Sugreeva again requests Rama to ascertain whether he is prepared to eliminate Vali this time. Rama assures Sugreeva that he will not deviate from what he has promised, and he never would, and asks Sugreeva to challenge Vali by way of inviting him for a duel. Sugreeva blares out inciting Vali to the duel.
सर्वे ते त्वरितम् गत्वा किष्किन्धाम् वालिनः पालिताम् |
वृक्षैर् आत्मानम् आवृत्य व्यतिष्ठन् गहने वने || ४-१४-१
1. te sarve vaalinaH puriim kiSkindhaam = they, all, to Vali's, city, to Kishkindha; tvaritam gatvaa = quickly, on going; gahane vane vR^ikSaiH aatmaanam aavR^itya = in thickets, of forests, with trees, themselves, covering [themselves - camouflaging]; atiSThan = stayed waited on.
They all on quickly going to Kishkindha, the city of Vali, hedged themselves in the thickets of forest trees and waited. [4-14-1]
विसार्य सर्वतो दृष्टिम् कानने कानन प्रियः |
सुग्रीवो विपुल ग्रीवः क्रोधम् आहारयद् भृशम् || ४-१४-२
2. kaanana priyaH = forest, lover; vipula griivaH sugriivaH = tumultuous, voiced one, Sugreeva; kaanane sarvataH dR^iSTim visaarya = in forest, everywhere, his sight, on spreading out; bhR^isham krodham aahaarayat = tremendous, fury, he assumed.
That forest lover with tumultuous voice Sugreeva cast his eye everywhere and assumed tremendous fury. [4-14-2]
ततः तु निनदम् घोरम् कृत्वा युद्धाय च आह्वयत् |
परिवारैः परिवृतो नादैर् भिन्दन् इव अंबरम् || ४-१४-३
गर्जन् इव महामेघो वायु वेग पुरस्सरः |
3. parivaaraiH parivR^itaH = with his followers, encompassed by; tataH naadaiH = then, with shouting; ambaram bhindan iva = sky, ripping, as though; vaayu vega purassaraH = by air's, dash, accelerated; mahaa meghaH iva garjan = great cloud, like, thundering;, ghoram ninadam kR^itvaa = ghastly, noise - war-whoop, on making; yuddhaaya ca ahvayat = for fight, also invited.
Then Sugreeva encompassed by his followers war-whooped ghastlily, like a great cloud that emerged accelerated by gusty wind and that is thundering as though to rip the sky, inviting Vali for fight. [4-14-3]
अथ बालार्क सदृशो दृप्त सिम्ह गतिः ततः || ४-१४-४
दृष्ट्वा रामम् क्रिया दक्षम् सुग्रीवो वाक्यम् अब्रवीत् |
4b, 5a. atha baala arka sadR^ishaH = then, young, sun [rising sun,] alike; dR^ipta simha gatiH = proud, lion, in stride; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; kriyaa dakSam = in deeds, expert [adroit one]; raamam = at Rama; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; tataH vaakyam abraviit = then, sentence, said;.
Then Sugreeva who is like the rising sun and whose stride is like that of a proud lion saw the adroit Rama and then said this sentence. [4-14-4b, 5a]
हरि वागुरया व्याप्तम् तप्त कांचन तोरणाम् || ४-१४-५
प्राप्ताः स्म ध्वज यंत्र आढ्याम् किष्किन्धाम् वालिनः पुरीम् |
5b, 6a. hari vaagurayaa vyaaptaam = monkey's, by snares, she who is spread out [Kishkindha]; tapta kaancana toraNaam = burnt [purified] golden, [decorated with] having arch-ways; dhvaja yantra aaDhyaam = flags, machinery, impregnated with; vaalinaH puriim kiSkindhaam praaptaaH sma = Vali's, city, at Kishkindha, arrived, we are.
