Hanuma, the Marvellous Monkey of Ramayana is entered in this chapter. The very first assurance given by Sage Valmiki through Hanuma, to one and all is, "Be Fearless..." Even today that assurance of Hanuma is ruling high on the Hindu psyche and Hanuma is to be remembered in any event of fright.
tau tu dṛṣṭvā mahātmānau bhrātarau rāma lakṣmaṇau |
vara āyudha dharau vīrau sugrīvaḥ śṅkito.abhavat || 4-2-1
1. vara aayudha dhara viirau mahaatmanau bhraatarau = best, weapons, wielders, audacious ones, great souls, the two brothersm - Rama and Lakshmana; tau tu dR^iSTva = them, on seeing; sugriivaH sha~NkitaH abhavat = Sugreeva, ambiguous, he became.
On seeing them the wielders of best weapons and audacious ones, two brothers and great souls, namely Rama and Lakshmana, Sugreeva became ambiguous. [4-2-1]
udvigna hṛdayaḥ sarvā diśaḥ samavalokayan |
na vyatiṣṭhata kasmin cit deśe vānara puṅgavaḥ || 4-2-2
2. vaanara pungavaH = monkey, the foremost; udvigna hR^idayaH = distressed, at heart; sarvaa dishaH sam samavalokayan = in all, directions, well, gazed [blankly]; na vyatiSTata = not, remained; kasmin chit deshe = at any, one place.
Distressed at heart that foremost monkey gazed blankly in all directions and he did not remain at any one place. [4-2-2]
naiva cakre manaḥ sthātum vīkṣamāṇo mahābalau |
kapeḥ parama bhītasya cittam vyavasasāda ha || 4-2-3
3. viikshmaaNaH mahaabalau = on seeing, the great mighty ones; na eva chakre manaH sthaatum = not, even, made-up, his mind, steadfast; kapeH parama bhiitasya = the monkey, very much, frightened; chittam vyavasasaada ha = his heart, sunken, really.
On seeing those two great mighty ones that monkey has not even made-up his mind steadfast as he is very much frightened, and his heart is really sunken. [4- 2- 3]
cintayitvā sa dharmātmā vimṛśya guru lāghavam |
sugrīvaḥ parama udvignaḥ sarvaiḥ taiḥ vānaraiḥ saha || 4-2-4
4. chintayitvaa saH dharmaatmaa = thought over, he, righteous one; vimR^ishya guru laaghavam = considering, [about his own] strength and weakness; Sugreeva; parama udvignaH = much, agitated; sarvaiH taiH vanaraiH saha = with all, those, monkeys, along with.
He that righteous Sugreeva considering his own strength and weakness is much agitated, and along with all the other monkeys too are frightened. [4-2-4]
tataḥ sa sacivebhyaḥ tu sugrīvaḥ plavagādhipaḥ |
śaśaṃsa parama udvignaḥ paśyan tau rāma lakṣmaṇau || 4-2-5
5. tataH sa sachivebhyaH tu = then, he, to his ministers, even; Sugreeva; plavagaaH adhipaH = monkey's, chief of; shashamsa parama udvignaH = said to, much, in dreadfulness; pashyan tau rama lakshmaNau = on seeing, those, Rama and Lakshmana.
On seeing Rama and Lakshmana then that chief of monkeys Sugreeva with much dreadfulness said this to his ministers. [4- 2- 5]
etau vanam idam durgam vāli praṇihitau dhruvam |
chadmanā cīra vasanau pracarantau iha āgatau || 4-2-6
6. chiira vasanau = jute cloths, wearers of; chadmanaa = deceitfully; idam durgam vanam pracharantau = this, in forest, impassable one, moving about; etau vali praNihitaun dhruvam = by Vali, dispatched, definitely; iha aagatau = here, they have come.
"Here they come wearing jute cloths and move about in this impassable forest deceitfully, definitely Vali must have dispatched them... [4-2-6]
tataḥ sugrīva sacivā dṛṣṭvā parama dhanvinau |
jagmuḥ giri taṭāt tasmād anyat śikharam uttamam || 4-2-7
7. tataH sugriiva sachivaa = then, Sugreeva's ministers; dR^iSTvaa parama dhanvinau = on seeing, great, archers; giri taTaat tasmaat = mountain's, terrace, from that; anyat shikharam uttamam = to another peak, higher ones; jagmuH = they went away.
