Sugreeva approaches Rama and falls prostrate on Rama's feet as though seeking pardon for the delay. Rama gets him up and mildly admonishes him. Then Sugreeva while giving the account of legions that are coming in, informs Rama that all the Vanara armies on earth are coming for confronting Ravana in battle. On asserting that Sugreeva is at his job, Rama is pleased heartily.
pratigṛhya ca tat sarvam upānayam upāhṛtam |
vānarān sāntvayitvā ca sarvān eva vyasarjayat || 4-38-1
1. upaahR^itam = that are brought in; tat sarvam upaanayam = that, all gifts - all those gifts from Himalayas; pratigR^ihya ca = on receiving, also; saantvayitvaa ca = on speaking good words - approbation, also; sarvaan eva = all of them, thus; vaanaraan vyasarjayat = Vanara-s, left them off - dispersed them.
On receiving all those gifts brought in by the Vanara-s from Himalayas, Sugreeva dispersed them all with approbation. [4-38-1]
visarjayitvā sa harīn sahasrān tān kṛta karmaṇaḥ |
mene kṛtārtham ātmānam rāghavam ca mahābalam || 4-38-2
2. saH = he that Sugreeva; kR^ita karmaNaH = who effectuated, their errand; sahasraan taan hariin visarjayitvaa = thousands of, them monkeys, on dispersing; aatmaanam = for himself; mahaabalam raaghavam ca = great-mighty, Raghava, also; kR^ita artham = achieved, aspirations; mene = deemed.
On dispersing thousands of monkeys who have effectuated their errand of summoning all monkeys on the earth, Sugreeva deemed that his own aspirations and as well as those of that great-mighty Rama are achieved. [4-38-2]
sa lakṣmaṇo bhīma balam sarva vānara sattamam |
abravīt praśritam vākyam sugrīvam saṃpraharṣayan || 4-38-3
kiṣkiṃdhāyā viniṣkrāma yadi te saumya rocate |
3, 4a. saH lakSmaNaH = he that, Lakshmana; bhiima balam = indomitably, mighty; sarva vaanara sattamam = of all, vanara-s, an indomitable one - Sugreeva; sugriivam = to Sugreeva; sam pra harSayan = to gladden; prashritam vaakyam abraviit = courteous, sentence, spoke to; saumya = oh, gentle one; te rocate yadi = to you, it pleases, if - if it pleases you; kiSkindhaayaa vi niSkraama = from Kishkindha, verily, make an exit.
Gladdening Sugreeva who is indomitably mighty and the indomitable one among all vanara-s, Lakshmana spoke these courteous words to him, "oh, gentle one, if it please you, make an exit from Kishkindha." [4-38-3, 4a]
tasya tat vacanam śrutvā lakṣmaṇasya subhāṣitam || 4-38-4
sugrīvaḥ parama prīto vākyam etat uvāca ha |
evam bhavatu gacchāmaḥ stheyam tvat śāsane mayā || 4-38-5
4b, 5. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; su bhaaSitam = well, said - courteous words; tasya lakSmaNasya = of his, Lakshmana's; tat vacanam shrutvaa = that, sentence, on hearing; parama priitaH = while extremely, pleased; etat vaakyam uvaaca ha = this, sentence, spoke, indeed; evam bhavatu = that way, it will be - so be it; gacChaamaH = let us go; mayaa = by me; tvat = in your; shaasane = command; stheyam = remain biddable - amenable to.
On hearing the courteous words of Lakshmana Sugreeva is extremely pleased and he indeed spoke this sentence to him, "So be it. Let us go. I remain biddable in your command." [4-38-4b, 5]
tam evam uktvā sugrīvo lakṣmaṇam śubha lakṣaṇam |
visarjayāmāsa tadā tārā adyāḥ ca eva yoṣitaḥ || 4-38-6
6. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; shubha lakSaNam = to one with auspicious, features; tam lakSmaNam = to him, to Lakshmana; evam uktvaa = thus, on speaking; tadaa = then; taaraa aadyaH = to Tara, and other; yoSitaH eva ca = females, thus, also; visarjayaamaasa = started to disperse.
