Sumantra, the minister of King Dasharatha, details the importance of Sage Rishyasringa and beseeches the king to invite that sage to preside over the contemplated Vedic ritual, for that Sage's entry into any kingdom is auspicious for that land and people.
एतत् श्रुत्वा रहः सूतो राजानम् इदम् अब्रवीत् |
श्रूयताम् तत् पुरा वृत्तम् पुराणे च मया श्रुतम् || १-९-१
1. etat shrutvaa suutaH = all this, having heard, charioteer, Sumantra; raajaanam = to king [Dasharatha]; rahaH idam abraviit = in confidence, in this way, said; shruuyataam tat = I will tell, that; puraa vR^ittam = an early, legend; puraaNe ca mayaa shrutam = legendary narration, also, by me, listened.
Sumantra, the charioteer and one of the misters of King Dasharatha, having heard all about the king's desire to perform a Vedic ritual, said this in confidence to king, "oh, king, I will tell an early legend, an early legendary narration that I listened... [1-9-1]
ऋत्विग्भिः उपदिष्टोऽयम् पुरा वृत्तो मया श्रुतः |
सनत्कुमारो भगवान् पूर्वम् कथितवान् कथाम् || १-९-२
ऋषीणाम् सन्निधौ राजन् तव पुत्राअगमम् प्रति |
2, 3a. raajan = oh King; R^itvigbhiH upadiSTaH = by Vedic scholars, advised; ayam puraa vR^ittaH = this is, earlier, happened [narrated]; sanat kumaaraH bhagavaan = Sage Sanatkumara, godly one; puurvam kathitavaan kathaam = once, narrated, an account [about your progeny]; R^iSiiNaam sannidhau = of [other] sages, presence of; tava putra aagamam prati = about arrival of, your, sons, about; mayaa shrutaH = by me, heard.
"Oh, king, I have earlier heard of this present advice given to you by Vedic scholars, as godly Sage Sanatkumara has once narrated an account about the arrival of your sons in the presence of other sages, and sage Sanat Kumara said... [1-9-2, 3a]
काश्यपस्य च पुत्रोऽस्ति विभाण्डक इति श्रुतः || १-९-३
ऋष्यशृङ्ग इति ख्यातः तस्य पुत्रो भविष्यति |
स वने नित्य संवृद्धो मुनिर् वनचरः सदा || १-९-४
3b, 4. kaashyapasya ca = for Sage Kashyapa; putraH asti = son, was there; vibhaaNDaka iti shrutaH = Vibhaandaka, thus, known as; tasya putraH = his son [Vibhandaka's son,] will be; R^ishyasringa iti khyaata = Rishyasringa, thus, renowned; bhavishyati = will be there; saH muniH vane nitya samvR^iddhaH = he, that saint [Rishyasringa,] always, in forest, grown up; vana chara sadaa = [that sage] Rishyasringa, forest, dwelling, always.
"He said that "Sage Kashyapa has a son known as Vibhaandaka, and his son will be the renowned Sage Rishyasringa, and that Sage Rishyasringa will grow up in forests, and will always be dwelling in forest... [1-9-3b, 4]
Here the word used by Sumantra is tava putra aagamam , it renders as 'the arrival of your sons', meaning that sons of King Dasharatha arrive from Heavens, but not through an ordinary parturition. Even earlier in time to that of Dasharatha, Sage Sanatkumara predicted the 'arrival' of Vishnu as Rama. The birth-event associated with Rishyasringa's name is that he is born with a horn on the crown of his head. Thus he is named as Rishyasringa, i.e., em> R^iSi the Sage; shR^i~Nga horn; a Sage with a horn on his forehead at his birth time. This being the mythological import, he is an acme among sages, as shR^i~Nga also means a peak.