" She whose arch-way is decorated in gold, who is spread out with snares of monkeys, and who is impregnated with flags and machinery, we arrived at such city of Vali, Kishkindha. [4-14-5b, 6a]
प्रतिज्ञा या कृता वीर त्वया वालि वधे पुरा || ४-१४-६
सफलाम् कुरु ताम् क्षिप्रम् लताम् काल इव आगतः |
6b, 7a. viira = oh, brave one; tvayaa vaali vadhe = by you, in Vali's, killing; puraa yaa pratij~naa kR^itaa = earlier, which, promise, is made; taam = that; aagataH kaalaH lataam iva = on arrival, of time, creeper-plant, like; kSipram sa phalaam kuru = on time, with, fruition - make happen, you make.
"Oh Brave one, you make happen the promise you earlier made regarding the elimination of Vali on time, like the time of sprouting that enables a creeper-plant to bear a sprout on time. [4-14-6b, 7a]
The use of sprouting of a tendril, or fruition at this juncture is to express that Sugreeva is like the slender leafless shoot of a climbing plant that requires some firm-rooted tree to hang on and flourish. It is said lata, kavita, vanita na shobhate aashrayam vinaa climbing plant, poetry, or an young girl do not prosper without patronage. So Sugreeva is submitting himself, as a kainkarya to the patronage of Rama, like Lakshmana.
एवम् उक्तः तु धर्मात्मा सुग्रीवेण स राघवः || ४-१४-७
तम् एव उवाच वचनम् सुग्रीवम् शत्रु सूदनः |
7b, 8a. sugriiveNa evam uktaH = Sugreeva, this way, when said; dharmaatmaa = by righteous; shatru suudanaH = enemy, destroyer; saH raaghavaH = he, that Raghava; tam eva uvaaca vacanam = to him [to Sugreeva,] only, said, words.
When thus said by Sugreeva that enemy-destroyer and righteous Raghava said this word Sugreeva. [4-14-7b, 8a]
कृत अभिज्ञान चिह्नः त्वम् अनया गज साह्वया || ४-१४-८
लक्ष्मणेन समुत्पाट्य एषा कण्ठे कृता तव |
8b, 9a. [yaa = by which]; eSaa lakshmaNena samutpaaTya = this, by Lakshmana, on plucking out; tava kaNThe kR^itaa = at neck, of yours, is made - what for it is garlanded; anayaa gaja saahvayaa = by this, gaja-flower, creeper-garland; tvam kR^ita abhij~naana cihnaH = you are, made, identification, is marked.
"By which creeper-garland that Lakshmana plucked out and garlanded you, by this creeper-garland of gaja-flowers alone your identification is marked. [4-14-8b, 9a]
सोभासे अपि अधिकम् वीर लतया कण्ठसक्तया || ४-१४-९
विपरीत इव आकाशे सूर्यो नक्षत्र मालया |
9b, 10a. viira = oh, brave one; kaNTha saktayaa latayaa = at neck, laced, by creeper-garland; aakaashe = in sky; vipariitaH = entwined / in night; suuryaH iva = sun, like / moon, like; adhikam sobhaase = impressively, you shine forth.
"Oh brave-one, you are shining forth with this creeper-garland laced at your neck like the night time sun with a garland of stars. [4-14-9b, 10a]
The usage of words vipariite and suuryaH iva are given many meanings. 1] pariita is said to be day and vi pariita is night and the Moon that traverses in the mid of night is called the Sun.
pariitam tu divaaproktam vipariitam tu shaarvarii |
raakaa madhyagataH candraH suurya iti abhidhiiyate ||
So Sugreeva is like the sun at night with the garland of stars, a metonymical expression.
2] Sugreeva is like the Sun in sky with a necklace of night-stars, which is impossible and hence it is abbhuuta upama, hyperbole.
