Sugreeva again requests Rama to ascertain whether he is prepared to eliminate Vali this time. Rama assures Sugreeva that he will not deviate from what he has promised, and he never would, and asks Sugreeva to challenge Vali by way of inviting him for a duel. Sugreeva blares out inciting Vali to the duel.
sarve te tvaritam gatvā kiṣkindhām vālinaḥ pālitām |
vṛkṣair ātmānam āvṛtya vyatiṣṭhan gahane vane || 4-14-1
1. te sarve vaalinaH puriim kiSkindhaam = they, all, to Vali's, city, to Kishkindha; tvaritam gatvaa = quickly, on going; gahane vane vR^ikSaiH aatmaanam aavR^itya = in thickets, of forests, with trees, themselves, covering [themselves - camouflaging]; atiSThan = stayed waited on.
They all on quickly going to Kishkindha, the city of Vali, hedged themselves in the thickets of forest trees and waited. [4-14-1]
visārya sarvato dṛṣṭim kānane kānana priyaḥ |
sugrīvo vipula grīvaḥ krodham āhārayad bhṛśam || 4-14-2
2. kaanana priyaH = forest, lover; vipula griivaH sugriivaH = tumultuous, voiced one, Sugreeva; kaanane sarvataH dR^iSTim visaarya = in forest, everywhere, his sight, on spreading out; bhR^isham krodham aahaarayat = tremendous, fury, he assumed.
That forest lover with tumultuous voice Sugreeva cast his eye everywhere and assumed tremendous fury. [4-14-2]
tataḥ tu ninadam ghoram kṛtvā yuddhāya ca āhvayat |
parivāraiḥ parivṛto nādair bhindan iva aṃbaram || 4-14-3
garjan iva mahāmegho vāyu vega purassaraḥ |
3. parivaaraiH parivR^itaH = with his followers, encompassed by; tataH naadaiH = then, with shouting; ambaram bhindan iva = sky, ripping, as though; vaayu vega purassaraH = by air's, dash, accelerated; mahaa meghaH iva garjan = great cloud, like, thundering;, ghoram ninadam kR^itvaa = ghastly, noise - war-whoop, on making; yuddhaaya ca ahvayat = for fight, also invited.
Then Sugreeva encompassed by his followers war-whooped ghastlily, like a great cloud that emerged accelerated by gusty wind and that is thundering as though to rip the sky, inviting Vali for fight. [4-14-3]
atha bālārka sadṛśo dṛpta simha gatiḥ tataḥ || 4-14-4
dṛṣṭvā rāmam kriyā dakṣam sugrīvo vākyam abravīt |
4b, 5a. atha baala arka sadR^ishaH = then, young, sun [rising sun,] alike; dR^ipta simha gatiH = proud, lion, in stride; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; kriyaa dakSam = in deeds, expert [adroit one]; raamam = at Rama; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; tataH vaakyam abraviit = then, sentence, said;.
Then Sugreeva who is like the rising sun and whose stride is like that of a proud lion saw the adroit Rama and then said this sentence. [4-14-4b, 5a]
hari vāgurayā vyāptam tapta kāṃcana toraṇām || 4-14-5
prāptāḥ sma dhvaja yaṃtra āḍhyām kiṣkindhām vālinaḥ purīm |
5b, 6a. hari vaagurayaa vyaaptaam = monkey's, by snares, she who is spread out [Kishkindha]; tapta kaancana toraNaam = burnt [purified] golden, [decorated with] having arch-ways; dhvaja yantra aaDhyaam = flags, machinery, impregnated with; vaalinaH puriim kiSkindhaam praaptaaH sma = Vali's, city, at Kishkindha, arrived, we are.
" She whose arch-way is decorated in gold, who is spread out with snares of monkeys, and who is impregnated with flags and machinery, we arrived at such city of Vali, Kishkindha. [4-14-5b, 6a]
pratijñā yā kṛtā vīra tvayā vāli vadhe purā || 4-14-6
saphalām kuru tām kṣipram latām kāla iva āgataḥ |
6b, 7a. viira = oh, brave one; tvayaa vaali vadhe = by you, in Vali's, killing; puraa yaa pratij~naa kR^itaa = earlier, which, promise, is made; taam = that; aagataH kaalaH lataam iva = on arrival, of time, creeper-plant, like; kSipram sa phalaam kuru = on time, with, fruition - make happen, you make.
