsasam || 4-40-52
51, 52. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; tataH = then; tatra = there; parvatasya agre aasiinam = on mountain's, top of, one who is sitting; candra pratiikaasham = moon, one reflecting like - in brilliance; padma patra vishaala aksham = lotus, petal, broad, eyed one; sarva bhuuta namas kR^itam = by all, beings, reverenced; sahasra shirasam = thousand, headed [hooded]; niila vaasasam = with black, clothing; devam = god; dharaNii dharam = earth, one who sustains on his head; anantam pannagam = Ananta, serpent; drakshyadha = you shall see.
"There you shall see then, oh, vanara-s, the lotus-petal broad-eyed thousand-hooded serpent god in black clothing, namely Ananta, sitting on the top of that mountain and sustaining the earth on his head, who will be like moon in his brilliance and whom all beings hold in reverence. [4-40-51, 52]
Ananta means infinite, the infinite Thousand-hooded serpent-god also called as aadi shSa the couch of Vishnu. This word ananta is also symbolic with the infinite space that is supporting the galaxies, planets, and stars, of which earth is but one globe.
triśirāḥ kāṃcanaḥ ketuḥ tālaḥ tasya mahātmanaḥ |
sthāpitaḥ parvatasya agre virājati sa vedikaḥ || 4-40-53
53. mahaa aatmanaH = great-souled one's; tasya parvatasya = that, mountain's; agre = on peak; sthaapitaH ketuH = staked, pylon of insignia is; tri shiraaH = three, headed [branched]; kaancanaH sa vedikaH = golden one, with, podium; taalaH = palm tree; viraajati = will be lustrous.
"A golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches as its heads is established on the peak of that mountain as the insignia of that great-souled Ananta, and it will be lustrous with a golden podium. [4-40-53]
pūrvasyām diśi nirmāṇam kṛtam tat tridaśeśvaraiḥ |
tataḥ param hemamayaḥ śrīmān udaya parvataḥ || 4-40-54
tasya koṭiḥ divam spṛṣṭvā śata yojanam āyatā |
jātarūpamayī divyā virājati sa vedikā || 4-40-55
54. tat = that; nirmaaNam = construction - of golden pylon of palm tree; puurvasyaam dishi = easterly, direction; tridasha iishvaraiH = by celestial, gods kR^itam = it is done; tataH param = there, after - beyond that; hemamayaH = completely golden; shriimaan udaya parvataH = august one, Undaya [Sunrise,] Mountain; is there; tasya = its; jaataruupamayii = completely golden; divyaa = divine one; sa vedikaa = with, pedestals; shata yojanam aayataa = hundred, yojana, in height; koTiH divam spR^iSTvaa = pinnacle, heavens, touching; viraajati = greatly glitters.
"That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestials gods, and beyond that a completely golden mountain is there, namely the august Udaya Mountain, the Mt. Sunrise, beyond which it is all west. The pinnacles of Mt. Sunrise will be touching heavens for their height is hundred yojana-s and that divine mountain greatly glitters for it is completely golden, and it is pedestalled with suchlike glittering mountains. [4-40-54, 55]
William's Vishnu Purana states: 'here is an interesting reference to the physical phenomena of the apparent diurnal motion of the sun, which sets in the west [America, and reappears again in the east jambu dviipa, the central continent, Asia...'
sālaiḥ tālaiḥ tamālaiḥ ca karṇikāraiḥ ca puṣpitaiḥ |
jātarūpamayaiḥ divyaiḥ śobhate sūrya sannibhaiḥ || 4-40-56
56. jaataruupamayaiH = completely golden - in hue; divyaiH = with beautiful ones; suurya sannibhaiH = sun, similar to; puSpitaiH = well flowered; saalaiH taalaiH tamaalaiH ca = with saala trees, palm trees, Tamala trees, also; karNikaaraiH ca = Karnikaara trees, also; shobhate = divine, splendorous - that Mt. Sunrise will be splendorous.
"That Mt. Sunrise will be splendorous with well flowered and beautiful saala, palm, Tamaala, and Karnikaara trees which are completely golden in hue and which will be glittering similar to sun. [4-40-56]
tatra yojana vistāram ucchritam daśa yojanam |
śṛṃgam saumanasam nāma jātarūpamayam dhruvam || 4-40-57
57. tatra yojana vistaaram = there, yojana, width; dasha yojanam ucChritam = ten, yojana-s, with height [at apex]; jaata ruupa mayam = completely golden; dhruvam = very firm; saumanasam naama shR^ingam = Saumanasa, named, pinnacle - is there.