Sugreeva speaking thus to Lakshmana, whose person itself is auspicious, then bade adieu to Lady Tara and the other female vanara-s. [4-38-6]
ehi iti ucchaiḥ hari varān sugrīvaḥ samudāharat |
tasya tad vacanam śrutvā harayaḥ śīghram āyayuḥ || 4-38-7
baddha aṃjali puṭāḥ sarve ye syuḥ strī darśana kṣamāḥ |
7, 8a. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; ehi = come here; iti ucChaiH = thus, sharply; hari varaan = at monkey, the best ones; sam udaaharat = shouted for; tasya tat vacanam shrutvaa = his, that, word [call,] on hearing; ye = which of those; strii darshana kSamaaH = at ladies, to see, who are spared; syuH = will be there; sarve harayaH = all of those, monkeys; baddha anjali puTaaH = with adjoined, palms, fold; shiighram aayayuH = swiftly, came.
Sugreeva shouted sharply saying, "come here," at the best monkey-adjutants and on hearing his call all of those monkeys that are spared to see the ladies of palace chambers have come there swiftly with their palms adjoined in supplication. [4-38-7]
tān uvāca tataḥ prāptān rājā arka sadṛśa prabhaḥ || 4-38-8
upasthāpayata kṣipram śibikām mama vānarāḥ |
8b, 9a. tataH = then; arka sadR^isha prabhaH = sun, similar, in refulgence; raajaa = king; praaptaan taan uvaaca = [monkeys] who arrived, to them, spoke; vaanaraaH = oh, vanara-s; mama shibikaam = my, palanquin; kSipram upa sthaapayata = immediately, at hand, be positioned.
Then the king Sugreeva whose refulgence is kindred to that of sun has said to those vanara-s that have arrived there, "oh, vanara-s, immediately position my palanquin before me." [4-38-8b, 9a]
śrutvā tu vacanam tasya harayaḥ śīghra vikramāḥ || 4-38-9
samupasthāpayāmāsuḥ śibikām priya darśanām |
9b, 10a. shiighra vikramaaH = in agility, adept ones; harayaH = monkeys; tasya vacanam shrutvaa = his, words, on hearing; priya darshanaam shibikaam = an exquisite one, in its appearance, such a palanquin; sam upa sthaapayaamaasuH = readily, nearby, started to position.
On hearing his words those monkeys who are the adept ones in their agility right away brought an exquisite palanquin and readily started to position it at his nearby. [4-38-9b, 10a]
tām upasthāpitām dṛṣṭvā śibikām vānarādhipaḥ || 4-38-10
lakṣmaṇa āruhyatām śīghram iti saumitrim abravīt |
10b, 11a. vaanara adhipaH = monkeys, king - Sugreeva; upasthaapitaam taam shibikaam dR^iSTvaa = nearby, positioned, that, palanquin, on seeing; lakSmaNa shiighram aaruhyataam = Lakshmana, quickly, mount it; iti saumitrim abraviit = thus, to Soumitri, said.
And on seeing palanquin positioned at his nearby the king of monkeys Sugreeva said to Saumitri, "you mount it, Lakshmana, be quick." [4-38-10b, 11a]
iti uktvā kāṃcanam yānam sugrīvaḥ sūrya sannibham || 4-38-11
bahubhiḥ haribhiḥ yuktam āruroha sa lakṣmaṇaḥ |
11b, 12a. sugriivaH iti uktvaa = Sugreeva, so, saying; suurya sannibham = sun, similar in shine [palanquin]; bahubhiH haribhiH yuktam = many, monkeys, having [as carriers]; kaancanam yaanam = golden, carriage; sa lakSmaNaH aaruroha = with Lakshmana, climbed into it.
