Rama explains to dying Vali as to why he gave such a punishment. Rama categorically explains all the question put by Vali in the last chapter from the viewpoint of scriptures that lay down principle for sanaatana dharma, eternal tradition, as well as raaja dharma, king's duty. Vali finally concludes that there is someone superior to him and thus seeks refuge in Rama.
iti uktaḥ praśritam vākyam dharma artha sahitam hitam |
paruṣam vālinā rāmo nihatena vicetasā || 4-18-1
1. raamaH = Rama; nihatena = hit down; vicetasaa = without vitality [collapsing]; vaalinaa = with Vali; dharma artha sahitam = probity, meaning, containing; hitam = expedient; paruSam vaakyam = exacting, words; prashritam = [but] humbly; iti uktaH = thus, [Rama,] was addressed [by Vali.]
Thus, Vali who is hit down by arrow and who is collapsing humbly spoke exacting words that contained probity, meaningfulness, and expedience, to Rama. [4-18-1]
tam niṣprabham iva ādityam mukta toyam iva aṃbudam |
ukta vākyam hari śreṣṭham upaśāṃtam iva analam || 4-18-2
dharma artha guṇa saṃpannam hari īśvaram anuttamam |
adhikṣiptaḥ tadā rāmaḥ paścāt vālinam abravīt || 4-18-3
2. tadaa = then; raamaH = Rama; adhikSiptaH = he who is arraigned [find fault with; call into question, an action or statement, imputed, Rama by Vali]; niS prabham aadityam iva = without, luster, sun, like - to lusterless Vali; mukta toyam ambudam iva = released, waters, cloud, like; upashaantam analam iva = quenched, fire, like; hari shreSTham = to monkey, the best; hari iishvaram = to monkeys, lord; an uttamam = unexcelled one; dharma artha guNa sampannam = righteousness, meaningfulness, attributes, abounding with - in the words of Vali; ukta vaakyam = on who has the words spoken, Vali; vaalinam = to Vali; pashcaat abraviit = [Rama] subsequently, spoke.
Then to him who is rendered like a lusterless sun, fizzling out like a cloud that released its water, and who became like a quenched fire, to such a best monkey and an unexcelled lord of monkeys who has just now imputed Rama with words that are abounding with righteousness and meaningfulness, Rama spoke subsequently. [4-18-3, 4]
The words Vali spoke contain righteousness from his viewpoint, when he said 'How did you hit me without confronting me...' and the meaningfulness in the words like 'a quarrel comes when gold and silver are the cause, I should have brought Ravana without bloodshed, I would have brought Maithili and presented before your...' etc. But these words are with the death time wisdom of Vali, and they become parroted saying but cannot be practical with the kind of righteousness followed by Vali.
dharmam artham ca kāmam ca samayam ca api laukikam |
avijñāya katham bālyāt mām iha adya vigarhase || 4-18-4
4. dharmam artham ca kaamam ca = probity, prosperity, pleasures gaining; laukikam samayam = social, conventions; ca api = also, even; a vij~naaya = un, knowingly - uncaring; iha adya baalyaat = in this matter, now, childishly; maam katham vigarhase = me, how, rebuking.
"Uncaring for probity, prosperity, pleasure deriving, and even for the social conventions, now how do you rebuke me childishly in this matter? [4-18-4]
apṛṣṭvā buddhi saṃpannān vṛddhān ācārya saṃmatān |
saumya vānara cāpalyāt tvam mām vaktum iha icchasi || 4-18-5
5. buddhi sampannaan = intellectually, enriched; aacaarya sammataan = to mentors, agreeable ones; vR^iddhaan = doyens [ of your race]; a pR^iSTvaa = without, asking, un, asking - unconsulting [about the deeds you undertook]; tvam = you; saumya = o, gentle one; [or saumyam maam = gentle, me]; maam = with me; vaanara caapalyaat = a monkey's [primate's,] with caprice; iha vaktum = in this matter, to talk - to debate; [katham = how do]; icChasi = you wish.
"Unconsulted are the doyens of your race that are intellectually well off and agreeable to your mentors about rights and wrongs about your deeds, oh, gentle one, how do you wish to debate with me in this matter with your primate's caprice. [4-18-5]
ikṣvākūṇām iyam bhūmiḥ sa śaila vana kānanā |
mṛga pakṣi manuṣyāṇām nigraha anugraheṣu api || 4-18-6
6. sa shaila vana kaananaa = with, mountains, woods, forests; iyam bhuumiH = this, earth; mR^iga pakSi manuSyaaNaam = of animals, of birds, of humans; nigraha anugraheSu api = [authority] to control, to punish, to condone, even in; ikSvaakuuNaam = [this belongs to] Ikshvaku-s.
"This earth with its mountains, woods, and forests, even along with the authority to condone or condemn the animals, birds, and humans on it belongs to Ikshvaku-s. [4-18-6]
Vali's question No. 4] 'I have not done any misdeed either in your country or city...' is answered in this, "when entire earth belongs to us where is the question of a city or a particular country?"
tām pālayati dharmātmā bharataḥ satyavān ṛjuḥ |
dharma kāma artha tattvajño nigraha anugrahe rataḥ || 4-18-7
7. dharmaatmaa satyavaan R^ijuH = virtue-souled one, one who abides truth; straightforward - plain-speaking; dharma kaama artha tattva j~naH = probity, pleasures prosperity, import, knower of; nigraha anugrahe rataH = in controlling, in condoning, concerned in; bharataH = Bharata; taam paalayati = her [earth,] is ruling.
"He who is virtue-souled, truth-abiding, plain-speaking, and the knower of the import of probity, pleasures, and prosperity, and the one who is concerned in controlling or condoning his subjects, that Bharata is the ruler of earth. [4-18-7]
nayaḥ ca vinayaḥ ca ubhau yasmin satyam ca susthitam |
vikramaḥ ca yathā dṛṣṭaḥ sa rājā deśa kālavit || 4-18-8
8. yasmin = in whom; nayaH ca vinayaH ca ubhau = scrupulousness, also, benignancy, both are there; satyam ca su sthitam = truthfulness, also, firmly, abides in; vikramaH ca yathaa dR^iSTaH = valour, also, as has been, seen [stipulated by scriptures]; saH desha kaala vit raajaa = he is, place, time, knower, king.
"In whom both scrupulousness and benignancy are there, truthfulness is firmed up, and valour as evinced by scriptures is evident, and he who is the knower of time and place is the king, namely Bharata. [4-18-8]
tasya dharma kṛta ādeśā vayam anye ca pārthivaḥ |
carāmo vasudhām kṛtsnām dharma saṃtānam icchavaḥ || 4-18-9
9. tasya = his [by him]; dharma kR^ita aadeshaa = for righteousness, made, decree; holding; vayam = we [Rama, Lakshmana]; anye paarthivaH ca = other, kings, also; dharma sam taanam = rightness, good, continuity - continuum; icChavaH = while desiring for; kR^itsnaam vasudhaam caraamaH = entire, on earth, we are moving.