"On the apex of that Mt. Sunrise there is another pinnacle with one yojana width and ten yojana-s height named Saumanasa, which is completely golden and very firm. [4-40-57]
tatra pūrvam padam kṛtvā purā viṣṇuḥ trivikrame |
dvitīyam śikharam meroḥ cakāra puruṣottamaḥ || 4-40-58
58. puruSa uttamaH = Person, Supreme; viSNuH = Vishnu; puraa trivikrame = earlier, in Trivikrama incarnation; puurvam = firstly; tatra = there - on that peak; padam kR^itvaa = foot - foothold, making; dvitiiyam = second one - foot; meroH shikharam cakaara = on Mt. Meru's, peak, he made - he placed.
"Earlier while treading the three worlds in the incarnation of Trivikrama, the Supreme Person Vishnu made His first foothold on that pinnacle Saumanasa, and the second on the pinnacle of Mt. Meru to tread the heavens. [4-40-58]
uttareṇa parikramya jaṃbū dvīpam divākaraḥ |
dṛśyo bhavati bhūyiṣṭham śikharam tan mahocchrayam || 4-40-59
59. divaakaraH = day-maker [Sun]; jambuu dviipam uttareNa parikramya = to Jambu Dwiipa, by north, on circling; mahat ucChrayam tat shikharam = zenithal, that, pinnacle; [praapya = on reaching]; bhuuyiSTham dR^ishyaH bhavati = by far, discernable, he will be.
"The Sun is by far discernable in Jambu Dwiipa when he rises on this zenithal pinnacle Saumanasa, after he had circled the Jambu Dwiipa in a northerly route. [4-40-59]
The sunrises in the East on the peak of this Saumanasa which is on the zenith of Udaya Mountain. Then he traverses above Jambu Dwiipa, Indian Subcontinent, including South-East Asia, and sets in the West on the mountains called asta adri, ' the Sunset Mountain.' Then he courses northerly on the other side of the globe via Mt. Meru in heavens at the other side of Jambu Dwiipa, only to rise again on this Mt. Sunrise. As Jambu Dwiipa, the subcontinent lies southerly to that heavenly Mt. Meru, and down East-South of Saumanasa, this subcontinent can happily see the First Sun, daily. This gives raise to the Indian name of India, that is Bhaarata, bhaa rataH Sun, delights...' The place where the Sun delights firstly, that is bhaarata...'
tatra vaikhānasā nāma vālakhilyā maharṣayaḥ |
prakāśamānā dṛśyante sūrya varṇāḥ tapasvinaḥ || 4-40-60
60. tatra = there; suurya varNaaH = in sun's, tinge - in resplendence; tapasvinaH = ascetics; vaikhaanasaa naama = Vaikhanasa, of nomenclature; vaalakhilyaa maha rSayaH = Vaalakhilyaa-s [named,] great-sages; prakaashamaanaa = while they are luminous; dR^ishyante = they come into view.
"There the great-sages with nomenclature of Vaikhanasa-s and Vaalakhilyaa-s will come into view with an ambience of luminosity, for those ascetics will be with the resplendence of the Sun. [4-40-60]
Valakhilya-s and Vaikhaanasaa-s are two different groups of ascetics and these sages Vaalakhilyaa-s are sixty thousand in number as said in Vishnu Purana. Their account is given in the opening chapters of Aranya Kanda.
ayam sudarśano dvīpaḥ puro yasya prakāśate |
tasmin tejaḥ ca cakṣuḥ ca sarva prāṇabhṛtām api || 4-40-61
61. yasya puraH = whose, in front of - in the presence of which illumination; sarva praaNa bhR^itaam api = for all, life, sustaining beings, even; cakSuH ca = eyes, even; prakaashate = will be illuminated - enlightened; tat tejaH = that, illumination - illuminating entity of the universe, namely the Sun; yasmin = where - sun will be sojourning; ayam sudarshanaH dviipaH = this is - that one, that Sudarshana, island.