Saying so Sugreeva got into that golden carriage which in shine is like the sun and which has many monkey-carriers along with Lakshmana. [4-38-11b, 12a]
pāṇḍureṇa ātapatreṇa dhriyamāṇena mūrdhani || 4-38-12
śuklaiḥ ca vāla vyajanaiḥ dhūyamānaiḥ samaṃtataḥ |
śaṃkha bherī ninādaiḥ ca vandibhiḥ ca abhivanditaḥ || 4-38-13
niryayau prāpya sugrīvo rājya śriyam anuttamām |
12b, 13, 14a. sugriivaH = Sugreeva; an uttamaam = un, excelled one; raajya shriyam praapya = of kingdom, magnificence, on achieving; vandibhiH abhi vanditaH ca = by panegyrists, highly extolling, also; muurdhani = atop head; dhriyamaaNena = held on [as shade]; paaNDureNa aata patreNa = white, sun, shade - by parasol; samantataH = all over; dhuuyamaanaiH shuklaiH vaala vyajanaiH ca = being fanned, white, with fur-fans, also; shankha bherii ni naadaiH ca = of conch-shell, of drums, with high, sounds, also; nir yayau = out, started.
Sugreeva who achieved the kingdom of unexcelled magnificence has started out that magnificently to the high extolment of panegyrists, while a white royal-parasol spread overhead the palanquin, white fur-fans fanning him from all over, and while conch-shells are blowing loud and drums are drumming high. [4-38-12b, 13, 14a]
sa vānara śataiḥ tīṣkṇaiḥ bahubhiḥ śastra pāṇibhiḥ || 4-38-14
parikīrṇo yayau tatra yatra rāmo vyavasthitaḥ |
14b, 15a. saH = he - Sugreeva; shastra paaNibhiH = weapons, in hands - wielders; tiiSkNaiH = confrontational ones; bahubhiH vaanara shataiH = with many, vanara-s, along with, hundreds of; pari kiirNaH = around, spreading - surrounded with; raamaH yatra vyavasthitaH [vi ava sthitaH] = Rama, where he is, ensconced; tatra yayau = to there, they travelled.
Sugreeva travelled thus surrounded with many hundreds of vanara-s, who look confrontational and who wielded weapons, to the place where Rama is staying. [4-38-14b, 15a]
sa tam deśam anuprāpya śreṣṭham rāma niṣevitam || 4-38-15
avātarat mahātejāḥ śibikāyāḥ sa lakṣmaṇaḥ |
15b, 16a. mahaatejaaH = great-resplendent one, Sugreeva; sa lakSmaNaH = along with, Lakshmana; saH = he - Sugreeva; raama niSevitam = by Rama, adored - place adored by Rama while staying there; shreSTham tam desham = choicest, that, province; anupraapya = on attaining; shibikaayaaH = from palanquin; avaa tarat = down, climbed.
On reaching the province where Rama is staying in all his adoration to that place, the great-resplendent Sugreeva descended the palanquin along with Lakshmana. [4-38-15b, 16a]
āsādya ca tato rāmam kṛta aṃjali puṭo abhavat || 4-38-16
kṛta aṃjalau sthite tasmin vānarāḥ ca abhavan tathā |
16b, 17a. tataH = then; raamam aasaadya ca = Rama, on reaching, also; kR^ita anjali puTaH abhavat = making, adjoined, palm-fold, he became; tasmin = his; kR^ita anjalau sthite = making, palms adjoined, when he remained; vaanaraaH ca = [all of the] monkeys, also; tathaa = like that; abhavat = they became - all stood with adjoined palms.
When Sugreeva reached Rama he stood still with adjoined-palms, and when he remained still with palm-fold all the other monkeys stood still with palm-fold. [4-38-16b, 17a]
taṭākam iva tam dṛṣṭvā rāmaḥ kuḍmala paṃkajam || 4-38-17
vānarāṇām mahat sainyam sugrīve prītimān abhūt |
17b, 18a. raamaH = Rama; kuDmala pankajam = with buds, of lotuses; tam = it [vanara fore]; taTaakam iva = a lake, as if - it is; vaanaraaNaam mahat sainyam = of Vaanaras, massive, army; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; sugriive priitimaan abhuut = in Sugreeva, exultant, he became.