Then on seeing the great archers Rama and Lakshmana the ministers of Sugreeva have gone from that mountain terrace to another high-peaked mountain. [4- 2- 7]
te kṣipram abhigamya atha yūthapā yūthaparṣabham |
harayo vānara śreṣṭham parivārya upatasthire || 4-2-8
8. atha = then; yuudhapaa = group leaders [of monkeys]; te harayaH = those, monkeys; kSipram abhigamya yuudhapa R^ishabham = quickly, [returned and ] approached, group-leader [Sugreeva]; vaanar shreSTam parivaarya = monkey's, chieftain, gathered around; upataH sthire = nearby, stood.
Then the group-leaders of monkeys quickly arrived as they fled, at that lofty monkey group-leader Sugreeva, the chieftain of monkeys, gathering around him there they stood at his nearby. [4-2-8]
evam eka āyana gatāḥ plavamānā gireḥ girim |
prakaṃpayanto vegena girīṇām śikharāṇi ca || 4-2-9
9. evam eka aayana gataaH = thus, to one, course, reached out; plavamaanaaH = hopping; gireH girim = mountain, to mountain; pra kampayantaH vegena = well, shuddering, by [their] hastiness; giriiNaam shikaharaaNi api = mountain's, and their peak's, even.
Thus they reached to one course of return, after hopping from one mountain to the other, shuddering mountains and even thir peaks by their trample in hastiness. [4-2-9]
tataḥ śākhā mṛgāḥ sarve plavamānā mahābalāḥ |
babhaṃjuḥ ca nagān tatra puṣpitān durgam āśritān || 4-2-10
10. tataH shaakhaa mR^igaaH = then, tree-branch, animals [monkeys]; sarve plavamaanaa = all of them, swinging; mahaa balaaH = great, in strength; bhabhanjuH cha = wrecked down, also; nagaan tatra puSpitaan = trees, there, flowered; durgam aashritaan = forest, clumped.
Then all of the tree-branch animals, who are great in their strength, have wrecked down the well-flowered trees that are clumped in that forest on that mountain by their swinging. [4- 2- 10]
āplavanto harivarāḥ sarvataḥ tam mahāgirim |
mṛga mārjāra śārdūlān trāsayanto yayuḥ tadā || 4-2-11
11. hari varaH = monkeys, the best; tam mahaagirim = on that, great mountain; aaplavantaH sarvataH = with their hopping, everywhere; tadaa = thus; yuyuH = they hopped; traasyantaH = frightening; mR^iga maarjaara sharduulaan = deer, wildcats, tigers.
While those best monkeys hopped everywhere they have frightened deer, wildcats and tigers on that great mountain. [4-2-11]
tataḥ sugrīva sacivāḥ parvatendre samāhitāḥ |
saṃgamya kapi mukhyena sarve prāṃjalayaḥ sthitāḥ || 4-2-12
12. tataH sugriiva sachivaaH = then, Sugreeva's, ministers; parvata indre samaahitaaH = on the mountain, the best, on assembling; sangamya kapi mukhyena = gathering around, monkey's chief; sarve praanjalayoH sthitaH = all, with adjoined palms, stood.
Then the ministers of Sugreeva, assembled on that best mountain and gathered around the chief of monkeys Sugreeva, and all stood with their adjoined palms. [4-2-12]
tataḥ tu bhaya saṃtrastam vāli kilbiṣa śankitam |
uvāca hanumān vākyam sugrīvam vākya kovidaḥ || 4-2-13
13. tataH = then; vaakya kovidaH = sentence-maker, the ablest hanumaan = Hanuma; bhaya samtrastam = then, but, with fear, dismayed; vaali kilbiSa shankitam = Vali's, mischief, doubting; sugriivam = to Sugreeva; uvaacha vaakyam = said, sentence.
