Enraged Lakshmana goes to the extent of saying that Sugreeva is to be eliminated and then Angada and others will search for Seetha. Perturbed by his brother's vehemence Rama pacifies him and sends to Kishkindha where on seeing the infuriated, hissing, snakelike Lakshmana monkeys are upset. Lakshmana sends Angada to Sugreeva to inform about his arrival. Sugreeva could not comprehend firstly because he is in an inebriated condition, but later comes to senses on the advise of his ministers.
sa kāminam dīnam adīna sattvaḥ
śoka abhipannam samudīrṇa kopam |
narendra sūnur naradeva putram
rāmānujaḥ pūrvajam iti uvāca || 4-31-1
1. nara indra suunuH = people's, king's, son - prince Lakshmana; saH raama anujaH = he that, to Rama, later born one - younger one - Lakshmana; kaaminam diinam = one who is yearning, thereby pitiable - Rama; but; a diina sattvaH = not, deterred, in stamina; shoka abhipannam = by grief, who is overcome; sam udiirNa kopam = one with well, intensified, anger; nara deva putram = to people's, godlike-king's, son - to prince Rama; puurva jam = to earlier, born one - to Rama, the elder brother; iti uvaaca = this way, spoke.
When Rama of undeterred stamina has become pitiable while yearning for Seetha, overcome with grief while the search for Seetha is becoming futile, overwrought with anger while Sugreeva is reneging on his promise, to such an elder prince-brother from a godlike king, his younger prince-brother Lakshmana spoke in this way. [4-31-1]
na vānaraḥ sthāsyati sādhu vṛtte
na manyate karma phala anuṣaṃgān |
na bhokṣyate vānara rājya lakṣmīm
tathā hi na abhikramate asya buddhiḥ || 4-31-2
2. vaanaraH = forester - Sugreeva; saadhu vR^itte na sthaasyati = in gentlefolk's, conduct, will not, abide; karma phala anuSangaan = of deed, fruits, incidental events; na manyate = not, appreciative of; vaanara raajya lakSmiim = Vanara, kingdom's, prosperity of; na bhokSyate = will not, enjoy; tathaa hi = obviously, isn't it; asya buddhiH na abhi kramate = his, mind, not, forward, strides - his prudence is behindhand.
"As a forester Sugreeva will not abide by the conduct of gentlefolk, he is not appreciative of the fruits of incidental events like gaining kingdom and regaining wife occurring out of your deed of eliminating Vali, thus he will not enjoy the prosperity of the kingdom anymore. Obviously his prudence is behindhand, isn't it! [4-31-2]
"Remaining adherent in the thick and thin of friends is friendship. That is the least kindness expected of a friend. Because Sugreeva is a fickly monkey, he may not abide by the oath of friendship taken before fire altar, whereby you eliminated Vali, and enthroned Sugreeva; but, he may not keep that pact or its fruits holy, as nothing is evincible of his help...
mati kṣayāt grāmya sukheṣu saktaḥ
tava prasāda apratikāra buddhiḥ |
hato agrajam paśyatu vālinam
na rājyam evam viguṇasya deyam || 4-31-3
3. tava = your; prasaada = beneficence; a prati kaara buddhiH = not, in turn, making - for requital, a mind for - without the notion for requital; mati kSayaat = sanity, by impairment - with an unsound mind - insanely; graamya sukheSu saktaH = in primitive, pleasures, he is involved in; hatH = when slain [by you]; agrajam vaalinam pashyatu = [his] elder-brother [Vali,] let him see; evam = that is why; vi guNasya = to one - without, honesty; raajyam na deyam = kingdom, not, to be given.
"Without any notion of requiting the beneficence you have accorded he is insanely involved in primitive pleasures, such as he is, let him see his elder brother Vali when slain. Hence, kingdoms are unaffordable to dishonest. [4-31-3]
na dhāraye kopam udīrṇa vegam
nihanmi sugrīvam asatyam adya |
hari pravīraiḥ saha vāli putro
narendra putryā vicayam karotu || 4-31-4
4. udiirNa vegam kopam = tiding, quickly, anger; na dhaaraye = not, bearable; adya a satyam sugriivam nihanmi = now, un, truthful one, Sugreeva, I will kill; vaali putraH = Vali's, son - Angada; hari pra viiraiH saha = monkey, best, braving ones, along with; narendra putryaa = of king's, daughter - of princess, Seetha; vicayam karotu = searching, will do.
"Unbearable is this anger that is tiding quickly, now I shall kill that unfaithful Sugreeva and the best braving monkeys shall search for that princess Seetha, remaining under the command of Vali's son, Angada." Thus said Lakshmana to Rama. [4-31-4]
tam ātta bāṇa āsanam utpataṃtam
nivedita artham raṇa caṇḍa kopam |
uvaca rāmaḥ para vīra hantā
sva vekṣitam sa anunayam ca vākyam || 4-31-5
5. para viira hantaa = others [enemy-side] braving ones, slayer of; raamaH = Rama; nivedita artham = one who has apprised, his intention; raNa caNDa kopam = with wartime, irrepressible, one with such anger; aatta baaNa aasanam = who took, arrows, seat of - bow; ut patantam = up, surging - leaping at; tam = to him - to Lakshmana; sva vekSitam = verily, thought over; sa anunayam ca vaakyam = with, persuasion, also, sentence; uvaca = Rama spoke.