"Holding his virtuous decree desiring to keep up the continuum of righteousness, we and some other kings are wayfaring this earth in its entirety. [4-18-9]
The 'virtuous decree to keep up virtue' dharma kR^ita aadesha is not that of Bharata, but by the king raaaja dharma kR^ita aadesha. Bharata as younger brother cannot order his elder, and that too, a 'would-have-been-king,' but the throne demands it to be done by any subject, and now Bharata is in that throne. Actually Bharata did not give any explicit orders to Rama or others making them responsible for the upkeep of dharma, on his behalf. Rama himself orders Bharata as at: tvam raajaa bharata bhava svayam naraaNaam | vanyaanaam aham api raaja raaNmR^igaaNaam | Ayodhya Kanda II, 1-674-17 'Bharata, you become the king of humans, and I shall be the king of forest-beings...' Thus, taking responsibility on his own shoulders, in his own duty as a Kshatriya to keep up dharma, Rama is trekking forests. Some 'other kings' roaming like this are not detailed.
tasmin nṛpati śārdūla bharate dharma vatsale |
pālayati akhilām pṛthvīm kaḥ caret dharma vipriyam || 4-18-10
10. nR^ipati shaarduula = kingly, tiger; dharma vatsala = righteousness, patron of; tasmin bharate = that, Bharata; akhilaam pR^ithviim paalayati = entire, earth, while ruling; kaH = who; dharma vi priyam = to morality, un, acceptable [way]; charet = [who] conducts.
"While that Bharata, the kingly-tiger and a patron of virtue, is ruling the earth in its entirety, who is there to conduct himself in an unacceptable way to morality on it? [4-18-10]
te vayam mārga vibhraṣṭam svadharme parame sthitāḥ |
bharata ājñām puraskṛtya nigṛhṇīmo yathā vidhi || 4-18-11
11. parame sva dharme sthitaaH = pre-eminent, our own, righteousness, abiding; vayam = we; bharata aaj~naam puraskR^itya = Bharata's, orders, abided by; maarga vibhraSTam = of path, deviant one; yathaa vidhi = according to, custom; nigR^ihNiimaH = we control = punish.
"Abiding in our own pre-eminent righteousness, and even abiding by the order of Bharata we punish him who deviated from the path of morality, according to custom. [4-18-11]
tvam tu saṃkliṣṭa dharmaḥ ca karmaṇā ca vigarhitaḥ |
kāma taṃtra pradhānaḥ ca na sthito rāja vartmani || 4-18-12
12. tvam tu = as for you; samkliSTa dharmaH = complicated - decadent, virtue is made to; karmaNaa ca vigarhitaH = by deeds - decadent behaviour, also, reprovable; kaama tantra pradhaanaH ca = carnality, doctrine, primary, also; raaja vartmani na sthitaH = in king's, route [conduct,] not, abided.
"As for you, you brought virtue to a state of decadence, rendered yourself reprovable by your own decadent behaviour, for carnality alone has become your primary doctrine, and thus you have not abided by the conduct meetly to a king. [4-18-12]
Vali's question 5. 'Non-guilty being is hurt...' is answered: 'your only guilt is that you have not abided by conduct a king should have...' The nature of that guilt is narrated in next verses.
jyeṣṭho bhrātā pitā caiva yaḥ ca vidyām prayacchati |
trayaḥ te pitaro jñeyā dharme ca pathi vartinaḥ || 4-18-13
13. dharme pathi vartinaH = [for him who] in virtuous, way, treader; jyeSThaH bhraataa pita ca eva = elder, brother, is father, also, thus; yaH ca = he who; vidyaam prayacChati = education, endows; he too; te trayaH pitaraH j~neyaa = they, three, fathers, thus are to be known.
"It is to be known by him who treads the way of righteousness that he has three fatherly personages, namely his own father, his elder brother, and the one who accords education to him. [4-18-13]
yavīyān ātmanaḥ putraḥ śiṣyaḥ ca api guṇoditaḥ |
putravat te trayaḥ ciṃtyā dharmaḥ caiva atra kāraṇam || 4-18-14
14. yaviiyaan = younger brother; putraH = son; guNoditaH shiSyaH ca api = with good characteristics, disciple, also, even; te trayaH = these, three; aatmanaH putra vat = one's, own, son like; cintyaa = are to be deemed; atra dharmaH caiva kaaraNam = there - in that matter, rectitude, alone, is the base.
"An younger brother, a son, and a disciple with good characteristics, these three are to be deemed as one's own sons, for such matters take base on rectitude alone. [4-18-14]
sūkṣmaḥ parama durjñeyaḥ satām dharmaḥ plavaṃgama |
hṛdisthaḥ sarva bhūtānām ātmā veda śubhāśubham || 4-18-15
15. plavamgama = oh, fly-jumper Vali; sataam dharmaH su ukSmaH = by principled people, probity [practised ,] is very, subtle; parama dur j~neyaH = highly, not, ponderable; sarva bhuutaanaam hR^idi sthaH aatmaa = in all, beings, in heart, abiding, soul; shubha a shubham = good and bad, just and unjust; veda = knows - differentiates.
"The probity practised by principled people is very subtle and highly imponderable, and the soul that abides in the hearts of all beings alone can differentiate between just and unjust. [4-18-15]
In another way the above is: 'I am that Supreme Soul residing in the hearts of all beings. So I alone will decide what is right and what is wrong...' Vali's question 8 is taken up. 'Your primary aspiration is to kill without probing into good or bad...' is answered saying that 'I am the decider...'
capalaḥ capalaiḥ sārdham vānaraiḥ akṛta ātmabhiḥ |
jātyaṃdha iva jātyandhaiḥ maṃtrayan drakṣyase nu kim || 4-18-16
16. capalaH = [you are a ] vacillant; a kR^ita aatmabhiH = un, controlled [frantic,] minded ones; capalaiH vaanaraiH saardham = with vacillant, monkeys, your kind of; jaati andha jaati andhaiH iva = by birth, blind, with them who by birth, blind, like; mantrayan = by counselling; drakSyase nu kim = can you see, [can you fathom, distinguish, what is just and unjust,] really, what?
"Like a blind by birth counselling with similarly blind, you being a vacillant, on your counselling only with frantic minded vacillant monkeys, what can you really fathom about right and wrong? [4-18-16]
aham tu vyaktatām asya vacanasya bravīmi te |
na hi mām kevalam roṣāt tvam vigarhitum arhasi || 4-18-17
17. aham = I; asya vacanasya = about these, words [of mine]; vyaktataam = will clarify; te braviimi = to you, I am telling; tvam kevalam roSaat = you, just by, outrage; maam vigarhitum = me, to disdain, scorn; na arhasi hi = not, apt of you, indeed.
"I will clarify about the words I have said, but I tell you that it is indeed inapt of you to disdain me just out of your outrage. [4-18-17]
tat etat kāraṇam paśya yat artham tvam mayā hataḥ |
bhrātur vartasi bhāryāyām tyaktvā dharmam sanātanam || 4-18-18
18. tvam yat artham mayaa hataH = you are, by which, reason, by me, killed; tat etat kaaraNam pashya = that, this, reason, behold; sanaatanam dharmam tyaktvaa = perpetual, tradition, on forsaking; bhraatuH bhaaryaayaam vartasi = in brother's, wife, you misbehaved.
"Realise this reason by which I have eliminated you... you misbehaved with your brother's wife, forsaking the perpetual tradition. [4-18-18]
With this one and only reason Rama suffices all the thirteen questions of Vali, as summarised in endnote of last chapter. Beyond this Rama also answers other paltry questions, later.
asya tvam dharamāṇasya sugrīvasya mahātmanaḥ |
rumāyām vartase kāmāt snuṣāyām pāpa karmakṛt || 4-18-19
19. mahaatmanaH asya sugriivasya = great-souled, his, Sugreeva's; dharamaaNasya = while alive; paapa karma kR^it = sinful, act, while doing; kaamaat = with lust; snuSaayaam rumaayaam vartase = in daughter-in-law, in Ruma, you misbehaved.