न अन्यम् जानाति विप्रेन्द्रो नित्यम् पित्र अनुवर्तनात् |
द्वैविध्यम् ब्रह्मचर्यस्य भविष्यति महात्मनः || १-९-५
5. vipra indraH = Brahman, the best; na anyam jaanaati = not, others, knowing [not knowing others]; nityam pitra anu vartanaat = always, father, abiding; dvai vidhyam = hindrance, [or, two kinds]; brahma charyasya = of his celibacy; bhaviSyasi = he will be following/will occur to him; mahaatmanaH = to that great soul.
"Not knowing others, that Brahman the best, namely Rishyasringa, will always be abiding his father and he will follow celibacy of two kinds Brahmanical vows namely vratitva , praajaapatya ...
Not knowing others that Brahman the best, will always be abiding his father, lest his renowned celibacy always praised by the Brahmans, will be hindered. [1-9-5]
The word dvaividhyam also means two kinds of celibacy, vratitva and prajaapatyam. One, as a bachelor and the other after marriage, voluntarily distancing away from his wife on certain forbidden days like full moon and new moon days, during daytime, eclipses, and other astronomical occurrences and some more. This kind of self-imposed celibacy is one way of observing sustained family planning methods, instead of resorting to medicaments. Here, this word is more nearer to mean 'hindrance', than to mean the 'two way celibacy' as deciphered by some commentators.
लोकेषु प्रथितम् राजन् विप्रैः च कथितम् सदा |
तस्य एवम् वर्तमानस्य कालः समभिवर्तत || १-९-६
6. lokeSu prathitam = in the world, famous; raajan = O King; vipraiH cha kathitam sadaa = by Brahmans, praised, always; tasya evam vartamaanasya = him, thus, with that conduct; kaalaH sam abhi vartata = time, will pass on.
"In the world he becomes famous for his celibacy, oh king, and he will always be praised by Brahmans, and thus time will pass on with that kind of his conduct, [1-9-6]
अग्निम् शुश्रूषमाणस्य पितरम् च यशस्विनम् |
एतस्मिन् एव काले तु रोमपादः प्रतापवान् || १-९-७
आङ्गेषु प्रथितो राजा भविष्यति महाबलः |
7, 8a. agnim = to Sacrificial Fire; shushrushhamaaNasya = while in servitor-ship of; pitaram cha = to his father, also; yashasvinam = prosperous one; etasmin eva = in this, only; kaale = meantime; prataapavaan = valiant one; raajaa = king; romapaadaH = Romapaada; angeshu = in Anga kingdom; prathitaH = famed one; bhavishhyati = will be there; mahaabalaH = very strong one.
Sage Rishyasringa looses no time with his servitor-ship to the Sacrificial Fire and also to his celebrated father, and during this period alone there will be a famed and very strong king Romapaada, a valiant in Anga country... [1-9-7, 8a]
तस्य व्यतिक्रमात् राज्ञो भविष्यति सुदारुणा || १-९-८
अनावृष्टिः सुघोरा वै सर्वलोक भयाअवहा |
8b, 9. tasya raaj~naH vyatikramaat = his, that king's, violation of righteousness; su ghoraa = very, devastating; su daaruNaa = verily, shocking; sarva loka bhayaaavahaa = to all, living beings, frightening one; anaavR^iSTiH bhaviSyati = famine, will be there.
"But by a violation of righteousness of that king there will be a shocking and devastating famine in that country...[1-9-8b, 9]
अनावृष्ट्याम् तु वृत्तायाम् राजा दुःख समन्वितः || १-९-९
ब्राह्मणान् श्रुत संवृद्धान् च समानीय प्रवक्ष्यति |
9b, 10a. anaavR^iSTyaam = due to drought; vR^ittaayaaam = [famine] while besetting; raajaa = the king; duHkha = grim; samanvitaH = afflicted with; braahmanaan = Brahmans; shruta samvriddhaanaam = in scriptures well versed ones[learned, scholars]; samaaniiya = onn summoning; pravakshyati = addresses them.