"In the presence of which resplendence the eyes of all living beings will become enlightened, and whereat that illuminating entity of universe, namely the Sun, will be sojourning, this is that Sudarshana Island, named so because it contains Sudarshana lake. [4-40-61]
śailasya tasya pṛṣṭheṣu kaṃdareṣu vaneṣu ca |
rāvaṇaḥ saha vaidehyā mārgitavyaḥ tataḥ tataḥ || 4-40-62
62. tasya shailasya pR^iSTheSu = of that, mountain's - Mt. Udaya, Mt. Sunrise top of [not at behind]; kandareSu vaneSu ca = in caves, in forests, also; tataH tataH = there, and there; raavaNaH vaidehyaa saha = Ravana, together with, Vaidehi; maargitavyaH = shall be searched.
"On the top of that Mt. Sunrise, and even in its cave and forests of that island Ravana is to be searched, together with Seetha. [4-40-62]
kāṃcanasya ca śailasya sūryasya ca mahātmanaḥ |
āviṣṭā tejasā saṃdhyā pūrvā raktā prakāśate || 4-40-63
63. kaancanasya ca shailasya = of golden [hue,] also, of mountain [Udaya, Mt. Sunrise]; suuryasya ca mahaatmanaH = of Sun, also great-souled [the beneficent one]; tejasaa aaviSTaa = with resplendence, imbricates; puurvaa sandhyaa = eastern, aurora; raktaa prakaashate = redly, glows.
"The eastern aurora glows redly because the golden hue of Mt. Sunrise imbricates the resplendence of the beneficent Sun. [4-40-63]
pūrvam etat kṛtam dvāram pṛthivyā bhuvanasya ca |
sūryasya udayanam caiva pūrvā hi eṣā dik ucyate || 4-40-64
64. puurvam etat = in the beginning, this one [Mt. Sunrise]; pR^ithivyaa = of earth; bhuvanasya ca = of heaven, also; dvaaram is the gateway; suuryasya udayanam caiva = Sun's, rising place, also thus; kR^itam = made [ordained by Brahma, the Creator]; as such; eSaa puurvaa dik ucyate hi = this, eastern, quarter, is said, indeed.
"In the beginning Brahma, the Creator, ordained this Mt. Sunrise to be the gateway for the earth to heaven, and even as the rising place for the Sun, as such this is verily said as the 'eastern quarter' of the compass. [4-40-64]
Dharmaakuutam says that Maha Bharata defines these quarters in detail: anena purva nirmita dviipa yogaat vaa puurvam suuryasya tatra darshanaad vaa iyam dik puurve iti ucyata iti uktam | ittham ca puurvasya dishaH itaraasaam ca dishaam nirvacanam udyoga parve -dk - yasmaat udayate puurvam sarva loka pradiipaka || savitaa yatra saadhyaanaam prathamam vartate tapaH | mahaa bhaarata
tasya śalasya pṛṣṭheṣu nirjhareṣu guhāsu ca |
rāvaṇaḥ saha vaidehyā mārgatavyā tataḥ tataḥ || 4-40-65
65. tasya shailasya pR^iSTheSu = of that, mountain's, on peaks; nirjhareSu guhaasu ca = in rapids, caverns, also; raavaNaH = Ravana; saha vaidehyaa = together with, Vaidehi; tataH tataH = there, there; maargatavyaa = be ransacked.
"Ransack that mountain's peak, even thereabout the rapids and caverns of that mountain for Vaidehi, and even for Ravana. [4-40-65]
tataḥ param agamyā syāt dik pūrvā tridaśa āvṛtā |
rahitā candra sūryābhyām adṛśyā timira āvṛtā || 4-40-66
66. tataH param = from there, beyond; tridasha aavR^itaa = by gods, hemmed in - gather; candra suuryaabhyaam = without, Moon, Sun, - both of them; rahitaa = without - void of; timira aavR^itaa = by oblivion, hedged in; such a; puurvaa dik = easterly, quarter; a gamyaa syaat = not, passable, it will be; a dR^ishyaa = not, discernable - it will be imperceivable.
"Beyond Mt. Sunrise the eastern quarter is impassable. It will be hemmed in with gods since it the gateway to heaven, and everything is imperceivable hedged in oblivion, since it will be void of both Sun and Moon. [4-40-66]
śaileṣu teṣu sarveṣu kaṃdareṣu vaneṣu ca |
ye ca na uktā mayoddeśā viceyā teṣu jānakī || 4-40-67
67. teSu shaileSu = in those, mountains; sarveSu kandareSu vaneSu ca = in all, in caverns, in forests, even; mayaa ye uddeshaaH = by me, those, that are indicated; na uktaa ca = not, said, also; teSu jaanakii viceyaa = in them, Janaki, shall be searched.
