Sugreeva is disturbed at the unfounded anger of Lakshmana and wanted his ministers to elicit the cause for that anger. Hanuma informs Sugreeva that causing delay is the only fault of Sugreeva, for which Sugreeva is advised to pray for the mercy of Lakshmana personally.
aṃgadasya vacaḥ śrutvā sugrīvaḥ sacivaiḥ saha |
lakṣmaṇam kupitam śrutvā mumoca āsanam ātmavān || 4-32-1
1. aatmavaan sugriivaH = sensible one, Sugreeva; sacivaiH saha = ministers [others like Hanuma, apart from Plaksha, Prabhava,] along with; angadasya vacaH shrutvaa = Angada's, words, on hearing; lakSmaNam kupitam shrutvaa = Lakshmana, as angered one, on hearing - on knowing; aasanam mumoca = seat, released - got up from seat.
On hearing the words of Angada along with those of his ministers, namely Hanuma, Plaksha, and Prabhava et al, also on knowing that Lakshmana is angered, that sensible Sugreeva stirred from seat. [4-32-1]
sa ca tān abravīt vākyam niścitya guru lāghavam |
maṃtrajñān maṃtra kuśalo maṃtreṣu pariniṣṭhitaḥ || 4-32-2
2. mantra kushalaH = in strategy, an expert; mantreSu pariniSThitaH = in strategies, diligent one; saH = he, Sugreeva; guru laaghavam = weightiness, lightness [pros and cons]; nishcitya = on discriminating; mantraj~naan = to strategists [to ministers]; taan vaakyam abraviit = to them, sentence, spoke.
On discriminating the pros and cons Sugreeva spoke this sentence to the strategist-ministers, for he himself is an expert in strategies and a diligent one in carrying out those strategies. [4-32-2]
na me dur vyāhṛtam kiṃcit na api me dur anuṣṭhitam |
lakṣmaṇo rāghava bhrātā kruddhaḥ kim iti ciṃtaye || 4-32-3
3. me = to me - by me; kimcit = in the least; na dur vyaahR^itam = not, ill, spoken; me = by me; dur anuSThitam api = evil, undertaken, even; na = is not there; raaghava bhraataa lakSmaNaH = Raghava's, brother, Lakshmana; kim kruddhaH = why, angered - take offence; iti cintaye = thus, it is being thought - by me.
"I have not in the least spoken any ill of them, nor committed any misdeed in their respect, thus I am thinking why should Raghava's brother Lakshmana take offence at me? [4-32-3]
asuhṛdbhiḥ mama amitraiḥ nityam antara darśibhiḥ |
mama doṣān asaṃbhūtān śrāvito rāghavānujaḥ || 4-32-4
4. raaghava anujaH = Raghava's, younger brother is; a su hR^idbhiH = un, kind, hearted ones - by unsympathetic rivals; who; nityam = always; antara darshibhiH = for scope, searchers - by opportunists, fabricators; mama = my; a mitraiH = un, friendly ones - rivals; mama = my; a sambhuutaan = non, existent - fabricated; doSaan = faults; shraavitaH = made to listen - ear-filled.
"Unsympathetic rivals of mine, who will always be snoopy for scope, might have ear-filled Raghava's brother about the fabricated faults of mine. [4-32-4]
atra tāvat yathā buddhi sarvaiḥ eva yathā vidhi |
bhāvasya niścayaḥ tāvat vijñeyo nipuṇam śanaiḥ || 4-32-5
5. atra = in here - in this situation; taavat = on your part; sarvaiH eva = by you all, thus; yathaa buddhi = according to, [your] perspective; yathaa vidhi = according to, proper way - meticulously; bhaavasya = attitude [of Lakshmana, or, issue of fact]; nishcayaH = determination; nipuNam = diligently; shanaiH = steadily; vij~neyaH taavat = find out, firstly.
"In this situation, all of you on your part and according to your perspectives have to find out firstly and meticulously about the attitude of Lakshmana, along with a steady but diligent determination thereof. [4-32-5]
na khalu asti mama trāso lakṣmaṇān na api rāghavāt |
mitram tu asthāna kupitam janayati eva saṃbhramam || 4-32-6
6. mama = to me; lakSmaNaat = from Lakshmana; traasaH na asti khalu = scare, not, is there, definitely; raaghavaat api na = from Raghava even, no; a sthaana = not, founded - unfounded / out of context; kupitam = one who is provoked, angered; mitram tu = friend, but; sambhramam janayati eva = disquiet, giving rise to, alone.