"While the great-souled Sugreeva is still alive, you with your habit of sinful acts have lustily misbehaved with Sugreeva's wife Ruma, who should be counted as your daughter-in-law. [4-18-19]
Vali being a king, he committed incest transgressing tradition. vaalii taavat sva raajye sthitvaa dharmaati kramam kR^itavaan | dharma duuShakaH ca raajaa avashyam daNDaniiyaH | dharmaakuutamThis is the very fault found by Rama when expressing 'vaalii caaritra duuSakaH 'abuser of history/tradition...' in Kishkindha, 4-10-33.
tad vyatītasya te dharmāt kāma vṛttasya vānara |
bhrātṛ bhāryā abhimarśe asmin daṇḍo ayam pratipāditaḥ || 4-18-20
20. vaanara = oh, vanara; tat = thereby; dharmaat vyatiitasya = from tradition / virtue, he who transgressed; kaama vR^ittasya = in immorality, who is abiding - for dissolute; te = to you; asmin = in this [for the sin]; bhraatR^i bhaaryaa abhimarshe = brother's, wife, for touching - abusing; ayam daNDaH pratipaaditaH = this, punishment, proposed - imposed.
"Thereby, oh, vanara, this punishment is imposed on you, for your dissolute sinning in abusing your brother's wife, thereby for your transgression of tradition and virtue. [4-18-20]
Vali's question 10, 'inveterate killers are hell-goers...' is replied, 'killing a sinner is no sin and no hell is ensuing thereby...' is the reply, establishing Vali's sin.
na hi loka viruddhasya loka vṛttāt apeyuṣaḥ |
daṇḍāt anyatra paśyāmi nigraham hari yūthapa || 4-18-21
21. hari yuuthapa = oh, monkey's, chief; loka viruddhasya = to world - society, contrary one; loka vR^ittaat apeyuSaH = world's, convention, one who is deviant; daNDaat anyatra = from punishment, other than; nigraham = [other sort of] control; na pashyaami hi = not, I see, indeed.
"I foresee no other kind of control other than punishment to him who conducts himself contrary to the society and who is deviant of conventions. [4-18-21]
Vali's question: 2] 'you are not punishing the wrongdoer...' is answered. saama daanam kSamaa dharmaH satyam dhR^iti 'influencing, largesse, forbearance, probity, candour' etc., will work with kings of equal status and worthiness in political strategies. But you are an inferior with an immodest conduct. Then, why should I waste that much of political manoeuvre in your regard? Thus you are eliminated straightaway...' Vali may counter Rama in asking for a lesser punishment than killing, like exiling etc., which he has given to Sugreeva. For this Rama is ready to say that no other punishment is evident than the one said by Manu: sapiNDaapatya daareShu (retaH siktvaa) praaNa tyaago vidhiiyate - - manu smR^iti.
na ca te marṣaye pāpam kṣtriyo aham kulodgataḥ |
aurasīm bhaginīm vā api bhāryām vā api anujasya yaḥ || 4-18-22
pracareta naraḥ kāmāt tasya daṇḍo vadhaḥ smṛtaḥ |
22, 23a. kula udgataH kshtriyaH = [from best] dynasty, emerged, as a Kshatriya; aham te paapam na marSaye = I, your, wrongdoing, do not, tolerate; yaH naraH = which, person; aurasiim = with daughter; bhaginiim vaa api = with sister, or, even; anujasya bhaaryaam vaa api = with brother's, wife, or, even; kaamaat pracareta = lustfully, involves with; tasya daNDaH vadhaH smR^itaH = his [to him,] punishment, elimination, recalled [from scriptures, specified.]
"As a Kshatriya emerged from a best dynasty I do not tolerate your wrongdoing, and the punishment to the one who lustfully indulges with his daughter, or with his sister, or with the wife of his younger brother is his elimination, as recalled from scriptures. [4-18-22, 23a]
bharataḥ tu mahīpālo vayam tu ādeśa vartinaḥ || 4-18-23
tvam ca dharmāt atikrāntaḥ katham śakyam upekṣitum |
23b, 24a. bharataH tu mahii paalaH = Bharata, but, of land, land; vayam tu aadesha vartinaH = we, but, in his orders, moving ones - proxies adhering to; tvam ca dharmaat ati kraantaH = you, also, from rightness, over, stepped; upekSitum katham shakyam = to be lenient, how, possible.
While Bharata is the lord of land and we are his proxies adhering to his orders, and while you too have overstepped the bounds of rightness, then how is it possible to be lenient? [4-18-23b, 24a]
guru dharma vyatikrāntam prājño dharmeṇa pālayan || 4-18-24
bharataḥ kāma yuktānām nigrahe paryavasthitaḥ |
24b, 25a. praaj~naH = sensible - Bharata; guru dharma vyati kraantam = = weighty - momentous, virtue, [one who] over steps; [him - nighnan = while punishing- Bharata]; dharmeNa paalayan = with righteousness, while ruling; such as he is; bharataH = Bharata; kaama yuktaanaam = lust, those that are with it; nigrahe paryavasthitaH = to put down, is poised for.
"While ruling righteously sensible Bharata punishes him who oversteps the momentous virtue, and he is poised to put down lustful ones. [4-18-24b, 25a]
vayam tu bharata ādeśam vidhim kṛtvā harīśvara |
tvat vidhān bhinna maryādān nigrahītum vyavasthitāḥ || 4-18-25
25 b, c. hari iishvara = oh, monkey's, lord; vayam tu = as for us; bharata aadesham = brother's, orders; vidhim = duty; kR^itvaa = on effectuating; bhinna maryaadaan = one who shattered, ethics; tvat vidhaan = your, kind of; nigrahiitum vyavasthitaaH = to curb, we stand for.
"As for us, oh, monkey's lord, we effectuate our brother's orders and our duty, and we stand for curbing your kind of shatterers of ethics. [4-18-25b, c]
sugrīveṇa ca me sakhyam lakṣmaṇena yathā tathā |
dāra rājya nimittam ca niḥśreyasakaraḥ sa me || 4-18-26
26. sugriiveNa me sakhyam = with Sugreeva, my, association; lakSmaNena yathaa tathaa = with Lakshmana, as with, so it is; daara raajya nimittam ca = wife, kingdom, owing to, also [our friendship materialised]; saH me = he, to me; niHshreyasa karaH = succour, he does.
"My association with Sugreeva is as good as that with Lakshmana, nevertheless it betided with an understanding to regain Sugreeva's wife and kingdom, and he will give succour to me. [4-18-26]
Vali's question 13] 'I would have brought back Maithili in one day...' is given an answer. Bringing Maithili from the captivity of Ravana would have averted Vali's death - so Vali thought. But who will bring Ruma, wife of Sugreeva, and give her back to Sugreeva? Vali does not consider this, and in this alone Vali's transgression is said to have been proved. Thus any truce between Vali and Rama is an impossible and improbable proposition.
What all Rama wanted is the 'search for Seetha...' not bring her to his fore. Elimination of Ravana is to be done by Rama alone, for which Seetha is to be located first. If a truce is struck between Vali and Rama, Vali straightway goes to Ravana and asks for Seetha. If Ravana yields Seetha there is no cause left for his elimination. Ravana for sure refuses to yield her. Then a combat ensues between Ravana and Vali. But Vali can combat one-to-one in a duel and he may not encounter a magical war of Indrajit or Kumbhakarna. Then all the demons will combine to eliminate Vali, thus the epic concludes there haphazardly. Other way round, if Vali seeks help of Ravana and his military to combat Rama, Vali's forces and Ravana's forces will come down on a handful warriors like Rama, Sugreeva Hanuma, and Jambavanta et al. Then the whole of monkey force will be with Vali, and these few warriors will be routed down mercilessly. Above all, Rama has promised Sugreeva to eliminate Vali, the abuser of tradition, and Rama becomes blameworthy if he fails in his word. Hence the simplest formula 'enemy's friend is my enemy too...' works well and Rama followed that only.
pratijñā ca mayā dattā tadā vānara saṃnidhau |
pratijñā ca katham śakyā mat vidhena anavekṣitum || 4-18-27
27. tadaa maya = then - at the time of befriending, by me; vaanara sannidhau = vanara-s, in presence; pratij~naa ca dattaa = promise, also, is given; mat vidhena = by my, type of [person]; pratij~naa = promise; an avekSitum = not, to honour; katham shakyaa = how is, possible.