3] Moon takes the sunrays and illumines the night thus the expression vipariite suurya iva metaphors Moon with Sun as in bimbaprati bimba nyaaya , mirror-image syndrome.
 vipariite kale = the word kale that is at an extraordinary time when some catastrophe is foreseen, then it is 'like the Sun shining in the night with stars, Sugreeva is also shining thus. For this astrology says:
raatrau indra dhanuH darshe divaa nakShtra darshane |
tad raaShTra naadha naasha syaat iti garga bhaaShitam ||
Appearance of rainbow during night and appearance of night stars during daytime causes the destruction of the leader of that state, Garga says so.
Now that Sugreeva is appearing like the blazing Sun with garland of night stars, for he is wearing the gaja-flower garland, Rama foresees the destruction of the present lord of Kishkindha, namely Vali. Further Sugreeva is from Lord Sun's lineage. Govindaraja and Maheshvara Tiiratha agree on the last rendering.
अद्य वालि समुत्थम् ते भयम् वैरम् च वानर || ४-१४-१०
एकेन अहम् प्रमोक्ष्यामि बाण मोक्षेण संयुगे |
10b, 11a. vaanara = oh, monkey; adya aham = today, I will; samyuge = in fight; ekena baaNa mokSeNa = with single, arrow, on releasing; te = to you; vaali samuttham = by Vali, whipped up; bhayam vairam ca = fear, enmity, as well; pramokSyaami = I will set free.
"Oh Vanara, today itself I will set you free from the fear and enmity whipped up by Vali by releasing a single arrow in fight. [4-14-10b, 11a]
मम दर्शय सुग्रीव वैरिणम् भ्रातृ रूपिणम् || ४-१४-११
वाली विनिहतो यावद् वने पांसुषु चेष्टते |
11b, 12a. sugriiva = oh, Sugreeva; vairiNam bhraatR^i ruupiNam = enemy, in brother's, mien; mama darshaya = to me, you show; vaalii vinihataH = Vali, eliminated; vane paamsuSu = in forest, in dust; yaavat ceSTate = by then, he rolls.
"You show me your enemy in a brother's mien, oh, monkey, by then he will be rolling in the dust of this forest eliminated by me. [4-14-11b, 12a]
यदि दृष्टि पथम् प्राप्तो जीवन् स विनिवर्तते || ४-१४-१२
ततो दोषेण मा गच्छेत् सद्यो गर्हेच्च माम् भवान् |
12b, 13a. dR^iSTi patham praaptaH = [my] sight, in the way, he gets [should I catch sight of him]; saH jiivan vinivartate yadi = [and if] he, to live, returns, if; tataH bhavaan = then, you can; sadyaH = immediately; maa doSeNa gacChet = me, with fault, you can find fault with me; maam garhet ca = me, you can deride, also.
"If he returns to live even after my espying him then immediately you can find fault with me, you can even deride me. [4-14-12b, 13a]
प्रत्यक्षम् सप्त ते साला मया बाणेन दारिताः || ४-१४-१३
ततो वेत्सि बलेन अद्य वालिनम् निहतम् मया |
13b, 14a. te pratyakSam = in your, presence; mayaa baaNena = by me, by arrow; sapta saalaa daaritaaH = seven, saala trees, are rived; tataH = thereby; adya maya balena = now, by my, might; vaalinam nihatam vetsi = Vali will be, dispatched, you will be knowing - be sure.
"Seven saala trees are rived with a single of arrow of mine in your presence, thereby be sure that Vali will be dispatched now, by my might. [4-14-13b, 14a]
अनृतम् न उक्त पूर्वम् मे चिरम् कृच्छ्रे अपि तिष्ठता || ४-१४-१४
धर्म लोभ परीतेन न च वक्ष्ये कथंचन |
14b, 15a. kR^icChre ciram tiSThataa api = in distress, for a long time, situated in - involved in, even if; dharma lobha pariitena = rectitude, in the interest of, bound by - bound by the anxiousness to implement righteousness; me anR^itam na ukta puurvam = by me, untruth, not, spoken, earlier; kathancana na ca vakSye = in anywise, not, also, going to be said.