"Janaki shall be scouted out on all those mountains, caverns and forests that are indicated by me, and even at places that are not indicated by me. [4-40-67]
etāvat vānaraiḥ śakyam gantum vānara puṃgavāḥ |
abhāskaram amaryādam na jānīmaḥ tataḥ param || 4-40-68
68. vaanara pungavaaH = oh, vanara-s, the best; etaavat = up to there; vaanaraiH gantum shakyam = by vanara-s, to go, it is possible; a bhaaskaram = without, sun [sunless]; a maryaadam = not, with boundaries [boundless realms]; about them; tataH param = there, after - that are there; na jaaniimaH = not, we know - I do not know.
"It is possible for the vanara-s to go only up to there, oh, best vanara-s, and we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond. [4-40-68]
abhigamya tu vaidehīm nilayam rāvaṇasya ca |
māse pūrṇe nivartadhvam udayam prāpya parvatam || 4-40-69
69. udayam parvatam praapya = Udaya [Sunrise,] mountain, on attaining at; vaidehiim = for Vaidehi; raavaNasya nilayam ca = of Ravana, residency, also; abhigamya = on reaching out - on finding; maase = a month; a puurNe = without, completion [within a month]; nivartadhvam = you shall comeback.
"You shall comeback within a month on finding out Vaidehi and the residency of Ravana after your reaching Mt. Sunrise. [4-40-69]
ūrdhvam māsāt na vastavyam vasan vadhyo bhaven mama |
siddha arthāḥ saṃnivartadhvam adhigamya ca maithilīm || 4-40-70
70. maasaat uurdhvam = than a month, above - after more than a month; na vastavyam = not, to stay behind; vasan = if stayed behind; mama vadhyaH bhavet = to me, killable, he becomes; the words killable, executable, eliminable, eradicable are not comfortable. Hence, 'I have to exercise coupe de grace,' because it is not sure killing, but with some options; siddha arthaaH = on becoming accomplished, of purpose; maithiliim adhigamya ca = Maithili, on reaching - exploring for her; sam nivartadhvam = [you all] verily, shall return.
"And none shall stay behind for more than a month, and if anyone stays I have to exercise coup de grace. So, you shall return with your purpose accomplished in exploring for Maithili. [4-40-70]
mahendra kāṃtām vana ṣaṇḍa maṇḍitām
diśam caritvā nipuṇena vānarāḥ |
avāpya sītām raghu vaṃśaja priyām
tato nivṛttāḥ sukhino bhaviṣyatha || 4-40-71
71. vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; mahendra kaantaam = by Mahendra, cherished; vana SaNDa maNDitaam = forests, groves, circuited by - decorated by; such a; disham = quarter - eastern quarter; nipuNena caritvaa = expertly, on treading - on searching; raghu vamsha ja = Raghu's, dynasty's, born in [one who is born in Raghu's, dynasty, Rama]; priyaam = [Rama's dear [wife]; siitaam avaapya = Seetha, on getting - finding; tataH nivR^ittaaH = from there, on returning; sukhinaH bhaviSyatha = happily, livelong.
"On searching the eastern quarter expertly, which quarter is cherished by no less than Mahendra and which is circuited by the grooves of forests, and on attaining Seetha, the dear wife of the one born in Raghu's dynasty, namely Rama, and on returning from that Far East, you all may livelong happily." Thus Sugreeva addressed the vanara-s that are being sent to East under the leadership of Vinata. [4-40-71]
This is the irrefutable sugriiva aaj~na 'Sugreeva's order,' and it always annexes the wording 'you will be killed, executed, or eradicated, if you fail to accomplish...' which indicates his style as an autocratic disciplinarian of his subordinates in getting things done for his master, Rama. And he himself becomes one such subordinate before his masters, Rama and Lakshmana. This is the kainkarya 'dedication.' Rama's appreciation is winnable with such 'dedication to duty, friendship, of to given word.
Lakshmana's dedication is of the sort of daasya bhaava 'dedication in servitude...' while Sugreeva's is sevaa bhaava 'a dedication in servitorship...' and Hanuma's bhakti bhaava 'dedication in reverence...' a true devotee, and thus in whatever way one shall strive, everything culminates in one selfless entity, the Supreme Person..
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe catvāriṃśaḥ sargaḥ
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