"I gave a promise to Sugreeva at the time of befriending him in the presence of vanara-s, and how is it possible for my kind to dishonour a given promise? [4-18-27]
In Aranya Kanda he tells Seetha, that he even leaves his life than to feign his promise. api aham jiivitam jahyaam tvaam vaa siite sa lakSmaNaam || 4-10-18. Hence there is no question of his going back on the word given to them that crave for his mercy.
tat ebhiḥ kāraṇaiḥ sarvair mahadbhiḥ dharma saṃhitaiḥ |
śāsanam tava yat yuktam tat bhavān anumanyatām || 4-18-28
28. tat = thereby; dharma samhitaiH = virtue, abounding; sarvaiH mahadbhiH = with all of them, with supreme values; ebhiH kaaraNaiH = due to these, reasons; tava yat shaasanam = to you, which, punishment; yuktam = befitting; tat bhavaan anumanyataam = that, by you, you infer.
"Thereby you have to infer that a befitting punishment is given to you, owing to all these great reasons that abound with virtue and with supreme value. [4-18-28]
sarvathā dharma iti eva draṣṭavyaḥ tava nigrahaḥ |
vayasyasya upakartavyam dharmam eva anupaśyatā || 4-18-29
29. tava nigrahaH = your, control [keeping you under control, punishing you]; sarvathaa dharmaH iti eva = anywise, is righteous - condign, legitimate, thus, only; draSTavyaH = is to be seen [you shall regard it]; dharmam anupashyataa = rectitude, he who is guided by it; vayasyasya upakartavyam eva = to a friend, has to render assistance, alone - in any event.
"Anywise, you have to regard the punishment given to you is legitimate, and he whom rectitude guides has to render assistance to his friend, in any event. [4-18-29]
śakyam tvayā api tat kāryam dharmam eva anuvartatā |
śrūyate manunā gītau ślokau cāritra vatsalau ||
gṛhītau dharma kuśalaiḥ tathā tat caritam mayāa || 4-18-30
30. dharmam eva anuvartataa = righteous, only, if seen - if pursued [had you pursued]; tvayaa api = by you, even; tat kaaryam shakyam = that, deed [deed of imposing such a punishment,] possible - you too would have done the same; manunaa = by Manu; caaritra vatsalau = good convention, advocates of [the verses said next]; shlokau = two verses - verses of law; giitau = said to be sung - as said to be; shruuyate = we hear so; dharma kushalaiH = in rightness, experts; gR^ihiitau = they [verses] taken - accepted; mayaaa tat tathaa caritam = by me, that [way,] likewise, done - I have conducted myself.
"Had you pursued rightness you too would have done the same deed in imposing such a punishment, and we hear two verses that are given to the advocacy of good conventions, which the experts of rightness have also accepted, and which are said to be coined by Manu, and I too conducted myself only as detailed in those verses of law. [4-18-30]
rājabhiḥ dhṛta daṇḍāḥ ca kṛtvā pāpāni mānavāḥ |
nirmalāḥ svargam āyānti santaḥ sukṛtino yathā || 4-18-31
31. maanavaaH = humans; paapaani kR^itvaa = sins, on making; raajabhiH dhR^ita daNDaaH ca = by kings, imposed, punishment, also; nirmalaaH sukR^itinaH santaH yathaa = unblemished - sinless, with good deeds, pious souled ones, as with; svargam aayaanti = to heaven, they come.
" 'When kings impose proper punishment on the humans who have sinned, they become sinless and enter heaven as with the pious souls with good deeds.' So says one verse of Manu. [4-18-31]
śasanāt vā api mokṣāt vā stenaḥ pāpāt pramucyate |
rājā tu aśāsan pāpasya tad āpnoti kilbiṣam || 4-18-32
32. stenaH = a thief; shasanaat vaa api mokshaat vaa = by punishment, either, even, by releasing - by clemency, or; paapaat pramucyate = from sin, will be released; a shaasan raajaa tu = un, punishing, king, but; paapasya tat kilbiSam aapnoti = sin's, that, blot, he derives.
" 'Either by punishment or by clemency a thief will be absolved from sin, but the king who does not impose proper punishment will derive the blot of that sin.' So says the other verse of Manu. [4-18-32]
āryeṇa mama māndhātrā vyasanam ghoram īpsitam |
śramaṇena kṛte pāpe yathā pāpam kṛtam tvayā || 4-18-33
33. mama aaryeNa maandhaatraa = by my [ancestor,] venerable, Maandhaata; tvayaa yathaa paapam kR^itam = by you, as you have, sin, done - committed; likewise; shramaNena paape kR^ite = by renouncer, [as with] sin, committed; iipsitam ghoram vyasanam = what is desired, terrible, problem [punishment is given.]
"When a renouncer has committed sin like that of the one committed by you, my venerable ancestor Maandhaata has given punishment which he desired. [4-18-33]
This is according to the meaning derived by ancient commentators which doe not go well with the import of earlier verse 'the king derives the blot if he does not punish properly' or with the next one. Rama's ancestor Maandhaata should have got that blot for not punishing a renouncer in proper way. Other mms has this verse like this: puurveNa mama maandhaataa sampraaptam vyasanam mahat | shramaNena kR^ite paape yathaa paapam kR^itam tvayaa || And which verse is to be kept, it is up to the pundits.
Rama is quoting a precedent from his own dynasty. Maandhaata has to impose capital punishment to a sage, for that sage committed some immoral act. Here also the shramaNa is used for a wandering sage, called yati. Because he is religious person is he to let off; a religious person's sinning is doubly punishable; are the problems of Maandhaata. This word shramaNa yati, need not be equated with a Buddhist monk, for they also have same titles, and Maandhaata is said to have existed long before Buddha's era.
anyaiḥ api kṛtam pāpam pramattaiḥ vasudhā adhipaiḥ |
prāyaścittam ca kurvanti tena tat śāmyate rajaḥ || 4-18-34
34. anyaiH api = by others, even; kR^itam paapam = committed [acquired,] sin; pramattaiH vasudhaa adhipaiH = by unobservant, land, lords [kings]; praayashcittam ca kurvanti = make amends, also, do; tena tat rajaH shaamyate = by that, that, filth of sin, they mitigate.
"Such sin is acquired even by other kings who are unobservant in imposing proper punishment, and those kings had to make amends for it at appropriate time, by that propitiation they used to mitigate that filth of that sin. [4-18-34]
The kings who are otherwise busy may not hanker after thieves and sinners always, thus they become unobservant of each and every individual's behaviour. So the kings used to make amends at appropriate time. It is up to the individual to comport properly or improperly. An offender may escape hundred offences, but if caught once, he has to pay for all his wrongdoings.
tat alam paritāpena dharmataḥ parikalpitaḥ |
vadho vānaraśārdūla na vayam sva vaśe sthitāḥ || 4-18-35
35. vaanara shaarduula = Vanara, the tiger; tat alam paritaapena = thereby, enough, with annoyance; vadhaH dharmataH parikalpitaH = [your] elimination, righteously, devised; vayam sva vashe na sthitaaH = we, our own, control, not, abiding - we are not independent.