"Just bound by the anxiousness to implement righteousness untruth is unsaid by me earlier though I am involved in distresses for a long time, and hereafter it will not be said in anywise. [4-14-14b, 15a]
सफलाम् च करिष्यामि प्रतिज्ञाम् जहि संभ्रमम् || ४-१४-१५
प्रसूतम् कलमक्षेत्रे वर्षेण इव शतक्रतुः |
15b, 16a. shatakratuH varSeNa prasuutam kalama kSetre iva = Indra [fructifies,] by rain, sprouted, rice, field, as with; pratij~naam saphalaam kariSyaami = promise, fructify - will make happen, I will do; jahi sambhramam = kill, perplexity.
"As Indra fructifies the sprouted paddy field I will make happen my promise, hence leave off your perplexity." [4-14-15b, 16a]
तद् आह्वान निमित्तम् च वालिनो हेममालिनः || ४-१४-१६
सुग्रीव कुरु तम् शब्दम् निष्पतेद् येन वानरः |
16b, 17a. sugriiva = Sugreeva; tat = thereby; hema maalinaH vaalinaH = one with golden pendant, Vali 's; aahvaana nimittam = for invitation, sake of; tam shabdam kuru = that [ such a,] sound, you make; yena vaanaraH niSpatet = by which, monkey [Vali,] comes out.
"Thereby to invite that Vali with golden pendant, oh, Sugreeva, you make such a war-cry by which that monkey Vali comes out. [4-14-16b, 17a]
जितकाशी जयश्लाघी त्वया च अधर्षितः पुरात् || ४-१४-१७
निष्पतिष्यति असंगेन वाली स प्रियसम्युगः |
17b, 18a. jita kaashii = by victory, one who shines forth; jaya shlaaghii = by triumphs, one who is given ovation; tvayaa a dharSitaH = by you, not, assailed, not defeated; priya samyugaH = dearer, is combats [Vali is always a willing fighter]; saH = such as he is; vaali = that Vali; a sangena = without, association - hindrance; puraat = from city [Kishkindha]; niSpatiSyati = comes out.
"Vali is a willing fighter who shines forth by his victories and one who is given ovation for his triumphs, and undefeated by you as yet, such as he is he may be incited with war-whoop so that he comes out without any hindrance. [4-14-17b, 18a]
Here the word jaya - bala shlaaghii gives another meaning that Vali lauds the opponent's might but discredits it to be inferior than his own might. Likewise tvayaa ca a dharSita also means that 'by you not overcome yet...' Sugreeva has just returned to Rama after a fight with Vali. So it is said that adharSaNa is in nishchaya ardhaka, and since Sugreeva encountered Vali once, Vali will not tolerate any more war cries from Sugreeva, thus comes out of Kishkindha.
ripunagara gopura dvaaram uparudhya vyuthaaya bahir aagaccheti samud ghoShaya | tadasahamaano vaali yuddha sannadho bahir nirgacched eva --- iti raama vacanam - dharmaakuutam
रिपूणाम् धर्षितम् श्रुत्वा मर्षयन्ति न संयुगे || ४-१४-१८
जानन्तः तु स्वकम् वीर्यम् स्त्री समक्षम् विशेषतः |
18b, 19a. svakam viiryam jaanantaH = his own, valour, knowers - assertive; samyuge = in brawl; ripuuNaam dharSitam shrutvaa = of enemies, daring, on hearing; na marSayanti = will not, tolerate; strii samakSam visheSataH = ladies, presence, especially.
"One who is assertive of his own valour will not tolerate to hear enemy's daring in a brawl, that too in the presence of ladies." So said Rama to Sugreeva. [4-14-18b, 19a]
स तु राम वचः श्रुत्वा सुग्रीवो हेमपिंगलः || ४-१४-१९
ननर्द क्रूर नादेन विनिर्भिन्दन् इव अम्बरम् |
19b, 20a. hema pingalaH = one who has golden, yellow in hue; saH sugriivaH = that, Sugreeva; raama vacaH shrutvaa = Rama's, words, on hearing; ambaram vi nir bhindan = very, completely, to rend; iva = as though; kruura naadena nanarda = with a gruesome, blare, blared.