Rama, the slayer of braving enemies, spoke this well thought sentence that includes persuasiveness to Lakshmana who is with an irrepressible wartime anger, who has apprised his intention to slay Sugreeva, and who on taking his bow is now leaping at Kishkindha. [4-31-5]
na hi vai tvat vidho loke pāpam evam samācaret |
kopam āryeṇa yo hanti sa vīraḥ puruṣottamaḥ || 4-31-6
6. tvat vidhaH = your, kind of - person; loke = in world; evam paapam = this type of, sin; na hi sam aacaret = not, certainly, will commit; yaH = who; aaryeNa [aarya bhaavena] = with a noble gesture; kopam hanti = anger, kills [that anger]; saH viiraH = he, is valorous one; puruSottamaH vai = best one among men, really.
"Certainly none of your kind shall commit this sort of sin in this world, and if such a situation occurs, he who by his noble gesture kills his own anger is a valorous one, and he really becomes the best one among men." Thus Rama is saying to Lakshmana. [4-31-6]
na idam atra tvayā grāhyam sādhu vṛttena lakṣmaṇa |
tām prītim anuvartasva pūrva vṛttam ca saṃgatam || 4-31-7
7. lakSmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; saadhu vR^ittena tvayaa = of righteous, conduct, by you; atra = in this matter; idam na graahyam = this, not, to be understood [undertaken]; taam = them [those aspects of]; priitim = friendliness; puurva vR^ittam = earlier, existed; sangatam ca = affinity, also; anuvartasva = you adhere to.
"Lakshmana, as person with righteous conduct you are not supposed to understand this matter in this way, or undertake in this way, but you are supposed to adhere to those aspects of friendliness with Sugreeva and the affinity earlier existed in dealing with him. [4-31-7]
In the last chapter Rama says that he wants to kill Sugreeva for his faithlessness. Now Lakshmana is parroting out those very words. But Rama is now telling that 'killing a friend is a sin, so you do not commit it...' Is Rama contradicting his own statements in last chapter? In reply it is said, not so. Last time Rama gave a picture of his ire about Sugreeva, to the extent of eliminating him, if Sugreeva still avoids any arrangement. But Lakshmana, being straight-to-nose person and a textualist, has started to Kishkindha to eliminate Sugreeva and to enthrone Angada, under whose leadership the other monkeys can search Seetha. It is same situation with Hanuma in Sundara, where Hanuma is asked just to elicit the whereabouts of Seetha, but he burns down Lanka, and if anybody questions, Hanuma is apt to say that he is monkeyish with Lanka. Such an occasion shall not happen in Kishkindha, that too through Lakshmana. Thus, Rama is pacifying Lakshmana in saying that 'my words shall not be understood that way, and killing of Sugreeva is not to be undertaken forthwith.'
sāma upahitayā vācā rūkṣāṇi parivarjayan |
vaktum arhasi sugrīvam vyatītam kāla paryaye || 4-31-8
8. kaala paryaye = when time, lapsed - flouted timeframe; vyatiitam sugriivam = to reneger, to Sugreeva; ruukSaaNi parivarjayan = caustic [remarks,] leaving off; saama upahitayaa vaacaa = placate, having in them [placatory,] words; vaktum arhasi = to talk, apt of you.
"It will be apt of you to speak to that reneger Sugreeva with placating words rather than with caustic remarks, as his sin is no more than flouting the timeframe." Thus Rama said to Lakshmana. [4-31-8]
so agrajena anuśiṣṭa artho yathāvat puruṣarṣabhaḥ |
praviveśa purīm vīro lakṣmaṇaḥ para vīra hā || 4-31-9
9. agrajena = by elder brother; yathaavat = as expedient; anushiSTa arthaH = who is schooled, about means; puruSarSabhaH = among men, the best one; para viira haa = enemy, brave ones, slayer of; viiraH = brave one; saH lakSmaNaH = such, Lakshmana; puriim pravivesha = city, entered - proceeded to enter.
That brave one and the slayer of braving enemies Lakshmana thus schooled expediently by his elder brother about the means of gainfulness, that best one among men proceeded to enter the city of Kishkindha. [4-31-9]
tataḥ śubha matiḥ prājño bhrātuḥ priyahiterataḥ |
lakṣmaṇaḥ pratisaṃrabdho jagāma bhavanam kapeḥ || 4-31-10
śakra bāṇāsana prakhyam dhanuḥ kālāṃtaka upamaḥ |
pragṛhya giri śṛṃgābham mandaraḥ sānumān iva || 4-31-11
10. tataH shubha matiH = right, minded one; praaj~naH = well-informed one; bhraatuH priya hite rataH = brother's, agreeable, beneficial, bent on; prati sam rabdhaH = reversing, exasperation - swallowing his ire; kaala antaka upamaH = era, ender, in simile; such a; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; shakra baaNaasana prakhyam = Indra's, bow, identical with; giri shR^inga aabham = mountain, ridge, in shine with; dhanuH pragR^ihya = bow, wielding; mandaraH = Mt. Mandhara; saanu maan = one which has peaks - peaking mountain; iva = like; kapeH bhavanam jagaama = of monkey - Sugreeva 's, to palace, proceeded.