"Thereby, enough with your annoyance, oh, tigerly vanara, as your elimination is devised righteously, and we too are not independent. [4-18-35]
They are bound by duty. They are not at their free will to act on their own whims and fancies. Vali's question: 9] 'How do you face criticism by scholars?' is answered. ' None can criticise because I have not acted on my own, but bound by scriptures and precedents...' yaa vaa na vadhasya vadhe taavaan vadhasya mokShNe | adharmo nR^ipateH dR^iShTo dharmastu viniyacchataH - manu smR^iti 9-249-'How much sin is acquired by executing a murderer, that much sin is acquired by executing a non-murderer...' which again is somewhat similar to the present day saying, 'let hundred criminals go unpunished, but let no innocent be punished.'
śruṇu ca api aparam bhūyaḥ kāraṇam haripuṃgava |
tat śrutvā hi mahat vīra na manyum kartum arhasi || 4-18-36
36. mahat viira = oh, great, brave one; hari pungava = monkey's, best of; bhuuyaH aparam kaaraNam shruNu = further, another, reason, you hear; tat mahat shrutvaa = that, important [cause,] on hearing; manyum kartum na arhasi = fury, to do, not, apt of you - you will not be infuriated.
"Oh, brave and best one among monkeys, further listen to another cause, and on listening that important cause you will not be infuriated. [4-18-36]
na me tatra manastāpo na manyuḥ haripuṃgava |
vāgurābhiḥ ca pāśaiḥ ca kūṭaiḥ ca vividhaiḥ narāḥ || 4-18-37
praticchannāḥ ca dṛśyāḥ ca gṛhṇanti subahūn mṛgān |
37, 38a. tatra = in that matter - of my killing you, or, your reviling me; me = to me; manaH taapaH = at heart, grief - angst; manyuH = ire; na = are not there; hari pungava = oh, monkey, the best; naraaH = people; vaaguraabhiH ca = with snares, also; paashaiH ca = with loops, also; vividhaiH kuuTaiH ca = numerous, by contrivances, even; praticChannaaH ca dR^ishyaaH ca = covertly, either, overtly, or; su bahuun = very many; mR^igaan gR^ihNanti = animals, they capture.
"I have neither angst nor ire in this matter of my eliminating you, or, your reviling me, oh, best monkey, but listen to the other point I wish to make clear. People will be capturing several animals, either covertly or overtly, with snares, springes and even with numerous contrivances. [4-18-37, 38a]
So far Rama replied Vali with a view that Vanara-s are a species of Vedic-beings who hold fast to Vedic duties like sandhyaa vandana, suuryopasthaana performed by Vali, and swasthyana performed by Tara, and the other their daily routines of Veda-s. But Vali takes a U-turn declaring himself an animal and asks: 6] Why fruits, tubers eating being is killed; 11] Un-wearable is my skin uneatable is my flesh; 12] Five kinds of five-nailed animals are usable by humans...' Rama started to tell how humans deal with animals, should Vali declare himself an animal, if not a specific Vedic-being.
pradhāvitān vā vitrastān visrabdhān ativiṣṭhitān || 4-18-38
pramattān apramattān vā narā māṃsa aśino bhṛśam |
vidhyanti vimukhām ca api na ca doṣo atra vidyate || 4-18-39
38b, 39. maamsa ashinaH naraaH = meat, eating, humans; pra dhaavitaan vaa = speedily, sprinting away, or, vi trastaan = fully, dismayed; vi srabdhaan = without, dismay - roaming with confidence; ati viSThitaan = steadily, standing; pra mattaan = very, vigilant ones; a pramattaan vaa = un, vigilant ones, or; vi mukhaam ca api = away, faced, also, even; bhR^isham vidhyanti = undeniably, will kill; atra doSaH na vidyate ca = in that, blame [sacrilege,] not, evident.
"Meat eating people will undeniably kill animals, either they are speedily sprinting or standing steadily, fully dismayed or undismayed, vigilant or unvigilant, and even if they are facing away, in that there is no sacrilege. [4-18-38b, 39]
yānti rājarṣayaḥ ca atra mṛgayām dharma kovidāḥ |
tasmāt tvam nihato yuddhe mayā bāṇena vānara |
ayudhyan pratiyudhyan vā yasmāt śākhā mṛgo hi asi || 4-18-40
40. atra = in this [world]; dharma kovidaaH = in virtue, well versed ones; raaja R^iSayaH = kings, sagely; mR^igayaam yaanti ca = for hunting, they go, even; vaanara = oh, vanara; tvam = you; a yudhyan = not, combating; prati yudhyan vaa = counter, combating, or; yasmaat shaakhaa mR^igaH asi = by which reason [because,] tree-branch, animal, you are; tasmaat = therefore; mayaa yuddhe baaNena nihataH hi = by me, in combat, with arrow, I felled, indeed.
"In this world even the kingly sages well-versed in virtue will go on hunting, and hunting is no face to face game, as such, oh, vanara, therefore I felled you in combat with my arrow because you are a tree-branch animal, whether you are not combating with me or combating against me. [4-18-40]
'Whether you face this way or that you are an animal, as you alone said, besides being an enemy of my friend...' For this Griffith says - I cannot understand how Valmiki could put such an excuse as this into Rama's mouth. Rama with all solemn ceremony, has made a league of alliance with Vali's younger brother whom he regards as a dear friend and almost as an equal, and now he winds up his reasons for killing Vali by coolly saying: 'Besides you are only a monkey, you know, after all, and as such I have every right to kill you how, when, and where I like.'
durlabhasya ca dharmasya jīvitasya śubhasya ca |
rājāno vānaraśreṣṭha pradātāro na saṃśayaḥ || 4-18-41
41. vaanara shreSTha = oh, Vanara, the best; raajaanaH = kings are; dur labhasya dharmasya = un, obtainable, of righteousness; shubhasya jiivitasya ca = of propitious, lifestyles, also; pra daataaraH = are bounteous, benefactors; na samshayaH = no, doubt.
"Kings are the bounteous benefactors of the unobtainable righteousness and propitious lifestyles, oh, best vanara, no doubt about it. [4-18-41]
tān na hiṃsyāt na ca ākrośen na ākṣipen na apriyam vadet |
devā mānuṣa rūpeṇa caranti ete mahī tale || 4-18-42
42. taan na himsyaat = them, not, to be harmed; na ca aakroshet = not, also, reproved; na aakSipet = not, disparaged; na a priyam vadet = not, dis, pleasing, to be spoken to them; ete devaaH = these, divinities [the kings]; maanuSa ruupeNa = in human, form; mahii tale caranti = earth's, plane, they are moving - conducting themselves.
"They the kings are not to be harmed, also not to be reproved, not disparaged and nothing displeasing is spoken to them, as they are the divinities conducting themselves in human form on the plane of earth. [4-18-42]
tvam tu dharmam avijñāya kevalam roṣam āsthitaḥ |
vidūṣayasi mām dharme pitṛ paitāmahe sthitam || 4-18-43
43. tvam tu = as for you; dharmam a vij~naaya = righteousness, without, knowing; kevalam roSam aasthitaH = solely, to rancour, clinging to; pitR^i paitaamahe dharme sthitam = of fathers, forefathers, in righteousness, abiding by; maam viduuSayasi = me, you revile.