On hearing the words of Rama he that Sugreeva with golden yellow complexion blared a gruesome blare as though to completely rend the sky. [4-14-19b, 20a]
तत्र शब्देन वित्रस्ता गावो यान्ति हतप्रभाः || ४-१४-२०
राजदोष परामृष्टाः कुलस्त्रिय इव आकुलाः |
20b, 21a. tatra = there; shabdena vitrastaa = by sound, highly scared; gaavaH = cows; yaanti hata prabhaaH = are running, marred, in their splendour; raaja doSa = king, at fault [misrule]; paraa mR^iSTaaH = by outsiders - invaders, mishandled - ill-treated; kula striya iva = well-born, ladies, like; aakulaaH = perturbed; [dudrave = fled helter-skelter.]
By that sound of Sugreeva the splendour of cows is marred and they are running helter-skelter like the well-born ladies who are mishandled by invaders due to the misrule of their own king. [4-14-20b, 21a]
द्रवन्ति च मृगाः शीघ्रम् भग्ना;इव रणे हयाः |
पतन्ति च खगा भूमौ क्षीण पुण्या इव ग्रहाः || ४-१४-२१
21b, c. raNe bhagnaa hayaaH iva = in war, broken - defeated, horses, like; mR^igaaH shiighram dravanti = deer, hurriedly, fleeing; kSiiNa puNyaa grahaaH iva = diminished, merit, planets/stars, as if; khagaa bhuumau patanti ca = bird, onto ground, falling, also.
And deer are hurriedly fleeing like war worsted horses, and the sky-flying birds are falling to ground like planets or stars when their merit diminishes. [4-14-21b, c]
Sugreeva's blare made the mild cows, which so far not habituated to such sounds run hither and thither like horses. And they the running of cows also look like the scramble of well-born ladies when they are ill-treated, handling by their braids, by the invaders who conquer the kingdom due to the misrule of the king in throne. The deer is famous for speedy springing. But the noise made by Sugreeva impaired the faculty of springing of deer and the deer are now limping to flee like impaired war-horses in the war field. Some translations say the impairment is for horses. The sky flying birds need not touch the ground but they are now falling onto the ground due to the impact of the sound made by Sugreeva. Their falling is like the meteors falling onto ground. It is said that every liberated soul becomes a star in the sky, like the star of North Pole, dhruva tara . So also the planets and stars are the liberated soul of eminent saints or sages. Thus the falling of birds is compared to the falling of stars, planets, or meteors. This expression is shleSa with kaanti guNa ; Metaphoric colligates.
ततः स जीमूत कृत प्रणादो
नादम् हि अमुंचत् त्वरया प्रतीतः |
सूर्यात्मजः शौर्य विवृद्ध तेजाः
सरित् पतिर्वा अनिल चंचल ऊर्मिः || ४-१४-२२
22. tataH = then; suurya aatmajaH = Sun's, son; pratiitaH = well known; for jiimuuta kR^ita praNaadaH = like a cloud, who can make, great sounds; shaurya vivR^iddha tejaaH = by bravery, reinforced, vigour; anila cancala uurmiH = by air, drifted, waves; sarit patiH iva = rivers', husband [ocean] like; tvarayaa naadam amuncat hi = promptly, sound, he released, indeed.
Sugreeva, the son of Sun, who is well-known for cloud like thundering, and whose vigour is now reinforced by his bravery, then promptly released an oceanic roar like an ocean with splashing waves drifted by gales. [4-14-22]
- - -
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये किष्किन्ध काण्डे चतुर्दशः सर्गः
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© 2001, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : April 04