"Definitely there is no fear for me from Lakshmana, not even from Raghava, but an unfounded ire of a friend alone is giving rise to disquiet. [4-32-6]
The word a + sthaana kupitam - a + sthaana kopam, is twofold in its meaning, one is 'unfounded anger' and the other is 'angered out of place, context.' Lakshmana who has so far not visited Kishkindha has darted into Kishkindha and showing his ire here, which is out of context. Lakshmana should have summoned Sugreeva or any other monkey, or he should have come as a calm and collected emissary, and then he can become ireful if Sugreeva rejects any help. But Lakshmana's entry itself is 'unfounded or unreasonable.' This one statement of Sugreeva makes him lofty of virtue in his heart of hearts for he reposed full confidence in Rama and thus fearless of a trusted friend.
sarvathā sukaram mitram duṣkaram pratipālanam |
anityatvāt tu cittānām prītiḥ alpe api bhidyate || 4-32-7
7. sarvathaa = in any way; mitram = a friend is; su karam = easy, to make - easy to befriended; prati paalanam = in turn, to manage; duS karam = not, practicable; cittaanaam = hearts, sentiments; a nityatvaat tu = not, permanent [impermanency, transient nature,] owing to; alpe api = in a trifle, even; priitiH bhidyate = friendliness, splits off.
"It is always practicable to befriend any, but in turn it is impracticable to manage that friendship, even a trifle splits off that friendliness for sentiments are transient. [4-32-7]
ato nimittam trasto aham rāmeṇa tu mahātmanā |
yan mama upakṛtam śakyam pratikartum na tan mayā || 4-32-8
8. ataH nimittam = on that, score, aham = I am; mahaatmanaa raameNa tu = from noble-souled, Rama, but; trastaH = flustering; mama = to me; yat upakR^itam = which, favour is made; tat mayaa = for that, by me; prati kartum = to requite; na shakyam = not, possible.
"On that score I am flustering because of the noble-souled Rama, and I cannot possibly requite the favour that has been done to me." So said Sugreeva to his ministers. [4-32-8]
sugrīveṇa evam ukte tu hanumān hari puṃgavaḥ |
uvāca svena tarkeṇa madhye vānara maṃtriṇām || 4-32-9
9. sugriiveNa evam ukte tu = by Sugreeva, that way, while being said, but; hari pungavaH hanumaan = among monkey's, eminent one, Hanuma; vaanara mantriNaam madhye = Vanara, ministers, among; svena tarkeNa = with his own, by logic [with a dint of his expediency]; uvaaca = spoke.
While Sugreeva is saying that way, the eminent-monkey Hanuma spoke with a dint of his own expediency, from among the Vanara ministers. [4-32-9]
sarvathā na etad āścaryam yat tvam harigaṇeśvara |
na vismarasi susnigdham upakāram kṛtam śubham || 4-32-10
10. hari gaNa iishvara = oh, monkey, troops, lord of; tvam = you; su snigdham = with deep regard; kR^itam shubham upakaaram = rendere, advantageous, help; [or, upakaara kR^itam = help, who has rendered - Rama]; na vismarasi = not, forgetting; iti yat = that which point is there; etat = that point; sarvathaa aashcaryam na = in any way, astonishing, it is not.
"In any case, it is not astonishing to say, oh, king of monkey troops, that you with a deep regard have not forgotten the advantageous help rendered to you, since it is natural for you. [4-32-10]
rāghaveṇa tu vīreṇa bhayam utsṛjya dūrataḥ |
tvat priya artham hato vālī śakra tulya parākramaḥ || 4-32-11
11. viireNa raaghaveNa tu = by braving, Raghava, on his part; bhayam duurataH utsR^ijya = [his] fear, distantly, tossing away; tvat priya artham = your, cherish, to fulfil; shakra tulya paraakramaH = Indra, coequal, in valour; hataH vaalii = Vali, killed.
"On his part Raghava tossed off his fear distantly and eliminated Vali, whose valour equals that of Indra, only to fulfil your cherish. [4-32-11]
sarvathā praṇayāt kruddho rāghavo na atra saṃśayaḥ |
bhrātaram saṃprahitavān lakṣmaṇam lakṣmi vardhanam || 4-32-12
12. raaghavaH = Raghava is; sarvathaa praNayaat kruddhaH = anywise, in friendliness, is annoyed; atra samshayaH na = in that, doubt, is not there; bhraataram lakSmi vardhanam lakSmaNam = brother, prosperity, enhancer, Lakshmana; sam prahitavaan = he [Rama] expedited.