"I am abiding by the ethicalness practised by my father and forefathers, but you revile me without the knowledge of rightness, just by clinging to your rancour." Thus said Rama to dying Vali. [4-18-43]
There is none to say that Vali is 'unkillable...' or 'not to be killed...' But to every one a doubt occurs as to why Rama did not come face to face with and killed him? Why hit him from a remote place? For these doubts, the above said arguments may not suffice or satisfactory, either to Vali or to us, the readers. Dharmaakuutam, the only commentary on Ramayana insofar as dharma is concerned explains that for us.
evam ca adya eva tam haniShyaamiiti pratij~naa paripaalanam tadaa bhavet yadaa pracchannatayaa hanam iti ? prakaashatayaa yuddhaaya aahuutastu, bhayaan aagacchet - rumaam gR^ihiitvaa deshaantaram vaa gacchet - raavaNam vaa samaashrayet - sharaNam vaa samaagacchet - sa sahaayam sugriivam avalokya sakala vaanara senayaa yuddhaartham samaagacchet - vaa tatra adya pakShatraye tad hananasya cirakaala saadhyatvena adyaiva tam haniShyaami rumaam raajyam ca tava daasyaami iti puurva pratij~naa kaalatipaata syaat | pratij~naakaalaatipaate ca doShaH sharanaagatam anapakShe ca sharaNaagato vaalii hanyeta vaa na vaa - na adyaH - sharaNaagata hananasya niShiddhatvaat - - - - raama kR^ite vaali vadhaH adharmadhaayako na bhavati - kim tu dharma eva
When it is said by Rama that 'today only I will kill Vali...' then it may be countered by saying, 'then why killing him from distance, why not confront him?' If Rama comes to fore, fear may grip Vali, then he may take Ruma, Sugreeva's wife, and to insult, Sugreeva further, Vali may go to a distant place with her. Or, he may seek shelter with Ravana. Or, he may even take refuge in Rama like Sugreeva. Or, on seeing Sugreeva with enough support, he may summon all his Vanara army to fight with Sugreeva and his supporters. Then it will prolong for a time. Then the promise of Rama made to Sugreeva to accord his wife and his kingdom by killing Vali, also prolongs. Justice delayed is denied. Otherwise, if Vali surrenders to Rama, as the killing of a refugee is not a merited act, Rama has to pardon Vali. Whether Vali takes refuse or not, killing Vali on that day itself, and establishing Sugreeva in Kishkindha are the promises made by Rama, at the time of befriending Sugreeva. The word given is to be kept up. So Rama did it and there is no unrighteous deed done by Rama. And Vali also accepts this in the coming stanzas.
evam uktaḥ tu rāmeṇa vālī pravyathito bhṛśam |
na doṣam rāghave dadhyau dharme adhigata niścayaḥ || 4-18-44
44. raameNa evam uktaH tu = by Rama, that way, he who is said [categorically]; vaalii bhR^isham pravyathitaH = Vali, muchly, distressed [at heart of hearts]; dharme adhigata nishchayaH = in righteousness, deriving, decisiveness - resolve; raaghave doSam na dadhyau = in Rama, incorrectness, not, found.
Vali is much distressed at heart of hearts when Rama has said categorically in that way, whereby, deriving certitude about rightness he found no incorrectness with Rama. [4-18-44]
From here on Vali's repentance is narrated.
ata eva vaalinaa sakala dharma abhij~nena - bhavataa anabhij~no aham na prati vaktum arhasi - atra ca dharmo'dhigataniscaya iti visheSheNa puurva kR^itam akhilam api raama duuShaNam aj~naana pravR^ittam eva | itaH param vakShyamaaNam akhilam dharmyam eva vadati iti avagatam : dharmaakuutam-Whatever spoken by Vali earlier is without proper knowledge of dharma, and whatever said hereafter is in conformity with righteousness [owing to the dawn of death-time wisdom.] Dharmaakuutam.
pratyuvāca tato rāmam prāṃjalir vānareśvaraḥ |
yat tvam āttha naraśreṣṭha tat thathā eva na atra saṃśayaḥ || 4-18-45
45. tataH vaanara iishvaraH = then, vanara-s, lord Vali; praanjaliH = with adjoined-palms; raamam prati uvaaca = to Rama, inreturn, spoke - replied; nara shreSTha = man, the best among men; tvam yat aattha = you, what, said; tat tathaa eva = that, that way, only - proper; atra samshayaH na = in that, doubt, is not there.
That lord of vanara-s then replied Rama with adjoined palms, "oh, best one among men, what all you have said is that way proper, undoubtedly. [4-18-45]
prativaktum prakṛṣṭe hi na apakṛṣṭaḥ tu śaknuyāt |
yat ayuktam mayā pūrvam pramādāt vākyam apriyam || 4-18-46
tatra api khalu mām doṣam kartum na arhasi rāghava |
46, 47a. raaghava = oh, Raghava; prakR^iSTe = in respect of nobleman; apa kR^iSTaH = ignoble; prati vaktum = in turn, speak - to rebut, disprove; na shaknuyaat hi = not, capable, indeed; mayaa puurvam = by me, earlier; pramaadaat = accidentally - fortuitously; yat = which; a yuktam = un, desirable; a priyam = not, proper; vaakyam [uktam] = words, [spoken]; tatra api = in there, even - with regard to them; maam = towards me; doSam kartum = blame, to make; khalu na arhasi = truly, not, apt of you.
"Indeed an ignoble cannot disprove a nobleman, Raghava, and with regards to the undesirable and improper words I have unwittingly spoken earlier, in that mater too it will be truly unapt of you to make me blameworthy, as I spoke them in anguish and ignorance. [4-18-46, 47a]
tvam hi dṛṣṭārtha tattvajñaḥ prajānām ca hite rataḥ |
kārya kāraṇa siddhau ca prasannā buddhiḥ avyayā || 4-18-47
47b, c. tvam hi dR^iSTa artha tattvaj~naH = you, alone, seen [knower of,] means [recourses, and their] real nature; prajaanaam ca hite rataH = in people's, also, welfare, delighted in; avyayaa buddhiH = with faultless, intellect; kaarya kaaraNa siddhau ca = effect, cause, in accomplishment; prasannaa = serene, clear.
"You alone are the knower of recourses and their real nature, namely probity, prosperity, pleasure seeking, and emancipation; dharma, artha, kaama, moksha ; and you take delight in the welfare of subjects, and your faultless intellect is clear in accomplishing ends by judging the causes and effects. [4-18-47b, c]
mām api avagatam dharmāt vyatikrānta puraskṛtam |
dharma saṃhitayā vācā dharmajña paripālaya || 4-18-48
48. dharmaj~na = oh, knower of probity, Rama; dharmaat avagatam [apa gatam?] = from righteousness, known [digressed]; vyatikraanta [vi ati kraanta] puraskR^itam = [among] transgressors, forerunner; maam api = me, even; dharma samhitayaa vaacaa = righteousness, abounding with, words; paripaalaya = command me - care for me, give me absolution.
"Oh, Rama, the knower of probity, I am the one who digressed from the rightness and a forerunner among such transgressors, such as I am, give absolution even to me with words abounded with rightness." Vali is thus saying to Rama. [4-18-48]
bāṣpa saṃruddha kaṇṭhaḥ tu vālī sa ārta ravaḥ śanaiḥ |
uvāca rāmam saṃprekṣya paṃkalagna iva dvipaḥ || 4-18-49
49. panka lagna dvipaH iva = in slough, plumped, elephant, like; vaalii = Vali; baaSpa sam ruddha kaNThaH tu = tears, fully, impeding, throat, but; sa aarta ravaH = with, agonised, moaning; raamam samprekSya = Rama, keenly, on viewing; shanaiH uvaaca = slowly, [continued] to say.