That right-minded and well-informed Lakshmana who is bent on doing only that which is agreeable and beneficial to his elder brother, then swallowing his exasperation and wielding a bow which is shining forth like the bow of Indra, and which is standing out like a peaking mountain proceeded towards the palace of the monkey, namely Sugreeva, and with such a bow he appeared to be the peaking Mt. Mandhara and like the Era-Ender. [4-31-10, 11]
yathā ukta kārī vacanam uttaram caiva sa uttaram |
bṛhaspati samo buddhyā mattvā rāmānujaḥ tadā || 4-31-12
kāma krodha samutthena bhrātuḥ kopāgninā vṛtaḥ |
prabhaṃjana iva aprītaḥ prayayau lakṣmaṇaḥ tadā || 4-31-13
12, 13. tadaa = then; yathaa ukta kaarii = as, said, doer - who does exactly what Rama tells - who does not defy Rama's words; raama anujaH = to Rama, later born one - younger brother, adherer; bhraatuH = brother's; kaama krodha samutthena = by desire, caused fury, fired up - of Rama; kopa agninaa vR^itaH = fury, fire, enwrapped in; buddhyaa bR^ihaspati samaH = by intelligence, Brihaspati [the planet, Gods'-mentor, Jupiter,] coequal with; such a; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; saha uttaram = of reply [of Sugreeva]; uttaram vacanam caiva = later words - counter-reply [by Lakshmana,] also thus; mattvaa = on mulling over; tadaa = then; prabhanjana iva = whirlwind, like; a priitaH = one who is - not, satisfied - embittered; prayayau = proceeded.
Lakshmana the non-defying adherer of Rama, a coequal of Brihaspati-Jupiter, in intelligence, then mulled over the exact words of Rama to be spoken to Sugreeva, possible reply of Sugreeva on them, and his own sensible counter-reply to them, enwrapped as he is in a furious fire fired up by the desire of Rama for Seetha, proceeded to Sugreeva's palace like an embittered whirlwind aided and abetted by a furious fire. [4-31-12, 13]
sāla tāla aśva karṇām ca tarasā pātayan balāt |
paryasyan giri kūṭāni drumān anyām ca vegitaḥ || 4-31-14
śilāḥ ca śakalī kurvan padbhyām gaja iva āśu gaḥ |
dūram eka padam tyaktvā yayau kāryavaśāt drutam || 4-31-15
14. aashu gaH gaja iva = fleetly, going, elephant, as with; vegitaH = he who is making haste; tarasaa = with his might; saala taala ashvakarNaam ca = Saala, Palm, Ashvakarna trees, also; paatayan = felling; anyaam drumaan ca = others, trees, also; on felling; giri kuuTaani = mountain, crests; balaat paryasyan = by strength, razing; padbhyaam shilaaH shakalii kurvan ca = with both feet, boulders, to splinters, rendering into, also; duuram eka padam - duuraam eka padiim = long, single, step - pathway / long, first foot; tyaktvaa = leaving off / on placing; kaarya vashaat drutam yayau = mission, impelled by, swiftly, proceeded.
While knocking down Saala, Palm, Ashvakarna trees with his might, razing mountain-crests and even other trees with his strength, splintering boulders underfoot, Lakshmana made haste through an enmeshed path leaving off one-foot-pathway as with an elephant striding fleetly, and proceeded swiftly impelled by the mission. [4-31-15]
The wording in the second foot is as per Chaukambha publication: duuraam eka padam tyaktvaa as in other publications, which then gives meaning 'leaving off a distant one-foot-pathway Lakshmana strode in a shortcut way through the thick of trees...' or duuram eka padiim tyaktvaa in another way 'releasing the first foot in a longer stride he made haste.' This is to show Lakshmana's vehemence and valour are better than that of Vanara-s, which was explained by the sage-poet at the time of creation of Vanara-s by celestials at 1-17-25 onwards. When Vanara-s can fell trees or volley the peaks of mountains with some effort, Lakshmana can do the same effortlessly.
tām apaśyat bala ākīrṇām harirāja mahāpurīm |
durgām ikṣvāku śārdūlaḥ kiṣkiṃdhām giri saṃkaṭe || 4-31-16
16. ikSvaaku shaarduulaH = in Ikshvaku dynasty, tigerly one; giri sankaTe = among mountains, entrenched in; bala aakiirNaam = with army, impregnated with; dur gaam = not, passable; hari raaja mahaa puriim = monkey, king's, magnificent, citadel; taam kiSkindhaam apashyat = at her, at Kishkindha, he saw.
Entrenched among mountains, impregnated with vanara-army is the magnificent citadel of the king of monkeys, and the tigerly-Ikshvaku, Lakshmana, has seen such an impassable city, namely Kishkindha. [4-31-16]
This is what Sugreeva told Rama when they come for second time to fight Vali 'Spread out by the snares of monkeys... [we arrived at gate of Kishkindha city...] [4-14-5]' thus Lakshmana again saw that impregnable Kishkindha, but with a different reception to him at this time.
roṣāt prasphuramāṇa oṣṭhaḥ sugrīvam prati lakṣmaṇaḥ |
dadarśa vānarān bhīmān kiṣkiṃdhāyā bahiḥ carān || 4-31-17
17. sugriivam prati = Sugreeva, towards; roSaat = owing to rancour; pra sphuramaaNa oSThaH = verily, quivering, lips - one with such lips; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; kiSkindhaayaa bahiH caraan = Kishkindha's, outer [at outposts,] that moving about; bhiimaan vaanaraan dadarsha = formidable, Vanara-s, has seen.