"Oh Brave one, you make happen the promise you earlier made regarding the elimination of Vali on time, like the time of sprouting that enables a creeper-plant to bear a sprout on time. [4-14-6b, 7a]
The use of sprouting of a tendril, or fruition at this juncture is to express that Sugreeva is like the slender leafless shoot of a climbing plant that requires some firm-rooted tree to hang on and flourish. It is said lata, kavita, vanita na shobhate aashrayam vinaa climbing plant, poetry, or an young girl do not prosper without patronage. So Sugreeva is submitting himself, as a kainkarya to the patronage of Rama, like Lakshmana.
evam uktaḥ tu dharmātmā sugrīveṇa sa rāghavaḥ || 4-14-7
tam eva uvāca vacanam sugrīvam śatru sūdanaḥ |
7b, 8a. sugriiveNa evam uktaH = Sugreeva, this way, when said; dharmaatmaa = by righteous; shatru suudanaH = enemy, destroyer; saH raaghavaH = he, that Raghava; tam eva uvaaca vacanam = to him [to Sugreeva,] only, said, words.
When thus said by Sugreeva that enemy-destroyer and righteous Raghava said this word Sugreeva. [4-14-7b, 8a]
kṛta abhijñāna cihnaḥ tvam anayā gaja sāhvayā || 4-14-8
lakṣmaṇena samutpāṭya eṣā kaṇṭhe kṛtā tava |
8b, 9a. [yaa = by which]; eSaa lakshmaNena samutpaaTya = this, by Lakshmana, on plucking out; tava kaNThe kR^itaa = at neck, of yours, is made - what for it is garlanded; anayaa gaja saahvayaa = by this, gaja-flower, creeper-garland; tvam kR^ita abhij~naana cihnaH = you are, made, identification, is marked.
"By which creeper-garland that Lakshmana plucked out and garlanded you, by this creeper-garland of gaja-flowers alone your identification is marked. [4-14-8b, 9a]
sobhāse api adhikam vīra latayā kaṇṭhasaktayā || 4-14-9
viparīta iva ākāśe sūryo nakṣatra mālayā |
9b, 10a. viira = oh, brave one; kaNTha saktayaa latayaa = at neck, laced, by creeper-garland; aakaashe = in sky; vipariitaH = entwined / in night; suuryaH iva = sun, like / moon, like; adhikam sobhaase = impressively, you shine forth.
"Oh brave-one, you are shining forth with this creeper-garland laced at your neck like the night time sun with a garland of stars. [4-14-9b, 10a]
The usage of words vipariite and suuryaH iva are given many meanings. 1] pariita is said to be day and vi pariita is night and the Moon that traverses in the mid of night is called the Sun.
pariitam tu divaaproktam vipariitam tu shaarvarii |
raakaa madhyagataH candraH suurya iti abhidhiiyate ||
So Sugreeva is like the sun at night with the garland of stars, a metonymical expression.
2] Sugreeva is like the Sun in sky with a necklace of night-stars, which is impossible and hence it is abbhuuta upama, hyperbole.
3] Moon takes the sunrays and illumines the night thus the expression vipariite suurya iva metaphors Moon with Sun as in bimbaprati bimba nyaaya , mirror-image syndrome.
 vipariite kale = the word kale that is at an extraordinary time when some catastrophe is foreseen, then it is 'like the Sun shining in the night with stars, Sugreeva is also shining thus. For this astrology says:
raatrau indra dhanuH darshe divaa nakShtra darshane |
tad raaShTra naadha naasha syaat iti garga bhaaShitam ||
Appearance of rainbow during night and appearance of night stars during daytime causes the destruction of the leader of that state, Garga says so.
Now that Sugreeva is appearing like the blazing Sun with garland of night stars, for he is wearing the gaja-flower garland, Rama foresees the destruction of the present lord of Kishkindha, namely Vali. Further Sugreeva is from Lord Sun's lineage. Govindaraja and Maheshvara Tiiratha agree on the last rendering.
adya vāli samuttham te bhayam vairam ca vānara || 4-14-10
ekena aham pramokṣyāmi bāṇa mokṣeṇa saṃyuge |
10b, 11a. vaanara = oh, monkey; adya aham = today, I will; samyuge = in fight; ekena baaNa mokSeNa = with single, arrow, on releasing; te = to you; vaali samuttham = by Vali, whipped up; bhayam vairam ca = fear, enmity, as well; pramokSyaami = I will set free.
"Oh Vanara, today itself I will set you free from the fear and enmity whipped up by Vali by releasing a single arrow in fight. [4-14-10b, 11a]
mama darśaya sugrīva vairiṇam bhrātṛ rūpiṇam || 4-14-11
vālī vinihato yāvad vane pāṃsuṣu ceṣṭate |
11b, 12a. sugriiva = oh, Sugreeva; vairiNam bhraatR^i ruupiNam = enemy, in brother's, mien; mama darshaya = to me, you show; vaalii vinihataH = Vali, eliminated; vane paamsuSu = in forest, in dust; yaavat ceSTate = by then, he rolls.