"While the famine is besetting that king Roamapada will be afflicted with grim, and on summoning Brahmans and learned scholars he will address them... [1-9-9b. 10a]
भवन्तः श्रुत कर्माणो लोक चारित्र वेदिनः || १-९-१०
समादिशन्तु नियमम् प्रायश्चित्तम् यथा भवेत् |
10b, 11a. bhavantaH = all of you; shruta = well versed; kararmaaNaH = in rituals; loka chaaritra vedinaH = world, history, knowers; sam aadishatantu = order me; yathaa = as to how; niyamam = the procedure is; praayaschittam = for purification; bhavet = will be.
"All of you are well versed in rituals and knowers of the world history... order me how to how the purification from sin will be... [1-9-10b, 11a]
इति उक्ताः ते ततो राज्ञा सर्वे ब्राह्मण सत्तमाः || १-९-११
वक्ष्यन्ति ते महीपालम् ब्राह्मणा वेद पारगाः |
विभाण्डक सुतम् राजन् सर्व उपायैः इह आनय || १-९-१२
11b, 12. iti uktavaa te raaj~naa sarve = thus, said, to them, by king, to all; braahmaNa sattamaH = those Brahmans, scholarly ones; veda paaragaaH braahmaNaa = Brahmans, Veda scholars; mahiipaalam = to the king; te vakshyanti = they, will say; raajan = oh king; vibhaaNDaka sutam = Sage Vibhandaka's son; sarva upaayaiH = by all, methods; iha aanaya = here, you fetch.
"Thus said by king those scholarly Brahmans and Vedic scholars will say to the king, 'oh, king, son of Sage Vibhaandaka, namely Rishyasringa, is to be fetched by all methods... [1-9-11b, 12]
आनाय्य तु महीपाल ऋश्यशृङ्गम् सुसत्कृतम्।
विभाण्डक सुतम् राजन् ब्राह्मणम् वेद पारगम्।
प्रयच्छ कन्याम् शान्ताम् वै विधिना सुसमाहितः॥१-९-१३
13. mahiipala= oh king; aanaayya= on bringing; R^ishhyashR^ingam= Rishyasringa; vibhaaNDaka sutam= Vibhaandaka's son; braahmaNam veda paaragam= Brahman, Veda, scholar; su satkR^itam= well, honoured one; samaahitaH= with good care; kanyaam shaantaam vidhinaa prayacCha= girl [daughter,] Shanta, procedurally, you give [in marriage.]
"Oh! King, having brought Sage Rishyasringa and honouring him well with good care, procedurally give him your daughter Shanta in marriage to that Vedic Brahman and the son of Sage Vibhaandaka... [1-9-13]
तेषाम् तु वचनम् श्रुत्वा राजा चिन्ताम् प्रपत्स्यते |
केन उपायेन वै शक्यम् इह आनेतुम् स वीर्यवान् || १-९-१४
14. teSaam tu = their, but; vachanam = words; shrutvaa = having listening; raajaa = the king; chintaam prapatsyate = thought, will obtain [becomes thoughtful]; kena upaayena = by which, means; shakyam = possible; saH viiryavaan = he, who has controlled his senses; iha aanetum = to here, be fetched.
"On listening them the king becomes thoughtful about the idea by which it is possible to bring that self-controlled sage to his place... [1-9-14]
ततो राजा विनिश्चित्य सह मंत्रिभिः आत्मवान् |
पुरोहितम् अमात्याम् च प्रेषयिष्यति सत्कृतान् || १-९-१५
15. tataH = then; raajaa = the king; vinishchitya = decides; saha = along with; mantribhiH = ministers; aatmavaan = one with intelligence; purohitam = clergymen; amaatyaam cha = ministers, also; tataH = then; preshyati = will send.