Rama became exultant of Sugreeva on seeing the massive army of Vanara-s which is just like a vast lake plethoric with buds of lotuses. [4-38-17b, 18a]
Terrible looking monkeys are compared with delicate lotus buds - is this a simile at all? Not So. The 'sense' dhvani in this is like this. The folded and adjoined palms of all the monkeys are looking like lotus buds. While adjoining palms they raised hands over their heads, where their bodies are appearing similar to the stems of lotuses, and folded palms are like unfolded lotus buds. Rama is gladdened because the lake called Sugreeva contains these many prayerful devotees who are praying with lotus-bud-like folded palms.
pādayoḥ patitam mūrdhnā tam utthāpya harīśvaram || 4-38-18
premṇā ca bahumānāt ca rāghavaḥ pariṣasvaje |
18b, 19a. raaghavaH = Raghava; muurdhnaa paadayoH patitam = with head - headlong, on feet [of Rama,] fallen; tam hariishvaram = him, monkey's king - Sugreeva; utthaapya = on raising up; premNaa ca bahumaanaat ca = with care, and, credit, also; pari Sa svaje = tightly, hugged him.
Raghava raised and tightly hugged the king of monkeys Sugreeva, who has prostrated himself with his head touching the feet of Rama, with care and credit. [4-38-18b, 19a]
pariṣvajya ca dharmātmā niṣīda iti tato abravīt || 4-38-19
niṣaṇṇam tam tato dṛṣṭvā kṣitau rāmo abravīt tataḥ |
19b, 20a. tataH = then; dharmaatmaa raamaH = virtue-souled one, Rama; pariSvajya ca = on hugging, also; tataH = then; niSiida iti abraviit = be seated, thus, said - to Sugreeva; tataH = then; kSitau niSaNNam = on ground, who is sitting - Sugreeva; tam dR^iSTvaa abraviit = him, on seeing, spoke.
After hugging Sugreeva that virtue-souled Rama then said to him, "be seated." Then on seeing Sugreeva who took seat on ground Rama spoke to him. [4-38-19b, 20a]
dharmam artham ca kāmam ca kāle yaḥ tu niṣevate || 4-38-20
vibhajya satatam vīra sa rājā harisattama |
20b, 21a. viira = oh, valiant one; hari sattama = oh, monkey's, the best; yaH = he who; satatam = always; dharmam artham ca kaamam ca = probity, prosperity, also, pleasure-seeking, also; kaale = according to time; vibhajya = by dividing; niSevate = devote oneself to; saH raajaa = he [alone,] is the king.
"He alone is the king, oh, valiant Sugreeva, who always divides time for devoting himself to probity, prosperity and pleasure-seeking. [4-38-20b, 21a]
Say, mornings for duty-bound affairs, afternoons for financial matters, and nights for pleasure-seeking programs.
hitvā dharmam tathā artham ca kāmam yaḥ tu niṣevate || 4-38-21
sa vṛkṣa agre yathā suptaḥ patitaḥ pratibudhyate |
21b, 22a. yaH = he who; dharmam tathaa artham ca = probity, like that, prosperity, also; hitvaa = on discarding; kaamam tu niSevate = to pleasure-seeking, alone, devotes to; saH = he; vR^ikSa agre suptaH yathaa = on tree, top, one who slept, as with; patitaH prati budhyate = after falling, in turn, wakes up [awakens.]
"If one devotes himself to pleasure-seeking alone, casting off the probity and like that the prosperity also, he is like the one who slept on a treetop who awakens only after falling down. [4-38-21b, 22a]
An out-and-out pleasure-seeker wakes up only when he runs into troubles. Till such time he uses slender branches and tender leaves available on the infirm treetop, called his pleasuring area, as his cushion bed and foam pillows.
amitrāṇām vadhe yukto mitrāṇām saṃgrahe rataḥ || 4-38-22
trivarga phala bhoktā ca rājā dharmeṇa yujyate |
22b, 23a. a mitraaNaam vadhe yuktaH = un, friendly ones, in killing, bound up in; mitraaNaam sangrahe rataH = of friends, forgathering, bound up with; such a; raajaa = king; dharmeNa yujyate = with righteousness, enjoined with; tri varga phala bhoktaa ca = three, fold [probity, prosperity, pleasures] fruit, enjoyer, also - he becomes.