"Anywise, by virtue of his friendliness with you Raghava must be annoyed, hence he must have expedited his brother Lakshmana, whose disposition in effect to is enhance prosperity. [4-32-12]
tvam pramatto na jānīṣe kālam kalavidām vara |
phulla sapta cchada śyāmā pravṛttā tu śarat śivā || 4-32-13
13. kala vidaam vara = among time, knowers - a timekeeper, [a person as regards punctuality,] the best; tvam pra mattaH = you were, verily, - on the moon, ecstatic; kaalam na jaaniiSe = [about the slippage of] time, not, aware; phulla sapta cChada shyaamaa = unfolded, seven-leaved, covering [canopying seven-leaved-plantain trees,] with dark-greenness; shivaa sharat tu = sedate, autumn, on its part; pravR^ittaa = is underway.
"You have become ecstatic, oh, the best of the best timekeepers, hence you are unaware of the slippage of time, but the sedate and dark-green autumn on its part is underway unfolding dark-green leaves canopying seven-leaved banana plants. [4-32-13]
Sugreeva is ascribed as a great disciplinarian and punctualist and his order sugriiva aaj~na ' Sugreeva's order...' a Sanskrit phrase still ruling high, is an inalienable, do-or-die order for the rank and file of Vanara-s.
nirmala graha nakṣatrā dyauḥ pranaṣṭa balāhakā |
prasannāḥ ca diśaḥ sarvāḥ saritaḥ ca sarāṃsi ca || 4-32-14
13. pranaSTa balaahakaa dyauH = with extinct, clouds, sky is; nirmala graha nakSatraa = clear, with planets, stars; sarvaaH dishaH ca = all, directions, also, are clear; saritaH ca saraamsi ca = rivers, also, lakes, too; prasannaaH = are equable.
"Clear is the sky with its planets and stars as clouds have vanished on it, even all the ten directions are clear, and the rivers and lakes too are equable. [4-32-14]
prāptam udyoga kālam tu na avaiṣi haripuṃgava |
tvam pramatta iti vyaktam lakṣmaṇo ayam iha āgataḥ || 4-32-15
15. hari pungava = oh, among monkeys, ablest one; praaptam udyoga kaalam tu = chanced, campaign, time, but; na avaiSi = not, you realised - not got the drift of it; tvam pra matta = you are, verily, slumberous; iti = thus as; ayam lakSmaNaH iha aagataH = this one, Lakshmana, to here, came; vyaktam = it is obvious.
"Because the time for campaigns has chanced, oh, the ablest monkey, and because you were very slumberous you have not got the drift of it, as such Lakshmana must have come here, and it is obvious. [4-32-15]
ārtasya hṛta dārasya paruṣam puruṣa antarāt |
vacanam marṣaṇīyam te rāghavasya mahātmanaḥ || 4-32-16
16. aartasya = one who is anguished; hR^ita daarasya = abducted, whose wife is; mahaatmanaH = benevolent-souled one - magnanimous in giving kingdom; raaghavasya = of such a Raghava; puruSa antaraat = [through] person, another one - thru Lakshmana; paruSam vacanam = [sent] bitter, words; te marSaNiiyam = to you, tolerable - endurable.
"Raghava's bitter words are endurable by you as he is primarily an anguished person, further he is the one whose is wife is abducted, and furthermore he is magnanimous in giving kingdom to you, besides, he is reproachful through another person, namely Lakshmana. [4-32-16]
kṛta aparādhasya hi te na anyat paśyāmi aham kṣamam |
aṃtareṇa aṃjalim baddhvā lakṣmaṇasya prasādanāt || 4-32-17
17. anjalim baddhvaa = palms, adjoining; lakSmaNasya prasaadanaat = of Lakshmana, seeking appeasement -pardon; antareNa = other than; kSamam = appropriate; anyat = another [means]; kR^ita aparaadhasya = one who committed, a blunder; te = to you; aham na pashyaami hi = I, do not, foresee, indeed.