While his lips are quivering owing to rancour towards Sugreeva, Lakshmana saw formidable Vaanara-s at the outposts of Kishkindha. [4-31-17]
tam dṛṣṭvā vānarāḥ sarve lakṣmaṇam puruṣarṣabham
śaila śṛṃgāṇi śataśaḥ pravṛddhām ca mahīruhān |
jagṛhuḥ kuṃjara prakhyā vānarāḥ parvata aṃtare || 4-31-18
18. parvata antare = mountains, in midst - in gorges; kunjara prakhyaa = elephant, comparable [elephantine]; vaanaraaH = Vanara-s; puruSa rSabham tam lakshmaNam dR^iSTvaa = the best among men, him, at Lakshmana, on seeing; sarve vaanaraaH = all, vanara-s; shatashaH = hundreds of; shaila shR^ingaaNi = mountain, crests; pra vR^iddhaam mahii ruhaan ca = well, developed [gigantic,] on earth, grown - trees, also; jagR^ihuH = grabbed.
On seeing the most notable one among men, Lakshmana all of the elephantine vanara-s available in the gorges of mountain have grabbed hundreds of mountain-crests and gigantic trees, and they are at the ready. [4-31-18]
tān gṛhīta praharaṇān sarvān dṛṣṭvā tu lakṣmaṇaḥ |
babhūva dviguṇam kruddho bahu iṃdhana iva analaḥ || 4-31-19
19. lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; gR^ihiita praharaNaan = handling, assaultive [trees and peaks]; taan sarvaan dR^iSTvaa tu = them, at all of them, on seeing, but; bahu indhana analaH iva = with much fuel, [added,] fire, as with; dvi guNam kruddhaH = with two, fold, fury babhuuva = he became.
But on seeing all of them handling assaultive peaks and trees, Lakshmana's fury has become twofold as with a fire to which much fuel is added. [4-31-19]
tam te bhayaparīta aṃgāḥ khsubdham dṛṣṭvā plavaṃgamāḥ |
kāla mṛtyu yugāṃtāabham śataśo vidrutā diśaḥ || 4-31-20
20. shatashaH te plavamgamaaH = hundreds [troops and troops of,] of those, fly-jumpers; kshubdham = who is overexcited; kaala mR^ityu = Time-god, of Death; yuga anta aabham = epoch, ender, in sheen; tam = at him, at Lakshmana; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; bhaya pariita angaaH = with scare, enfolded - coiling, bodies; dishaH = to all - directions; vi drutaa = quickly, ran away.
On seeing overexcited Lakshmana who is like the Time-god and the Epoch-Ender, troops and troops of those fly-jumpers quickly fled away in all directions with scare coiling their bodies. [4-31-20]
tataḥ sugrīva bhavanam praviśya haripuṃgavāḥ |
krodham āgamanam caiva lakṣmaṇasya nyavedayan || 4-31-21
21. tataH hari pungavaaH = then, monkeys, the best of them; sugriiva bhavanam pravishya = Sugreeva's, palace, on entering; lakSmaNasya = Lakshmana's; aagamanam = about arrival; krodham caiva = about his fury, also thus; nyavedayan = submitted [appraised.]
Then on entering the palace of Sugreeva, some best ones among monkeys have appraised about the arrival of Lakshmana, and even about his fury. [4-31-21]
tārayā sahitaḥ kāmī saktaḥ kapivṛṣaḥ tadā |
na teṣām kapi vīrāṇām śuśrāva vacanam tadā || 4-31-22
22. tadaa = at that time; kaamii = who is in lustful [mood]; taarayaa sahitaH = Tara, in company of; rahaH saktaH = in privacy, enmired; such a; kapi vR^iSaH = monkey, the bullish one - foremost monkey - Sugreeva; teSaam kapi viiraaNaam = of those, monkey, bold ones'; vacanam = words; na shu shraava = not, clearly heard - unheedful of.
At that time, he who is in a lustful mood, who is in the company of Lady Tara and who is enmired in privacy, that foremost monkey Sugreeva is unheedful of the words of those bold monkeys who brought the message. [4-31-22]
tataḥ saciva saṃdiṣṭā harayo romaharṣaṇāḥ |
giri kuṃjara megha ābhā nagaryā niryayuḥ tadā || 4-31-23
23. tataH = then; roma harSaNaaH = hair, raisers - frightening in appearance ones; giri kunjara megha aabhaa = mountains, elephants, black-clouds, similar one in sheen; harayaH = monkeys; sachiva samdiSTaa = by ministers, directed [in order to ascertain the reason for Lakshmana's fury]; tadaa = then; nagaryaa nir yayuH = from city, out, gone.