Then Hanuma, the ablest sentence-maker, said this sentence to Sugreeva who is dismayed with fear doubting Vali's mischief. [4-2-13]
saṃbhramaḥ tyajatām eṣa sarvaiḥ vāli kṛte mahān |
malayo.ayam girivaro bhayam na iha asti vālinaḥ || 4-2-14
14. sambhramaH tyajataam eSa = perplexity, ward-off, this sort of; sarvaiH = all of you; vali kR^ite mahaan = by Vali, owing to, great [fear]; malayaH ayam giri varaH = Malaya mountain, this one, mountain, the best; bhayam na iha asti = scare, not, here, is there; VaalinaH = from Vali.
"Perplexity be warded off... all of you discarded that great fear from Vali or his cruelty... there is no scare from Vali here on this best mountain, for it is Mt. Malaya... [4-2-14]
This opening assurance by Hanuma to 'ward off any perplexity...' may be noticed. These statements and deeds are befitting to the fame of Hanuma to ward off any evil force. The sanctity of this mountain and a no-entry to Vali at this place is explained in next few chapters. This vaali kR^itaH and vaalikR^ite are two renderings, where, valikR^itaH is in the present context is for the arrival of Rama and Lakshmana, and vaalikR^ite, is for that which Vali has done previously. In either case, there is no fear on this Mt. Rishyamuka or also called Mt. Malaya, because Vali cannot step on this mountain due to a curse.
yasmāt udvigna cetāḥ tvam vidruto haripuṃgava |
tam krūra darśanam krūram na iha paśyāmi vālinam || 4-2-15
15. hari pungavaH = monkey, the best - oh, Sugreeva; tvam yasmaat udvigna chetaaH = you, by whom, bewildered, at heart; vi drutaH = you ran away; tam = that one; kruura darshanam kruuram vaalinam = ferocious one for sight, atrocious one, Vali; na iha pashyaami = not, here, I see.
"By whom you are bewildered at heart and running away, oh, the best monkey Sugreeva, I do not see that cruel-looking, cruel Vali here... [4- 2-15]
yasmāt tava bhayam saumya pūrvajāt pāpa karmaṇaḥ |
sa na iha vālī duṣṭātmā na te paśyāmi aham bhayam || 4-2-16
16. yasmaat tava bhayam = from whom, your, fear; saumya = oh gentle one; puurva jaat papa karmaNaH = earlier born one [elder brother,] evildoer; sa na iha = he, not, here; vaalii duSTa aatmaa = Vali, harmful, in intent; na te pashyaami aham bhayam = not, by him, perceive, I, fear.
"From whom your fear is spurted, oh, gentle Sugreeva, that elder brother of yours, who is an evildoer and the one with harmful intent... that Vali is not here. Therefore I perceive no fear from him...[4-2-16]
aho śākhā mṛgatvam te vyaktam eva plavaṃgama |
laghu cittatayā ātmānam na sthāpayasi yo matau || 4-2-17
17. aho = aho; plavangamaH = oh, monkey; yaH = you who are; laghu chittatayaa aatmaanam = least-minded [felt small,] yurself; matau na sthaapayasi = not, able to stay firm in mind; te shakhaa mrigatvam vyaktavam eva = your, monkeyshines, is clear, thus.
"Aha! You made a monkey of yourself, oh, monkey, and you feel small, thus you are not able to stay firm in your mind by that fickleness, and your monkeyshines is clear by it... [4-2-17]
buddhi vijñāna saṃpanna iṅgitaiḥ sarvam ācara |
na hi abuddhim gato rājā sarva bhūtāni śāsti hi || 4-2-18
18. buddhi viGYaana sampannaH = intellect, wisdom, be possessed with; i~NgitaiH = intent expressed [in body language]; sarvam aachara = all, you undertake; a buddhim gataH rajaa = lacking, ideas, king; sarva bhuutaani na shaasti hi = all, his subjects; cannot, control, certainly.
"Keep your intellect and wisdom firm, and express all your intents rightly in your body language in all your undertakings... certainly, a king getting into unintelligence cannot command all his subjects..." So said Hanuma to Sugreeva. [4-2-18]
sugrīvaḥ tu śubham vākyam śrutvā sarvam hanūmataḥ |
tataḥ śubhataram vākyam hanūmantam uvāca ha || 4-2-19
19. sugriiaH tu subham vaakyam = Sugreeva, but, propitious, sentence; shruvtaa sarvam = on hearing, entirely; hanuumataH = from Hanuma; tataH = then; subhataram vaakyam = opportune, sentence; hanuumantam uvaacha ha = to Hanuma, spoke, indeed.