"You show me your enemy in a brother's mien, oh, monkey, by then he will be rolling in the dust of this forest eliminated by me. [4-14-11b, 12a]
yadi dṛṣṭi patham prāpto jīvan sa vinivartate || 4-14-12
tato doṣeṇa mā gacchet sadyo garhecca mām bhavān |
12b, 13a. dR^iSTi patham praaptaH = [my] sight, in the way, he gets [should I catch sight of him]; saH jiivan vinivartate yadi = [and if] he, to live, returns, if; tataH bhavaan = then, you can; sadyaH = immediately; maa doSeNa gacChet = me, with fault, you can find fault with me; maam garhet ca = me, you can deride, also.
"If he returns to live even after my espying him then immediately you can find fault with me, you can even deride me. [4-14-12b, 13a]
pratyakṣam sapta te sālā mayā bāṇena dāritāḥ || 4-14-13
tato vetsi balena adya vālinam nihatam mayā |
13b, 14a. te pratyakSam = in your, presence; mayaa baaNena = by me, by arrow; sapta saalaa daaritaaH = seven, saala trees, are rived; tataH = thereby; adya maya balena = now, by my, might; vaalinam nihatam vetsi = Vali will be, dispatched, you will be knowing - be sure.
"Seven saala trees are rived with a single of arrow of mine in your presence, thereby be sure that Vali will be dispatched now, by my might. [4-14-13b, 14a]
anṛtam na ukta pūrvam me ciram kṛcchre api tiṣṭhatā || 4-14-14
dharma lobha parītena na ca vakṣye kathaṃcana |
14b, 15a. kR^icChre ciram tiSThataa api = in distress, for a long time, situated in - involved in, even if; dharma lobha pariitena = rectitude, in the interest of, bound by - bound by the anxiousness to implement righteousness; me anR^itam na ukta puurvam = by me, untruth, not, spoken, earlier; kathancana na ca vakSye = in anywise, not, also, going to be said.
"Just bound by the anxiousness to implement righteousness untruth is unsaid by me earlier though I am involved in distresses for a long time, and hereafter it will not be said in anywise. [4-14-14b, 15a]
saphalām ca kariṣyāmi pratijñām jahi saṃbhramam || 4-14-15
prasūtam kalamakṣetre varṣeṇa iva śatakratuḥ |
15b, 16a. shatakratuH varSeNa prasuutam kalama kSetre iva = Indra [fructifies,] by rain, sprouted, rice, field, as with; pratij~naam saphalaam kariSyaami = promise, fructify - will make happen, I will do; jahi sambhramam = kill, perplexity.
"As Indra fructifies the sprouted paddy field I will make happen my promise, hence leave off your perplexity." [4-14-15b, 16a]
tad āhvāna nimittam ca vālino hemamālinaḥ || 4-14-16
sugrīva kuru tam śabdam niṣpated yena vānaraḥ |
16b, 17a. sugriiva = Sugreeva; tat = thereby; hema maalinaH vaalinaH = one with golden pendant, Vali 's; aahvaana nimittam = for invitation, sake of; tam shabdam kuru = that [ such a,] sound, you make; yena vaanaraH niSpatet = by which, monkey [Vali,] comes out.
"Thereby to invite that Vali with golden pendant, oh, Sugreeva, you make such a war-cry by which that monkey Vali comes out. [4-14-16b, 17a]
jitakāśī jayaślāghī tvayā ca adharṣitaḥ purāt || 4-14-17
niṣpatiṣyati asaṃgena vālī sa priyasamyugaḥ |
17b, 18a. jita kaashii = by victory, one who shines forth; jaya shlaaghii = by triumphs, one who is given ovation; tvayaa a dharSitaH = by you, not, assailed, not defeated; priya samyugaH = dearer, is combats [Vali is always a willing fighter]; saH = such as he is; vaali = that Vali; a sangena = without, association - hindrance; puraat = from city [Kishkindha]; niSpatiSyati = comes out.
"Vali is a willing fighter who shines forth by his victories and one who is given ovation for his triumphs, and undefeated by you as yet, such as he is he may be incited with war-whoop so that he comes out without any hindrance. [4-14-17b, 18a]
Here the word jaya - bala shlaaghii gives another meaning that Vali lauds the opponent's might but discredits it to be inferior than his own might. Likewise tvayaa ca a dharSita also means that 'by you not overcome yet...' Sugreeva has just returned to Rama after a fight with Vali. So it is said that adharSaNa is in nishchaya ardhaka, and since Sugreeva encountered Vali once, Vali will not tolerate any more war cries from Sugreeva, thus comes out of Kishkindha.
ripunagara gopura dvaaram uparudhya vyuthaaya bahir aagaccheti samud ghoShaya | tadasahamaano vaali yuddha sannadho bahir nirgacched eva --- iti raama vacanam - dharmaakuutam
ripūṇām dharṣitam śrutvā marṣayanti na saṃyuge || 4-14-18
jānantaḥ tu svakam vīryam strī samakṣam viśeṣataḥ |
18b, 19a. svakam viiryam jaanantaH = his own, valour, knowers - assertive; samyuge = in brawl; ripuuNaam dharSitam shrutvaa = of enemies, daring, on hearing; na marSayanti = will not, tolerate; strii samakSam visheSataH = ladies, presence, especially.