Then, as directed by ministers of Kishkindha in order to figure out the mood of Lakshmana, some of the elephantine monkeys who are frightening just by their appearance, who in sheen are similar to mountains and dark-clouds have gone out of the city. [4-31-23]
nakha daṃṣṭra āyudhā sarve vīrāḥ vikṛta darśanāḥ |
sarve śārdūla darpāḥ ca sarve ca vikṛta ānanāḥ || 4-31-24
24. sarve = all; viiraaH = brave ones; nakha damSTra aayudhaa = have nails, teeth, as weapons; vikR^ita darshanaaH = hideous, in look; sarve shaarduula darpaaH ca = all, tigerish, in pride, also; sarve vikR^ita aananaaH ca = all, horrendous, in face, also.
All of those brave vanara-s are armed with their own teeth and nails, all are with tigerish pride, all are hideous in look and horrendous by their faces. [4-31-24]
daśa nāga balāḥ kecit kecit daśa guṇottarāḥ |
kecit nāga sahasrasya babhūvuḥ tulya varcasaḥ || 4-31-25
25. kecit = some are; dasha naaga balaaH = ten, elephants, with might of, kecit dasha guNa uttaraaH = some, ten, times, more; kecit naaga sahasrasya = some, elephants, a thousand of; tulya varcasaH babhuuvuH = matching, in vigour, are there.
Some of those vanara-s are with the might of ten elephants, some ten times more, and some with vigour matching that of a thousand elephants. [4-31-25]
tataḥ taiḥ kapibhir vyāptām druma hastair mahābalaiḥ |
apaśyat lakṣmaṇaḥ kruddhaḥ kiṣkiṃdhām tām durāsadam || 4-31-26
26. tataH = then; kruddhaH lakSmaNaH = infuriated, Lakshmana; taiH = with them; druma hastaiH = trees, with hands [flaunting]; mahaabalaiH = great-mighty ones; kapibhiH vyaaptaam = with monkeys, spreading throughout; dur aasadam = not, assailable - city; taam kiSkindhaam apashyat = at her, Kishkindha, saw.
Infuriated Lakshmana has then seen Kishkindha, an unassailable city, as those great-mighty monkeys flaunting trees are spreading throughout it. [4-31-26]
tataḥ te harayaḥ sarve prākāra parikha aṃtarāt |
niṣkramya udagra sattvāḥ tu tasthur āviṣkṛtam tadā || 4-31-27
27. tataH = then; ut agra sattvaaH = those with - up, risen, might - ebullient in sprit; sarve te harayaH = all of those, monkeys; praakaara parikha antaraat = compound-wall's, iron-latches [of gateway,] from inside; niSkramya = on exiting; tadaa aaviSkR^itam = then, unfolded - showing themselves, revealingly; tasthuH = stood up to.
All of those monkeys then exiting from the inside of the compound-wall of the castle and coming underneath of the iron-latches of the castle's gateway, they became visible and stood up to Lakshmana with their ebullient might. [4-31-27]
The word parigha is sometimes taken as bastions of the fort-wall.
sugrīvasya pramādam ca pūrvajasya artham ātmavān |
dṛṣṭvā kopa vaśam vīraḥ punar eva jagāma saḥ || 4-31-28
28. aatmavaan = sensible one; saH viiraH = that, valiant one; sugriivasya pramaadam ca = Sugreeva's, blunder, also; puurvajasya artham ca = elder brother's, expediency, also; dR^iSTvaa = on envisaging; punaH eva = again, thus; kopa vasham = into anger's, control; jagaama = went into.
On envisaging Sugreeva's blunder and of his elder-brother's expediency, that sensible one and fury restrained Lakshmana, again went into the restraint of fury on seeing the monkeys. [4-31-28]
sa dīrgha uṣṇa mahā ucchvāsaḥ kopa saṃrakta locanaḥ |
babhūva nara śārdūla sa dhūma iva pāvakaḥ || 4-31-29
29. diirgha uSNa mahaa ucChvaasaH = long, fiery, endless, exhales; kopa samrakta locanaH = by fury, bloodshot, eyes; nara shaarduula = man, tiger; saH = he, Lakshmana sa dhuuma paavakaH iva = with, fumes, fire, like; babhuuva = is there.
With his long, fiery, and endless exhales and eyes bloodshot in fury, that tigerly-man Lakshmana is like a fuming fire. [4-31-29]
bāṇa śalya sphurat jihvaḥ sāyaka āsana bhogavān |
sva tejo viṣa saṃghātaḥ paṃca āsya iva pannagaḥ || 4-31-30
30. baaNa shalya sphurat jihvaH = arrow, head, motile, tongue; saayaka aasana bhogavaan [bhogaH vaan] = arrows, seat [curvi-bow,] serpent-hood, wielder of; sva tejaH viSa sam ghaataH = by own, fervency, with venom, well, multiplied - proliferating; panca aasya pannagaH iva = five, faced, serpent, like [identical to.]
Lakshmana has become identical to a five-faced serpent as his curvi-bow looked like the curvi-hood of a serpent, arrowheads looked like the poking tongues of the serpent, and as his own fervency is proliferating as that serpent's venom. [4-31-30]
The words used in verse bhogavaan, samghaata also means 'enjoyer of bow, assortment of these aspects...' but bhoga is yet another name for 'snake-hood' besides its coils and ghaata is 'that which obtained after multiplication...'
tam dīptam iva kālāgnim nāgendram iva kopitam |
samāsādya aṃgadaḥ trāsāt viṣādam agamat param || 4-31-31
31. angadaH = Angada; diiptam kaala agnim iva = aglow, perdition, fire of, as with; kopitam naaga indram iva = [perforce] infuriated, serpent's, king, as with; tam = him - Lakshmana; samaasaadya = on nearing; traasaat param viSaadam agamat = by scare, high, sadness, he [Angada] succumbed to.