Vali who like an elephant plumped in slough continued to say slowly, with tears fully impeding his throat and with an agonised moan, on keenly observing Rama. [4-18-49]
na ca ātmānam aham śoce na tārām na api bāndhavān |
yathā putram guṇaśreṣṭham aṃgadam kanakāṃgadam || 4-18-50
50. guNa shreSTham = in virtue, the best; kanaka angadam = one with golden, bicep-lets; putram angadam = about son, Angada; yathaa = as to how [I am worrying]; aham aatmaanam na ca shoche = I, for myself, even, not, worried; taaraam na = about Tara, no; baandhavaan api na = about relative, even, no.
"Also, I neither worry for myself, nor for Tara, nor even for any relatives of mine, as I do for my son Angada, the best-virtuous one with golden bicep-lets. [4-18-50]
sa mama adarśanāt dīno bālyāt prabhṛti lālitaḥ |
taṭāka iva pītāṃbuḥ upaśoṣam gamiṣyati || 4-18-51
51. baalyaat prabhR^iti = childhood, right from; laalitaH = [Angada is] nourished looked after fondly; saH = he, that Angada; mama a darshanaat = my, non, appearance - not seeing me; diinaH = he will be dejected; piita ambuH taTaaka iva = drunk, water, lake, like - like a lake whose waters are drained; upa shoSam gamiSyati = dry out - wither, gets into.
"Right from his childhood I fondly looked after Angada, and he will be dejected when he sees me no more, and he withers away like a lake with its water drained for a drink. [4-18-51]
bālaḥ ca akṛtabuddhiḥ ca eka putraḥ ca me priyaḥ |
tāreyo rāma bhavatā rakṣaṇīyo mahābalaḥ || 4-18-52
52. raama = Rama; baalaH ca = he is a boy; a kR^ita buddhiH ca = boyish, also, not, made-up, mind [juvenile]; me priyaH eka putraH ca = to me, dear, only, son, also; mahaabalaH = great-mighty one; taareyaH = Tara's son Angada; bhavataa rakshaNiiyaH = by you, needs to be protected.
"He is boyish, juvenile, and the only dear son of mine, oh, Rama, as such that great-mighty son of Tara needs your protection. [4-18-52]
sugrīve ca aṃgade caiva vidhatsva matim uttamām |
tvam hi goptā ca śāstā ca kāryākārya vidhau sthitaḥ || 4-18-53
53. sugriive ca angade caiva = in Sugreeva, also, in Angada, thus; uttamaam matim vidhatsva = best, mind - you make - treat both of them with equal compassion; [tvam = you]; kaarya a kaarya vidhau sthitaH = in practicable, not, practicable, procedures, you abide in - you have firm convictions; tvam hi goptaa ca = you, alone, protector, also; shaastaa ca = punisher, also.
"You have firm convictions about practicable and impracticable procedures, and you alone are the protector of the good and punisher of the bad, hence treat both Sugreeva and Angada with equal compassion. [4-18-53]
yā te narapate vṛttiḥ bharate lakṣmaṇe ca yā |
sugrīve ca aṃgade rājan tām ciṃtayitum arhasi || 4-18-54
54. nara pate = oh, men's lord; raajan = oh, king; bharate = in Bharata; te yaa vR^ittiH = your, which, outlook is there; lakSmaNe ca = of Lakshmana, too; yaa = which - stance is there; taam = that [bent] alone; sugriive angade ca = towards Sugreeva, Angada, even; cintayitum arhasi = to think about - show, apt of you.
"Oh, lord of men, it will be apt of you to show the same kind of outlook towards Sugreeva, oh, king, even towards Angada, which you have for Bharata and Lakshmana. [4-18-54]
mat doṣa kṛta doṣām tām yathā tārām tapasvinīm |
sugrīvo na avamanyeta tathā avasthātum arhasi || 4-18-55
55. mat doSa kR^ita doSaam = my, fault, done [occurring,] fault; tapasviniim taam taaraam = self-reproachful, her, regarding Tara; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; yathaa = as to how; na avamanyeta = not, going to dishonour - look down on; tathaa avasthaatum arhasi = thus, to establish - you may see to it, apt of you.
"The fault occurring from my fault of maltreating Sugreeva may not light upon that self-reproachful Tara, and it will be apt of you to see that Sugreeva will not look down on her treating her as the wife his rival. [4-18-55]
tvayā hi anugṛhītena śakyam rājyam upāsitum |
tvat vaśe vartamānena tava citta anuvartinā || 4-18-56
śakyam divam ca ārjayitum vasudhām ca api śāsitum |
56, 57a. tvayaa anugR^ihiitena hi = [one who is] by you, approved, indeed; tvat vashe vartamaanena = under you, control, while abiding; tava citta anuvartinaa = your, heart, following; raajyam upaasitum shakyam = kingdom, to run [govern,] capable of; shakyam = possible [even to]; vasudhaam shaasitum ca api = earth, to rule, also, even; divam aarjayitum ca = heaven, to achieve, also.
"When you indeed approve someone, he is capable enough to govern the kingdom, abiding himself under your control and following your heart, why a kingdom, he can rule the earth, why earth, he can even achieve the heaven itself. [4-18-56, 57a]
tvataḥ aham vadham ākāṃkṣayan vāryamāṇo api tārayā || 4-18-57
sugrīveṇa saha bhrātā dvandva yuddham upāgatam |
iti uktvā vānaro rāmam virarāma harīśvaraḥ || 4-18-58
57b, 58. aham taarayaa vaaryamaaNaH api = I, by Tara, dissuaded, though; tvataH vadham aakaankshayan = by you, I, elimination, [as though] aspiring; bhraataa sugriiveNa saha = with brother, Sugreeva, along with; dvandva yuddham upaagatam = duel, combat, I obtained - met with; hari iishvaraH = monkeys, king of; vaanaraH = vanara, Vali; raamam iti uktvaa = to Rama, thus, on saying; viraraama [vi ra raama] = paused a while.
"Though Tara dissuaded me I met with my brother Sugreeva in a duel as though aspiring elimination at your hand.." On saying thus to Rama that vanara, Vali the lord of monkeys' paused for a while. [4-18-57b, 58]
Any combatant is self-assertive until he is defeated. Here Vali is telling that he came here to die on his own. This statement has two kinds of meaning. One is, Vali being an all-daring Vanara came out, in ' come-what-may ' sense and readying himself to confront even Rama, if Rama affronts him. His argument with Tara at the start of 16th chapter details this. He asks Tara, 'If Rama is a virtue-knower and a diligent one, how then he can sin, in killing me?' Vali, unlike Ravana, never goes to a duel unless provoked. Vali being a wilful combatant and Sugreeva is coming for a second time with the support of Rama, he wanted to defeat that unknown Rama, along with suppressing Sugreeva's trivial pride. Vali promises Tara that he is not going to kill Sugreeva, but wanted to take him to task. On coming to field Rama is not evident. Then Vali wanted to see to Sugreeva first and then search for Rama. But what happened is the reverse of it. Perhaps gorilla war tactics started from this point onwards.
sa tam āśvāsayat rāmo vālinam vyakta darśanam |
sādhu sammatayā vācā dharma tattvārtdha yuktayā || 4-18-59
59. saH raamaH = he, that Rama; vyakta darshanam = one who has clear, view - clear thought; tam vaalinam = him, that Vali; saadhu sammatayaa = to savants, agreeable; and; dharma tatva artdha yuktayaa = probity's, essence, meaning, containing; vaacaa = with words; aashvaasayat = consoled.