Sugreeva thus hearing entirely to all the propitious words of Hanuma spoke to Hanuma this opportune sentence, positively. [4-2-19]
dīrgha bāhū viśālākṣau śara cāpa asi dhāriṇau |
kasya na syāt bhayam dṛṣṭvā hi etau sura suta upamau || 4-2-20
20. diirgha baahuu vishaala akshau = lengthy arms, broad eyed ones; shara chaapa asi dhaariNau = arrow, bow, sword, wielders of; kasya na syaat bhayam = to whom, will not, be there, scare; dR^iSTvaa etau = on seeing, these two; sura suta upamau = Divinity's, sons, in simile.
"Lengthy are their arms, broad are their eyes and they are the wielders of arrows, bows and swords... and on seeing them, to whom there will be no scare? These two are like the sons of some divinity..." Sugreeva thus spoke to Hanuma. [4-2-20]
vāli praṇihitau eva śanke aham puruṣottamau |
rājāno bahu mitrāḥ ca viśvāso na atra hi kṣamaḥ || 4-2-21
21. vaali praNihitau eva = from Vali, abetted, thus; shanke aham = presume, I; puruSottamau = best among men [Rama, Lakshmana]; raajaanaH bahu mitraaH cha = to kings, many, friends, also; vishvaasha na atra hi = trust, not, there, verily; [na ] kshamaH = not, pardonable [mistake.]
"I presume these two... those best of men are abetted by Vali to assault me... for, the kings like Vali do have many friends and trusting them absolutely is an unpardonable mistake... [4-2-21]
arayaḥ ca manuṣyeṇa vijñeyāḥ chadma cāriṇaḥ |
viśvastānām aviśvastāḥ chidreṣu praharanti api || 4-2-22
22. arayaH cha manushyeNa viGYeyaa = enemies, also, by men, to be assessed; chadma chaariNaH = disguised, movers; vishvasthaanam = trustful ones are; a vishvastaanam = by distrustful ones [enemies]; chidreSu = on any possible occasion; praharanti = be trounced.
"By men the enemies are to be assessed... for, they move in disguise and distrustful enemies will trounce the complacently self-assured ones that relax in their own self-confidence on any possible occasion... [4-2-22]
kṛtyeṣu vālī medhāvī rājāno bahu darśanaḥ |
bhavanti para hantāraḥ te jñeyāḥ prākṛtaiḥ naraiḥ || 4-2-23
23. kR^ityeSu vaalii medhaavii = in exploits, Vali, is ingenious; raajaanaH bahu darshanaaH = kings, many, observing; bhavanti para hantaaraH = they will be, others [enemies,] eliminators of; te GYeyaaH = they, knowable; praakR^itaiH janaiH = by ordinary, people.
"In exploits Vali is an ingenious one... and the kings will be observing many aspects of their enemies to eliminate them... and they the kings are to be known even by ordinary people... [4- 2- 23]
tau tvayā prākṛtena eva gatvā jñeyau plavaṃgama |
iṅgitānām prakāraiḥ ca rūpavyā bhāṣaṇena ca || 4-2-24
24. plavangamaH = oh, monkey Hanuma; tvayaa praakR^itena eva gatvaa = by you, in commoner's form [undistinguished form] alone, on going; tau = their; i~Ngitaanaam = their intentions; prakaaraiH cha = by their conduct; ruupa vyaabhashaNena cha = by semblance, conversation, as well; GYeyau = is to be known
"Begone to them oh, monkey Hanuma, in a commoner's form, for your monkey-hood is distinguishable by Vali's agents, and know the intentions of those two by their conduct, by their semblance, and by their conversation, as well...[4-2-24]
lakṣayasva tayoḥ bhāvam prahṛṣṭa manasau yadi |
viśvāsayan praśaṃsābhiḥ iṅgitaiḥ ca punaḥ punaḥ || 4-2-25
mama eva abhimukham sthitvā pṛccha tvam hari puṃgava |
prayojanam praveśasya vanasya asya dhanur dharau || 4-2-26
25, 26. haripungavaH = oh, best monkey, Hanuma; lakSayasva tayoH bhaavam = aim at, their, concepts; pra hR^iSTa manasau yadi = well, pleasant, hearted, if; i~NgitaiH cha = conducting yourself, also; prashamshaabhi = commending them; punaH punaH = again and again; vishvaasayan = creating confidence in them; mama abhimukham eva sthitvaa = to me, companionate, alone, facing them; dhanur dharau = those, bow, wielders; asya vanasya praveshsya prayojanam [kim] = in this, forest, entrance's, purposefulness [what is]; tvam pR^icCha = you , ask, inquire.