Angada succumbing to high despair caused by the scare neared Lakshmana who is aglow like the Fire of Perdition and like aadi seSa, the Thousand-hooded King of Serpents, who is perforce infuriated. [4-31-31]
so aṃgadam roṣa tāmrākṣaḥ saṃdideśa mahāyaśāḥ |
sugrīvaḥ kathyatām vatsa mama āgamanam iti uta || 4-31-32
32. roSa taamra akSaH = by rancour, reddened, eyed one; mahaayashaaH saH = highly adorable, he that Lakshmana; angadam = to Angada; vatsa = oh, boy; sugriivaH mama aagamanam kathyataam = let Sugreeva, about my, arrival, be told; iti uta = thus, this way - said; samdidesha = sent a word.
With his eyes reddened in rancour that highly adorable Lakshmana sent a word through Angada, saying "oh, boy, let Sugreeva be informed about my arrival," and said this way. [4-31-32]
eṣa rāmānujaḥ prāptaḥ tvat sakāśam arindamaḥ |
bhrātur vyasana saṃtapto dvāri tiṣṭhati lakṣmaṇaḥ || 4-31-33
tasya vākyam yadi ruciḥ kriyatām sādhu vānaraḥ |
iti uktvā śīghram āgaccha vatsa vākyam arindama || 4-31-34
33. arindama = oh, enemy-destroyer; vatsa = oh boy - Angada; you say this to Sugreeva; arindamaH = oh, enemy-destroyer - Sugreeva; bhraatuH vyasana santaptaH = brother's - Rama's, distress, distressed by; raama anujaH = Rama's brother; eSa lakSmaNaH = this one, Lakshmana; tvat sakaasham = to your, fore; praaptaH = having arrived; dvaari tiSThati at door, abiding - waiting; vaanaraH = oh, Vanara [Sugreeva]; ruciH yadi = interest, if - if you are interested; tasya vaakyam = his [Lakshmana's,] words - advise; saadhu kriyataam = nicely, be done - listen to it; iti vaakyam uktvaa = thus, words, on saying; shiighram aa gacCha = quickly, come and go [come back.]
"Oh, enemy-destroyer Angada, oh, boy, you may say these words to Sugreeva, 'oh, enemy-destroyer Sugreeva, distressed by the distress of his brother this Lakshmana has arrived in your presence and waiting at the door, oh, Sugreeva, the vanara, if you are interested it will be apt of you to listen to his advise, either by coming here or inviting him inside...' saying so oh, boy Angada, you comeback quickly." Thus Lakshmana spoke to Angada. [4-31-33, 34]
lakṣmaṇasya vacaḥ śrutvā śokāviṣṭo aṃgado abravīt |
pituḥ samīpam āgamya saumitriḥ ayam āgataḥ || 4-31-35
35. lakSmaNasya vacaH shrutvaa = Lakshmana's, word, on hearing; shoka aaviSTaH = in grief, muffled up; angadaH = Angada; pituH samiipam aagamya = to father's, near, on arriving; ayam saumitriH aagataH = he, Soumitri, has come; abraviit = spoke informed.
On hearing the words of Lakshmana Angada is muffled up in grief, and on arriving in the presence of his father Sugreeva he informed "Soumitri has come." [4-31-35]
atha aṃgadaḥ tasya sutīvra vācā
saṃbhrāṃta bhāvaḥ paridīna vaktraḥ |
nirgatya pūrvam nṛpateḥ tarasvī
tato rumāyāḥ caraṇau vavande || 4-31-36
36. atha = then; tarasvii angadaH = mighty one, Angada; tasya = his, Lakshmana's; su tiivra vaacaa = by very, sharp, words; sambhraanta bhaavaH = bewildered, in perception; pari diina vaktraH = over, sadness, on face - assuming a very sad face; nir gatya = out, going - exiting for the palace; puurvam nR^ipateH = firstly, to king's [Sugreeva's]; tataH rumaayaaH = then, to Ruma's; caraNau vavande = feet, saluted.
Bewildered in his perception at the very sharp words of Lakshmana, mighty Angada then has gone to the palace assuming a very sad face, and there he firstly saluted the feet of his father Sugreeva and then at the feet of Ruma, wife of Sugreeva. [4-31-36]
saṃgṛhya pādau pituḥ ugratejā
jagrāha mātuḥ punar eva pādau |
pādau rumāyāḥ ca nipīḍayitvā
nivedayāmāsa tataḥ tat artham || 4-31-37
37. ugra tejaa = one with intense, vitality [Angada]; pituH paadau sam gR^ihya = father's, feet, on clinching to; punaH eva = later, thus; maatuH paadau jagraaha = mother's [Tara's,] feet, took; rumaayaaH paadau ca = of Ruma, feet, also - on clasping; nipiiDayitvaa = squeezing [latching on to]; tat artham = about that, import [about the message of Lakshmana]; tataH nivedayaamaasa = then, started to appeal.