Rama consoled Vali with words that are agreeable to savants and that contain the essence and meaning of rightness, while Vali is with an evincible perspective of righteousness by now. And Rama spoke to Vali this way. [4-18-59]
na saṃtāpaḥ tvayā kāryam etat artham plavaṃgama |
na vayam bhavatā ciṃtyā na api ātmā harisattama |
vayam bhavat viśeṣeṇa dharmataḥ kṛta niścayāḥ || 4-18-60
60. plavan gama = oh, fly-jumper; etat artham = for this, reason; tvayaa sataapaH na kaaryaH = by you, remorse, not, doable; hari sattama = oh, monkey, the best; bhavataa vayam = by you, we [who are now left behind you, Tara, Angada and us]; na cintyaa = not, those that are to bothered; aatmaa api na = about yourself, even, not [to be bothered]; vayam = we; bhavat = in your respect; visheSeNa = [anugraha buddhyaa] = considerateness; dharmataH = according to rightness; kR^itaH nishcayaaH = made, decision - we took a decision.
"Oh, fly-jumper, you need not be remorseful about your wife, son and others you leave behind, because we take care of them... nor you should bother about us thinking that we have arbitrarily eliminated you, nor necessarily bother about yourself for committing sins, as we took this decision according to rightness and considerateness in your respect. [4-18-60]
daṇḍye yaḥ pātayet daṇḍam daṇḍyo yaḥ ca api daṇḍyate |
kārya kāraṇa siddhārthau ubhau tau na avasīdataḥ || 4-18-61
61. yaH = he who; daNDye = regarding the punishable one; daNDam paatayet = punishment, let falls - imposes; yaH ca api = he, who is, even; daNDyaH = is punishable; daNDyate = gets punished; kaarya kaaraNa siddha arthau = effect, cause, accomplished, with means; tau ubhau = those, two; na ava siidataH = will not, sink down - doomed, get condemned.
"He who administers punishment to the punishable, and he who is punishable and gets punished, both of them will achieve the results of cause and effect, where punishment is the effect from the cause of wrongdoing, and they both thereby will not be condemned. [4-18-61]
tat bhavān daṇḍa samyogāt asmāt vigata kalmaṣaḥ |
gataḥ svām prakṛtim dharmyām dharma diṣṭena vartmanā || 4-18-62
62. tat = thereby; bhavaan = you are; asmaat daNDa sam yogaat = with this, punishment, by linkage - by virtue of; vi gata kalmaSaH = [you are] completely, divested, of blemish; dharma diSTena vartmanaa = by rightness, given, course - as contained in the scriptures of rightness; dharmyaam = agreeable to righteousness; svaam prakR^itim gataH = your own, nature, you got into - obtained.
"Thereby, by virtue of the punishment you are completely divested of your blemish, and as contained in the scriptures on rightness you attained your true nature, that which is agreeable to rightness. [4-18-62]
tyaja śokam ca moham ca bhayam ca hṛdaye sthitam |
tvayā vidhānam haryagrya na śakyam ativartitum || 4-18-63
63. hari agrya = oh, monkeys, supreme of; hR^idaye sthitam = in heart, abiding; shokam ca moham ca bhayam ca = distress, desire, dread, also; tyaja = you discard; tvayaa = by you; vidhaanam = system - destiny; ati vartitum = to over, step - to transcend; na shakyam = not, possible.
"Let distress, desire and even dread that abide in your heart be discarded, oh, monkey's supreme, you cannot possibly transcend destiny. [4-18-63]
yathā tvayi aṃgado nityam vartate vānareśvaraḥ |
tathā vartate sugrīvo mayi ca api na saṃśayaḥ || 4-18-64
64. vaanara iishvaraH = oh, vanara-s, lord; angadaH tvayi yathaa vartate = Angada, with you, as has been, conducting himself; sugriive = with Sugreeva; mayi ca api = me, even with; tathaa nityam varteta = likewise, always, he will conduct himself; na samshayaH = no, doubt.
"As Angada has always been conducting himself with you, thus he will conduct himself with Sugreeva and also even with me, without doubt." Thus Rama spoke to Vali. [4-18-64]
sa tasya vākyam madhuram mahātmanaḥ
samāhitam dharma pathānuvartinaḥ |
niśamya rāmasya raṇāvamardino
vacaḥ suyuktam nijagāda vānaraḥ || 4-18-65
65. saH vaanaraH = he, that vanara - Vali; mahaatmanaH = of great-souled Rama; dharma patha anuvartinaH = in righteousness, path, one who treads; raNa ava mardinaH = in war, absolute, crusher [of enemy]; tasya raamasya = his, of that Rama; madhuram = agreeable; samaahitam = assertive; vaakyam nishamya = sentence, on listening; su yuktam vacaH nijagaada = well, disposed, words, [Vali] spoke.
On hearing the agreeable and assertive words of that great-souled Rama, who is the treader on the path of rightness and an absolute crusher of enemies in war, Vali, the vanara, spoke these well-disposed words to Rama. [4-18-65]
śarābhitaptena vicetasā mayā
pradūṣitaḥ tvam yad ajānatā vibho |
idam mahendropama bhīma vikrama
prasāditaḥ tvam kṣama me nareśvara || 4-18-66
66. vibho = oh, lord; mahendra upama = oh, one similar to, Indra; bhiima vikrama = oh, tremendously, braving one; nareshvara = oh, people's lord; Rama; shara abhi taptena = by arrow, verily, sweltered; vi cetasaa = without, vitality [of mind - unable to think, imbecile]; a jaanataa = un, knowingly; mayaa tvam yat pra duuSitaaH = by me, you are, which, muchly, one who is blamed; me idam kSama = my [blaming,] this, you excuse; tvam prasaaditaH = you are, appeased.
"Oh, lord, oh, tremendously braving one, oh, Rama, the lord of people, I blamed you when your arrow sweltered and rendered me imbecile, thus I blamed you unthinkingly for which I may please be pardoned, I appease you for the same. [4-18-66]
- - - .
There are three kinds of giving. Grudge giving, duty giving, and thanksgiving. Grudge giving says ' I have to...' Duty giving says " I ought to...' Thanksgiving says " I want to...' The first comes from constraint; the second from a sense of obligation; the third from a full heart. This being the saying by an unknown, Vali gave torture to Sugreeva because he had to, Rama gave punishment to Vali because he ought to, and Sugreeva given himself to Rama, because he wanted to. Rama befriends Sugreeva only to take his help in searching Seetha, because Danu, the demon, after release from his curse advises Rama to do so. The killing of Vali is incidental to that befriending. To take help of Sugreeva, he is to be uplifted from his nasty state, and the abuser of tradition Vali is to be resolved. -diinasya sugreevasya rakShanam raamasya dharmaH | raaj~naa diina jana rakShnasya parama dharmatvaat | vastuaH tu mukhya dharmaanusaareNa eva vaali hananam | -- dharmaakuutam
In aananda raamayana, saara kaanDa another treatise of Ramayana, tells that Rama not only accords salvation to Vali but accords a boon to become a tribal in Krishna's incarnation, and kill Krishna at the end, as retaliation to the present killing.
yadi api tvam duraacaaro nihato asi raNe mayaa | tathaa api bhilla ruupeNa dvaapara ante anghri mama | bhitvaa prabhaase baaNena puurva vaireNa vaanara
But bhagavata puraaNa or padma puraaNa do not quote this sort of sanction by Rama. It is said in Anada Ramayana only to extol Rama's kind-heartedness.
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe aṣṭadaśaḥ sargaḥ
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© 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : June 04]