"And the king who is bound up in eliminating unfriendly ones and bound up with forgathering friends, he will be enjoined with righteousness, and he even becomes the real enjoyer of the fruit of threefold virtues, namely dharma, artha, kaama - probity, prosperity and pleasures. [4-38-22b, 23a]
A sheer pleasure-seeker will be awakened when he suddenly falls from heights of pleasures, may it be due any factor like wealth, age or destitution. This happens if only he summarily rejects the other two, probity in life and pursuance to acquire real and everlasting prosperity, in lifetime. And a real king worth his kingship is the one who practises and enjoys all the threefold virtues, namely probity, prosperity and pleasures at appropriate timings and at appreciable limits, unlike Sugreeva who is indulgent in only one among those three, namely pleasures.
udyoga samayaḥ tu eṣa prāptaḥ śatru niṣūdana || 4-38-23
saṃciṃtyatām hi piṃgeśa haribhiḥ saha maṃtribhiḥ |
23b, 24a. shatru niSuudana = oh, enemy, eliminator; pinga iisha = oh, monkeys, king of - Sugreeva; eSa udyoga samayaH praaptaH = this is, for endeavour, time, has chanced; mantribhiH haribhiH saha = with monkeys, ministers, along with - jointly; sam cintyataam = let it be thought over; hi = indeed.
"Oh, enemy-eliminator, time for endeavour has come, oh, king of monkeys, let this be discussed along with your monkey-ministers." Thus Rama spoke to Sugreeva. [4-38-23b, 24a]
evam uktaḥ tu sugrīvo rāmam vacanam abravīt || 4-38-24
pranaṣṭā śrīḥ ca kīrtiḥ ca kapi rājyam ca śāśvatam |
tvat prasādāt mahābāho punaḥ prāptam idam mayā || 4-38-25
24b, 25. evam uktaH tu sugriivaH = thus, who is spoken to, on his part, Sugreeva; raamam vacanam abraviit = to Rama, words, said; mahaabaahuH = oh dextrous one; pra naSTaa shriiH ca kiirtiH ca = verily, mislaid, prosperity, also, popularity, also; shaashvatam = everlasting one; idam kapi raajyam ca = this, monkeys, kingdom, also; mayaa = by me; tvat prasaadaat = by your, beneficence, punaH praaptam = again, achieved.
When Rama addressed him in this way, Sugreeva said these words to Rama, "oh, dextrous Rama, by your beneficence I have repossessed prosperity, popularity and this everlasting kingdom of monkeys which are actually mislaid. [4-38-24b, 25]
tava deva prasadāt ca bhrātuḥ ca jayatām vara |
kṛtam na pratikuryāt yaḥ puruṣāṇām sa dūṣakaḥ || 4-38-26
26. deva = oh, god; jayataam vara = oh, among victors, the best one; tava = your; and; bhraatuH ca = [your] brother's; prasadaat = by benevolence; kR^itam = done; [upakaaram = favour]; yaH = he, who; na prati kuryaat = doest not, in turn, does - does not requite; saH puruSaaNaam duuSakaH = he, among people, is a vitiator [of probity.]
"Oh, god, by your and your brother's benevolence alone I regained what I lost, oh, victorious one among victors, and he who does not requite the favour that has been done for him will become the vitiator of probity among men. [4-38-26]
ete vānara mukhyāḥ ca śataśaḥ śatru sūdana |
prāptāḥ ca ādāya balinaḥ pṛthivyām sarva vānarān || 4-38-27
ṛkṣāḥ ca vānarāḥ śūrā golāṃgūlāḥ ca rāghava |
kāṃtāra vana durgāṇām abhijñā ghora darśanāḥ || 4-38-28
27. shatru suudana = oh, enemy, subjugator; shatashaH = hundreds are; ete vaanara mukhyaaH ca = these, Vanara, chiefs, also; pR^ithivyaam = on earth available; balinaH sarva vaanaraan aadaaya = forceful ones, all of the, Vanara-s, on fetching; praaptaaH ca = they came, also - they just returned on forgathering.