Angada whose vitality is intense clinched himself to the feet of his father Sugreeva, and later clung to the feet of his mother Tara, and he even clasped the feet of his paternal-aunt Ruma, and latching on to the feet of his parents then he stated to appeal to them about the message of Lakshmana. [4-31-37]
sa nidrā mada saṃvīto vānaro na vibuddhavān |
babhūva mada mattaḥ ca madanena ca mohitaḥ || 4-31-38
38. nidraa mada samviitaH = with drowsiness, dizziness, bound up in; saH vaanaraH = he, Vanara - Sugreeva; na vi buddhavaan = not, verily, comprehend; mada mattaH ca = by intoxication, benumbed, also; madanena ca mohitaH = with lust, also - in its torpor, bemused [numbed down]; babhuuva = he became.
Sugreeva, the vanara, who is bound up in drowsiness and dizziness could not comprehend clearly what Angada is talking about, as he is benumbed with intoxication, and even numbed down with the torpor of lustfulness. [4-31-38]
tataḥ kila kilām cakruḥ lakṣmaṇam prekṣya vānarāḥ |
prasādayantaḥ tam kruddham bhaya mohita cetasaḥ || 4-31-39
39. tataH = then; kruddham lakshmaNam prekshya = infuriated - on the warpath, Lakshmana, on seeing; vaanaraaH = monkeys - who are around Lakshmana; bhaya mohita cetasaH = with fear, flustered, at hearts; tam = him - Lakshmana; prasaadayantaH = so as to appease him; kila kilaam cakruH = sounds like kila, kila [jibber-jabber,] they made.
The hearts of mobbing monkeys are flustered with fear when they pored over infuriated Lakshmana, thus they jibber-jabbered so as to appease him. [4-31-39]
The words kila kila, hala hala are the onomatopoeic words for the chatter of monkeys or hues and cries of others. - A Linguistic Study of Ramayana, Pt. Satya Vrat.
te mahā ogha nibham dṛṣṭvā vajra aśani sama svanam |
siṃha nādam samam cakrur lakṣmaṇasya samīpataḥ || 4-31-40
40. te = they - monkeys; dR^iSTvaa = on observing - Lakshmana; mahaa ogha nibham = stormy, torrent, similar to; vajra ashani sama svanam = thunderbolt's, thunder, similar, din - hubbub; simha naadam = lion's, roar; samam = instantly; lakSmaNasya samiipataH = of Lakshmana, nearby; cakruH = they made.
And those monkeys on observing Lakshmana instantly raised a hubbub at his nearby that is similar to a storm of a torrent, thunder of a thunderbolt, and the roar of a lion. [4-31-40]
tena śabdena mahatā pratyabudhyata vānaraḥ |
mada vihvala tāmrākṣo vyākula sragvi bhūṣaṇaḥ || 4-31-41
41. mahataa tena shabdena = uproarious, by that, noise; vaanaraH = Vanara - Sugreeva; mada vihvala taamra akSaH = by stupor, out of control [unable to open eyelids widely, helter-skelter] with coppery, eyed; vyaakula sragvi bhuuSaNaH = topsy-turvy, garlands, ornaments; pratyabudhyata = came to senses.
With that uproarious noise of monkeys Sugreeva came to his senses, but because of stupor his coppery eyes are helter-skelter and his garlands and ornaments are topsy-turvy. [4-31-41]
atha aṃgada vacaḥ śrutvā tena eva ca samāgatau |
maṃtriṇo vānarendrasya sammata udāra darśinau || 4-31-42
plakṣaḥ ca eva prabhāvaḥ ca maṃtriṇau artha dharmayoḥ |
vaktum uccāvacam prāptam lakṣmaṇam tau śaśaṃsatuḥ || 4-31-43
42. atha angada vacaH shrutvaa = then, Angada's, words, on hearing; tena eva ca sam aagatau = with him [with Angada,] thus, also, well, came with; sam mata udaara darshinau = agreeable, in thought [advise,] appreciable, in their aspect; mantriNau = two ministers; plakSaH ca eva prabhaavaH ca = Plaksha, also, thus, Prabhava, also; tau = those two; mantriNaH vaanara indrasya = ministers, of Vanara, king; lakSmaNam = Lakshmana; artha dharmayoH = prosperity, probity; uccaavacam vaktum = variously, to discuss; praaptam = has come; shashamsatuH = apprised.
On hearing the words of Angada two ministers who are agreeable in their advice and appreciable in their aspect have come along with him, and those two ministers of the king of vanara-s, namely Plaksha and Prabhava, have appraised Sugreeva that Lakshmana has arrived to discuss variously about the prosperity and probity. [4-31-42, 43]
prasādayitvā sugrīvam vacanaiḥ sa artha niścitaiḥ |
āsīnam paryupāsīnau yathā śakram marutpatim || 4-31-44
44. aasiinam sugriivam = who is sitting, Sugreeva; marut patim shakram yathaa = wind-gods', king, Indra, as with; pari upa asiinau = [ministers,] around, nearby, sitting; sa artha nishcitaiH vacanaiH = with meaning, expressive, words; prasaadayitvaa = on appeasing; and they spoke to Sugreeva as below.