"Aim at their concepts and if they are pleasant-hearted, duly create confidence in them by conducting yourself, and also commending them again and again... oh, best of monkeys, Hanuma, set their face towards me alone in a compassionate manner, and you inquire about the reason of their entering this forest alone... of those bows wielders... [4-2-25, 26]
For this prahR^iSTa manau yadi, this is said to be the text of Govindaraja, whereas the still ancient manuscripts read this as duSTa manasau yadi, evil-minded if... because Sugreeva's suspicion is not yet ameliorated, and he still views them as evildoers. For the first compound, mama abhimukham eva sthitvaa some said the meaning that Hanuma should stand with his face facing Sugreeva while talking to Rama and Lakshmana. Sugreeva is now on Mt. Rishyamuka and Rama is somewhere at a distant place to where Hanuma takes a flight later. Then keeping Hanuma's face towards Sugreeva, rather than towards Rama and Lakshmana, is appearing to be an uncomfortable position. For this some old translations say, shitvaa keep them, position them towards my friendship and me.
śuddha ātmānau yadi etau jānīhi tvam plavaṃgama |
vyābhāṣitaiḥ vā rūpaiḥ vā vijñeyā duṣṭatā anayoḥ || 4-2-27
27. plavangama = oh, monkey; etau shuddha aatmanau yadi = these two, clean, at heart, if; tvam jaaniihi = you ,shall know; anayoH duSTataa vaa = their, evil-mindedness, or [otherwise]; vyabhaaSitaiH viGYeyaa = by conversation, be known.
"You shall know whether those two are clean at heart or otherwise, or about their evil-mindedness or otherwise by conversation..." Thus Sugreeva said to Hanuma. [4-2-27]
iti evam kapirājena saṃdiṣṭo mārutātmajaḥ |
cakāra gamane buddhim yatra tau rāma lakṣmaṇau || 4-2-28
28. iti evam kapi raajena sandiSTaH = thus, this way, by monkeys king, ordered; maaruta aatmajaH = Air-god's son, Hanuma; chakaara gamane buddhim = made-up, to go, his mind; yatra tau raama lakshmaNu = where, those two, Rama and Lakshmana [are there.]
Thus this way ordered by Sugreeva, the king of monkeys, Hanuma, the son of Air-god made up his mind to go there, where Rama and Lakshmana are. [4-2-28]
tathā iti saṃpūjya vacaḥ tu tasya
kapeḥ subhītasya durāsadasya |
mahānubhāvo hanumān yayau tadā
sa yatra rāmo atibalī sa lakṣmaṇaḥ || 4-2-29
29. mahaanubhaavaH = the marvellous one; kapeH hanumaan = monkey, Hanuma; duraasadasya = inaccessible one; su bhiitasya = very much frightened one[Sugreeva]; tasya vachaH tathaa iti = his, words, like that [I will do,] thus; sampuujya = on paying respects; ati balii sa lakshmaNaH saH raamaH = highly mighty one, he, who is with Lakshmana; yatra = where he is; tadaa yayau = then, proceeded.
That marvellous monkey Hanuma agreeing for the words of that inaccessible and very much frightened Sugreeva, and on respectfully replying him saying that, 'I will do accordingly...' proceeded there where that highly mighty Rama is there along with Lakshmana. [4-2-29]
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇde dvitīyaḥ sargaḥ ||
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