"These are the hundreds of vanara chiefs, oh, enemy-subjugator, who have just returned on forgathering all of the forceful vanara-s on earth. [4-38-27]
deva gandharva putrāḥ ca vānarāḥ kāma rūpiṇaḥ |
svaiḥ svaiḥ parivṛtāḥ sainyaiḥ vartante pathi rāghava || 4-38-29
28. raaghava = one born in Raghu's dynasty; raaghava = oh, Raghava; abhij~naaH = knowers [experts of places that are] kaantaara = impenetrable forests; vana = woodlands; dur gaaNaam = not, passable - say mountains; ghora darshanaaH = those that are dreadful, in look; R^ikSaaH ca = bears, also; vaanaraaH = monkeys; shuuraaH golaanguulaaH ca = brave ones; baboons, also; deva gandharva putraaH ca = of gods, of gandharva-s, sons, also; kaama ruupiNaH = by wish, guise-changers; such; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; svaiH svaiH sainyaiH = their, their [their own,] with forces; parivR^itaaH = fenced round; pathi vartante = in path, are on the move.
"Oh, Raghava, the legatee of Raghu, those vanara-s with dreadful appearance, and who are the experts in permeating the impenetrable forests, woodlands and impassable mountains are coming. And the bears, monkeys and brave baboons who are the children of gods and gandharva-s, and who change their guise just by their wish are halfway through on their path duly fenced round with one's own forces. [4-38-28, 29]
śataiḥ śata sahasraiḥ ca koṭibhiḥ ca plavaṃgamāḥ |
ayutaiḥ ca āvṛtā vīrā śaṃkubhiḥ ca paraṃtapa || 4-38-30
arbudaiḥ arbuda śataiḥ madhyaiḥ ca antaiḥ ca vānarāḥ |
samudrāḥ ca parārdhāḥ ca harayo hari yūthapāḥ || 4-38-31
āgamiṣyanti te rājan mahendra sama vikramāḥ |
megha parvata saṃkāśā meru vindhya kṛta ālayāḥ || 4-38-32
30, 31, 32. paran tapa = oh, enemy-flamer; raajan = oh, king; viira = oh, valiant one; plavan gamaaH = fly-jumpers; shataiH = in hundreds; shata sahasraiH ca = in hundred, thousands, even - in lakhs; tathaa = likewise; koTibhiH ca = in crores [millions]; ayutaiH ca = in legion named aayuta; shankubhiH ca = with legions named shanku-s, also; arbudaiH = with legions named arbuda; arbuda shataiH = such arbuda-s, hundreds of; madhyaiH ca = with legions named madhya-s, also; antaiH ca = with legions named antaH-s; aavR^itaa = surrounded with such legions; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; [pathi vartante = are on the path]; samudraaH ca paraardhaaH ca = with legions named as - samudra-s, also, paraardha-s; harayaH = monkeys; mahendra sama vikramaaH = Mahendra, [vanara-s who] equal, in valour; megha parvata samkaashaa = clouds, mountains, similar to; meru vindhya kR^ita aalayaaH = on Mt. Meru, Mt. Vindhya, who made, their domicile; te = for you for your purpose; hari yuuthapaaH = monkey, commanders; aagamiSyanti = will be coming.