"One who is assertive of his own valour will not tolerate to hear enemy's daring in a brawl, that too in the presence of ladies." So said Rama to Sugreeva. [4-14-18b, 19a]
sa tu rāma vacaḥ śrutvā sugrīvo hemapiṃgalaḥ || 4-14-19
nanarda krūra nādena vinirbhindan iva ambaram |
19b, 20a. hema pingalaH = one who has golden, yellow in hue; saH sugriivaH = that, Sugreeva; raama vacaH shrutvaa = Rama's, words, on hearing; ambaram vi nir bhindan = very, completely, to rend; iva = as though; kruura naadena nanarda = with a gruesome, blare, blared.
On hearing the words of Rama he that Sugreeva with golden yellow complexion blared a gruesome blare as though to completely rend the sky. [4-14-19b, 20a]
tatra śabdena vitrastā gāvo yānti hataprabhāḥ || 4-14-20
rājadoṣa parāmṛṣṭāḥ kulastriya iva ākulāḥ |
20b, 21a. tatra = there; shabdena vitrastaa = by sound, highly scared; gaavaH = cows; yaanti hata prabhaaH = are running, marred, in their splendour; raaja doSa = king, at fault [misrule]; paraa mR^iSTaaH = by outsiders - invaders, mishandled - ill-treated; kula striya iva = well-born, ladies, like; aakulaaH = perturbed; [dudrave = fled helter-skelter.]
By that sound of Sugreeva the splendour of cows is marred and they are running helter-skelter like the well-born ladies who are mishandled by invaders due to the misrule of their own king. [4-14-20b, 21a]
dravanti ca mṛgāḥ śīghram bhagnā;iva raṇe hayāḥ |
patanti ca khagā bhūmau kṣīṇa puṇyā iva grahāḥ || 4-14-21
21b, c. raNe bhagnaa hayaaH iva = in war, broken - defeated, horses, like; mR^igaaH shiighram dravanti = deer, hurriedly, fleeing; kSiiNa puNyaa grahaaH iva = diminished, merit, planets/stars, as if; khagaa bhuumau patanti ca = bird, onto ground, falling, also.
And deer are hurriedly fleeing like war worsted horses, and the sky-flying birds are falling to ground like planets or stars when their merit diminishes. [4-14-21b, c]
Sugreeva's blare made the mild cows, which so far not habituated to such sounds run hither and thither like horses. And they the running of cows also look like the scramble of well-born ladies when they are ill-treated, handling by their braids, by the invaders who conquer the kingdom due to the misrule of the king in throne. The deer is famous for speedy springing. But the noise made by Sugreeva impaired the faculty of springing of deer and the deer are now limping to flee like impaired war-horses in the war field. Some translations say the impairment is for horses. The sky flying birds need not touch the ground but they are now falling onto the ground due to the impact of the sound made by Sugreeva. Their falling is like the meteors falling onto ground. It is said that every liberated soul becomes a star in the sky, like the star of North Pole, dhruva tara . So also the planets and stars are the liberated soul of eminent saints or sages. Thus the falling of birds is compared to the falling of stars, planets, or meteors. This expression is shleSa with kaanti guNa ; Metaphoric colligates.
tataḥ sa jīmūta kṛta praṇādo
nādam hi amuṃcat tvarayā pratītaḥ |
sūryātmajaḥ śaurya vivṛddha tejāḥ
sarit patirvā anila caṃcala ūrmiḥ || 4-14-22
22. tataH = then; suurya aatmajaH = Sun's, son; pratiitaH = well known; for jiimuuta kR^ita praNaadaH = like a cloud, who can make, great sounds; shaurya vivR^iddha tejaaH = by bravery, reinforced, vigour; anila cancala uurmiH = by air, drifted, waves; sarit patiH iva = rivers', husband [ocean] like; tvarayaa naadam amuncat hi = promptly, sound, he released, indeed.
Sugreeva, the son of Sun, who is well-known for cloud like thundering, and whose vigour is now reinforced by his bravery, then promptly released an oceanic roar like an ocean with splashing waves drifted by gales. [4-14-22]
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye kiṣkindha kāṇḍe caturdaśaḥ sargaḥ
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© 2001, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : April 04