"Indeed, I do not foresee any other appropriate means for you, as a blunder is committed by you, other than seeking Lakshmana's pardon duly adjoining your palms. [4-32-17]
The clasping and adjoining of palms in supplication is the highest gesture to appease others and it yields beneficence of even gods quickly. an~jaliH paramaa mudraa kshipram deva prasaadinii 'Adjoining palms reverently is the highest gesture, and gods will bestow grace by it.' Here it is said in singular meaning that 'you appease Lakshmana single-mindedly... soulfully...'
niyuktaiḥ maṃtribhiḥ vācyo avaśyam pārthivo hitam |
ita eva bhayam tyaktvā bravīmi avadhṛtam vacaḥ || 4-32-18
18. niyuktaiH mantribhiH = designated ones, by ministers; paarthivaH = king; avashyam hitam vaacyaH = without hesitation, beneficial, is to be spoken - advised; ita eva = that is, why; bhayam tyaktvaa = fear, discarding; avadhR^itam vacaH braviimi = emphatic - which I hold fast, words, I am saying.
"A king is to be advised beneficially and unhesitatingly by the minister designates, that is why I am speaking what I hold fast discarding fear. [4-32-18]
abhikruddhaḥ samartho hi cāpam udyamya rāghavaḥ |
sa deva asura gaṃdharvam vaśe sthāpayitum jagat || 4-32-19
19. abhikruddhaH = [if] highly infuriated; raaghavaH caapam udyamya = Raghava, on hitching up, bow; sa deva asura gandharvam = along with, gods, demons, gandharva-s; jagat = world; vashe sthaapayitum samarthaH hi = in control, to keep, capable, isn't it.
"If Raghava is highly infuriated he is capable to keep the world under his control along with gods, demons, gandharva-s just on hitching up his bow, isn't it! [4-32-19]
na sa kṣamaḥ kopayitum yaḥ prasādya punar bhavet |
pūrva upakāram smaratā kṛtajñena viśeṣataḥ || 4-32-20
20. puurva upakaaram smarataa = earlier, beneficence, remembering; visheSataH kR^itaj~nena = especially, as one beholden to him; such as you are, by you; yaH = he who is - Rama; punaH prasaadya = [time and ] again, who is to be placated; saH = he; kopayitum = to be infuriated; na kSamaH bhavet = not, seemly, it becomes.
"It becomes unseemly to infuriate him who is to be placated time and again, especially when remembering his earlier beneficence to you and when you are beholden to him. [4-32-20]
tasya mūrdhnā praṇamya tvam sa putraḥ sa suhṛt janaḥ |
rājan tiṣṭha sva samaye bhartuḥ bhāryā iva tat vaśe || 4-32-21
21. raajan = oh, king; sa putraH sa su hR^it janaH = along with, son, with, kind, hearted, people [friends and relatives]; tvam = you; tasya = to him; muurdhnaa praNamya = with forehead, pay deference - prostrate yourself; sva samaye = in your own, accord; you stay; like; bhartuH bhaaryaa iva = for husband, wife, as with; tat vashe tiSTha = in his, control, you stay - remain under his auspices.
"Prostrate yourself before him along with your son, friends and relatives to pay deference, oh, king, and abide by your own accord you made with him remaining under his auspices, like a wife abiding in the care of her husband. [4-32-21]
na rāma rāmānuja śāsanam tvayā
kapīndra yuktam manasā api apohitum |
mano hi te jñāsyati mānuṣam balam
sa rāghavasya asya surendra varcasaḥ || 4-32-22
22. kapiindra = oh, monkeys, king; raama raama anuja shaasanam = Rama's, Rama's, brother's, ruling; tvayaa = by you; manasaa api = at heart, even - even in imagination; apohitum = to set aside - keep it at bay, fend off; na yuktam = not, seemly; saH raaghavasya = together with, the legatee of Raghu - here, Lakshmana; surendra varcasaH = king of gods, Indra, having resplendence; asya = his, Rama's; maanuSam balam = humanly, tenacity [keeping a firm hold of principles, life]; te manaH j~naasyati hi = your, heart, knows it, isn't it.
"It will be unseemly to fend off the ruling of Rama, or of his brother Lakshmana even in your imagination, oh, king of monkeys, as your heart is aware of the humanly tenacity of that Rama, whose resplendence vies with that of Indra, and who is associated with selfsame Lakshmana, isn't it." Thus Hanuma spoke to Sugreeva. [4-32-22]
For the usage of words maanuSam balam it is said as 'his humanly adventures are already known to you, yet his divine expeditions are to be known by you.'
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe dvā triṃśaḥ sargaḥ
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© July, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : August 04
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