"Oh, king, some of the fly-jumpers that are arriving are with a hundred-legion, some with a hundred-thousand legion, and even some with millions of legions, while the some are on the way with specific legions like aayuta-s, shanku-s. And oh, valiant one Rama, some with legions of arbuda-s, and some with hundreds of arbuda-s, some with madhya-s, and some with antaH-s are coming. Some more are coming with samudra-s and some with paraardha-s legions of monkeys. Oh, enemy-flamer Rama, the legions of monkeys along with their monkey commanders who are viable to Mahendra in valour, and who compare with massive clouds and mountains, and who domiciled on Mt. Meru and Mt. Vindhya will be coming in your service. [4-38-30, 31, 32]
In the Indian counting system hundred thousands becomes one lakh, [1,00, 000.] One hundred lakhs become one crore, [10,000,000.] The ancient Indian legionaries have names like aayuta 'one thousand per unit...' shanku 'one lakh crores...' a trillion - 1012. One arbuda 'thousand shanku-s...' madhyama 'ten arbuda-s...' antam 'ten madhyama-s...' samudra 'twenty antya-s...' paraardha 'thirty samudra-s...' Rama Tilaka says that by giving these numbers it is to be understood that 'innumerable monkeys are coming...' But others hold the view that the ancients have organised military pattern hence particular nomenclature is given to each, apart from the generalisation of Rama Tilaka.
Govindaraja takes up the enumeration as given in Indian Astrology, which multiplies ten times each, as said in verse:
ekam dasha shatam asmaat sahasram ayutam tataH param lakSham | prayutam koTim atha arbudam vR^inde kharvam nikharvam ca | tasmaat mahaa sarojam shankum saritaam patim tvat antam | madhyam paraadham aaruuhya atha uttaram dasha guNam tathaa j~neyam || 'one, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, one lakh, prayutam 'ten lakhs or a million, then a crore and then an arbuda ten-crore or a billion, and then ten arbuda-s makes one bR^inda and ten brinda-s make one kharva and ten kharva-s make one nikharva and ten nikharva-s make one mahaa padma and ten mahaa padma-s make one shanku 'one lakh crores or a trillion, and ten shanku-s make one samudra and then ten samudra-s make one anta and ten anta-s make a madhyama and ten madhyama-s make one paraardha it may be known thus...
By this, the nomenclature of million, billion and trillion was there in ancient days and this may be observed by the names: prayutam 'a million...' arbuda 'a billion..' and shanku 'a trillion...' and this exactly relates to the decimal system which is based on the number ten, in which the smaller units are related to the principal units as powers of ten [units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.]
te tvām abhigamiṣyanti rākṣasam yoddhum āhave |
nihatya rāvaṇam yuddhe hi ānayiṣyanti maithilīm || 4-38-33
33. [ye = which of those vanara-s]; yuddhe yoddhum = in war, to combat - whoi are combative; aahave raakSasam raavaNam nihatya = in war, demon, Ravana, on killing; maithiliim aanayiSyanti = Maithili, who can bring her; te = such of those vanara-s; tvaam abhi gamiSyanti = you, they will be approaching; hi = surely.
"Those vanara-s who are combative in wars, and those who can fetch Maithili on eliminating Ravana in war, will be approaching you soon." Thus Sugreeva informed Rama. [4-38-33]
tataḥ samudyogam avekṣya vīryavān
hari pravīrasya nideśa vartinaḥ |
babhūva harṣāt vasudhā adhipa ātmajaḥ
prabuddha nīla utpala tulya darśanaḥ || 4-38-34
34. tataH = then; viiryavaan = valorous one - Rama; vasudhaa adhipa aatmajaH = of earth, king's, son - prince Rama; nidesha vartinaH = under order [of Rama,] operating; hari pra viirasya = monkey, prominent, valorous one's - Sugreeva's; sam udyogam = perfect, effort; avekSya = on observing; harSaat = by jubilance; pra buddha niila utpala tulya = well, bloomed, blue, Costus - a kind of Indian lotus, similar; darshanaH = with such eyes - not appearance in general; babhuuva = became.
Then on seeing the perfect effort made by the prominent one among all monkeys, Sugreeva, who is operating under his control, the eyes of valorous prince Rama are widened in jubilance, like the well-bloomed blue-lotuses. [4-38-34]
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe aṣṭā triṃśaḥ sargaḥ
|Top of Page||1||2||3||4|
© Aug, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]