"Then that intellectual king decides along with ministers, to dispatch clergymen and ministers, honouring them well, and then sends them... [1-9-15]
ते तु राज्ञो वचः श्रुत्वा व्यथिता विनत आननाः |
न गच्छेम ऋषेः भीता अनुनेष्यन्ति तम् नृपम् || १-९-१६
16. te tu = they, but; raajnaH vachaH = king's, words; shrutvaa = on hearing; vyathitaaH = awestruck; vi nata aananaaH = lowering, faces; na gacChema = [we] can not go; R^iSeH bhiitaaH = of that sage, afraid of; anuneshyanti = plead for mercy; tam nripam = of that, king.
"They on hearing king's words are awestruck and lowering their faces they will say, 'we can not go there as we are afraid of sage Vibhandaka, father of Rishyasringa...' [1-9-16]
वक्ष्ष्यन्ति चिंतयित्वा ते तस्य उपायाम् च तान् क्षमान् |
आनेष्यामो वयम् विप्रम् न च दोषो भविष्यति || १-९-१७
17. chintayitaa te vakSyanti = after thinking over, they [as a second thought,] will say; tat kshamaan upaayaam tasya = that, plan, to bring the sage; vayam vipram aaneshhyaamaH = will fetch, we, that Brahman, Rishyasringa,; na cha doshaH bhavishyati = no, also, stigma will occur.
"After thinking over they will say as a second thought, and having found a solution with a plan to bring that sage, 'we will fetch that Brahman and also by that no stigma will occur...' [1-9-18]
एवम् अङ्गाधिपेन एव गणिकाभिः ऋषेः सुतः |
आनीतोऽवर्षयत् देव शान्ता च अस्मै प्रदीयते || १-९-१८
18. evam anga adhipena eva = thus, Anga country's, king [Romapaada.] thus; gaNikaabhiH = by courtesans; R^iSeH sutaH = Sage's, son [Rishyasringa]; aaniitaH = [sage will be] brought; [then] devaH avarSayat = god, Rain-god, rains, will give rain; shaanta pradiiyate cha = Shanta, to him, will be given, also.
"Thus by the king of Anga kingdom and by his courtesans the son of sage Rishyasringa will be brought and the presiding deity for rains will showers rains, and Shanta will also be given in marriage to that sage...' [1-9-18]
ऋष्यशृङ्गः तु जामाता पुत्रान् तव विधास्यति |
सनत्कुमार कथितम् एतावत् व्याहृतम् मया || १-९-१९
19. RishyasringaH tu jaamaataa = Rishyasringa, but, son-in-law; putraan tava vidhaasyati = sons, to you, bless with; etaavat vyaahR^itam mayaa = all this, retold, by me; sanatkumaara kathitam = Sanatkumaara, as said by.
"Sage Rishyasringa, son-in-law of Romapaada, King of Anga ad as well as to you, if invited to our kingdom he will bless you to beget sons, oh! King... so said Sage Sanatkumaara to other sages and all this is retold by me." [Thus the charioteer and the Minister Sumantra completed his narration in confidence to King Dasharatha.] [1-9-19]
Sage Rishyasringa is also a son-in-law to King Dasharatha. Princess Shanta, in a distant relationship is a daughter to King Dasharatha in relation and the adopted daughter of Romapaada, the King of Anga. Thus Sumantra's saying son-in-law also means Dasharatha's son-in-law, besides Romapada's.
अथ हृष्टो दशरथः सुमंत्रम् प्रत्यभाषत |
यथा ऋष्यशृङ्गः तु आनीतो येन उपायेन स उच्चताम् || १-९-२०
20. athaH hR^iSTaH dasharathaH = then, delighted, Dasharatha; sumantram prati abhaaSata = to Sumantra, in turn, spoke; yathaa R^iSyashR^i~NgaH aaniitaH = how, Rishyasringa, brought [to Anga Kingdom]; yena upaayena sa ucchyataam = by what, idea, that be said.
Then King Dasharatha is delighted and in turn spoke to Sumantra "By what idea Rishyasringa is brought to Anga kingdom, that shall be said..." [1-9-20]
इति वल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये बाल काण्डे नवमः सर्गः
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: Mar, '04]