Those two ministers sitting around and nearby Sugreeva, who is seated like the king of wind-gods, namely Indra, on appeasing him with meaningful and expressive words they spoke to him in this way. [4-31-44]
satya saṃdhau mahābhāgau bhrātarau rāma lakṣmaṇau |
vayasya bhāvam saṃprāptau rājya arhau rājya dāyinau || 4-31-45
45. satya sandhau = those by truth, abided; mahaa bhaagau = highly, providential; raajya arhau = kingdom, worthy of; raajya daayinau = kingdom, bestowers; bhraatarau raama lakSmaNau = brothers, Rama, Lakshmana; vayasya bhaavam sampraaptau = friendship, disposition, secured - they have become your true friends.
"Rama and Lakshmana are the brothers who abide by truth, highly-providential, and though they are worthy enough to rule kingdom for themselves they have bestowed the kingdom to you, such as they are, they have become your true friends." Thus started the ministers to say to Sugreeva. [4-31-45]
tayoḥ eko dhanuṣpāṇir dvāri tiṣṭhati lakṣmaṇaḥ |
yasya bhītāḥ pravepante nādān muṃcanti vānarāḥ || 4-31-46
46. tayoH ekaH = of them two, one; lakSmaNaH = Lakshmana; dhanuS paaNiH = bow, in hand - at loggerheads; dvaari tiSThati = door, staying; yasya bhiitaaH = by whom, panicked; pra vepante = utterly, shuddering [monkeys]; vaanaraaH naadaan muncanti = monkeys, alarms, giving vent to.
"One among those two, Lakshmana, is biding at the door wielding his bow, by whom the monkeys are panicked and venting out alarms shuddering utterly. [4-31-46]
sa eṣa rāghava bhrātā lakṣmaṇo vākya sārathiḥ |
vyavasāya rathaḥ prāptaḥ tasya rāmasya śāsanāt || 4-31-47
47. tasya raamasya shaasanaat = by his, Rama's, decree; raaghava bhraataa = Raghava's, brother; saH eSa lakSmaNaH = he, this, Lakshmana; vaakya saarathiH = word [of Rama,] as charioteer; vyavasaaya rathaH = endeavour, as chariot; praaptaH = has come.
"This Lakshmana, the brother of Raghava, has arrived here at the decree of Rama on the chariot called his 'endeavour', charioted by the charioteer called 'the word of Rama.' [4-31-47]
This is 'a case of delightful figurative use' of the word vaakya saaradhi 'Rama's word as charioteer...' meaning 'directed by Rama's word...' - Ramayana A Linguistic Study, Pt. Satya Vrat.
ayam ca tanayo rājan tārāyā dayito aṃgadaḥ |
lakṣmaṇena sakāśam te preṣitaḥ tvarayā anagha || 4-31-48
48. anagha = oh, merited one; raajan = oh, king; taaraayaa dayitaH tanayaH = Tara's, loving, son; ayam angadaH = this, Angada; lakshmaNena tvarayaa = by Lakshmana, hastily; te sakaasham preSitaH = to your, presence, is ushered.
"Oh, merited one, even Lakshmana has ushered this Angada hastily, oh, king, the precious son of Tara, to your presence. [4-31-48]
saḥ ayam roṣa parītākṣo dvāri tiṣṭhati vīryavān |
vānarān vānarapate cakṣusā nirdahana iva || 4-31-49
49. vaanara pate = oh, monkeys, king of; viiryavaan = brave one; saH ayam = such as he is; Lakshmana; roSa pariita akshaH = rancour, awning, with eyes; cakshusaa vaanaraan nir dahana iva = with eyes, monkeys, to burn down, as if; dvaari tiSThati = at door, standing - sticking fast.
"Oh, king of monkeys, such as he is, that brave Lakshmana is sticking fast at the door with an awning of rancour on his eyes and as if to burn down the monkeys just with his eyes. [4-31-49]
tasya mūrdhnā praṇamya tvam sa putra saha bāndhavaḥ |
gaccha śīghram mahārāja roṣo hi adya upaśamyatām || 4-31-50
50. mahaaraaja = oh, great-king; tvam = you; sa putra saha baandhavaH = with, son, with, relatives; shiighram gacCha = quickly, you go; muurdhnaa tasya praNamya = with forehead - bowing down, to him, on revering; adya roSaH upashamyataam hi = now, Lakshmana's - bitterness, be pacified, indeed.
"You may approach him quickly along with your son and relatives, oh, great-king, prostrate yourself before him holding him in reverence, and thus let his bitterness be indeed pacified now. [4-31-50]
yathā āha rāmo dharmātmā tat kuruṣva samāhitaḥ |
rājan tiṣṭha sva samaye bhava satya pratiśravaḥ || 4-31-51
51. raajan = oh, king; dharmaatmaa raamaH = virtue-souled, Rama; yat aaha = what, he is saying - whatever he says; tat samaahitaH kuruSva = that, wholeheartedly, you implement; satya pratishravaH tiSTha = forthrightness, of promise, you abide; sva samaye bhava = in your own, pact, stand by it.
"Whatever that virtue-souled Rama says that you have to implement wholeheartedly, oh, king, you abide by the forthrightness of your promise, stick up for the pact you made." Thus the ministers advised Sugreeva. [4-31-51]
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe eka triṃśa sargaḥ
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