Sumantra, the minister of King Dasharatha, details the importance of Sage Rishyasringa and beseeches the king to invite that sage to preside over the contemplated Vedic ritual, for that Sage's entry into any kingdom is auspicious for that land and people.
etat shrutvaa rahaH suuto raajaanam idam abravIt |
shruuyataam tat puraa vR^ittam puraaNe ca mayaa shrutam || 1-9-1
1. etat shrutvaa suutaH = all this, having heard, charioteer, Sumantra; raajaanam = to king [Dasharatha]; rahaH idam abraviit = in confidence, in this way, said; shruuyataam tat = I will tell, that; puraa vR^ittam = an early, legend; puraaNe ca mayaa shrutam = legendary narration, also, by me, listened.
Sumantra, the charioteer and one of the misters of King Dasharatha, having heard all about the king's desire to perform a Vedic ritual, said this in confidence to king, "oh, king, I will tell an early legend, an early legendary narration that I listened... [1-9-1]
R^itvigbhiH upadiShTo.ayam puraa vR^itto mayaa shrutaH |
sanatkumaaro bhagavaan puurvam kathitavaan kathaam || 1-9-2
R^iShiiNaam sannidhau raajan tava putraaagamam prati |
2, 3a. raajan = oh King; R^itvigbhiH upadiSTaH = by Vedic scholars, advised; ayam puraa vR^ittaH = this is, earlier, happened [narrated]; sanat kumaaraH bhagavaan = Sage Sanatkumara, godly one; puurvam kathitavaan kathaam = once, narrated, an account [about your progeny]; R^iSiiNaam sannidhau = of [other] sages, presence of; tava putra aagamam prati = about arrival of, your, sons, about; mayaa shrutaH = by me, heard.
"Oh, king, I have earlier heard of this present advice given to you by Vedic scholars, as godly Sage Sanatkumara has once narrated an account about the arrival of your sons in the presence of other sages, and sage Sanat Kumara said... [1-9-2, 3a]
kaashyapasya ca putro.asti vibhaaNDaka iti shrutaH || 1-9-3
R^iShyashR^i~Nga iti khyaataH tasya putro bhaviShyati |
sa vane nitya saMvR^iddho munir vanacaraH sadaa || 1-9-4
3b, 4. kaashyapasya ca = for Sage Kashyapa; putraH asti = son, was there; vibhaaNDaka iti shrutaH = Vibhaandaka, thus, known as; tasya putraH = his son [Vibhandaka's son,] will be; R^ishyasringa iti khyaata = Rishyasringa, thus, renowned; bhavishyati = will be there; saH muniH vane nitya samvR^iddhaH = he, that saint [Rishyasringa,] always, in forest, grown up; vana chara sadaa = [that sage] Rishyasringa, forest, dwelling, always.
"He said that "Sage Kashyapa has a son known as Vibhaandaka, and his son will be the renowned Sage Rishyasringa, and that Sage Rishyasringa will grow up in forests, and will always be dwelling in forest... [1-9-3b, 4]
Here the word used by Sumantra is tava putra aagamam , it renders as 'the arrival of your sons', meaning that sons of King Dasharatha arrive from Heavens, but not through an ordinary parturition. Even earlier in time to that of Dasharatha, Sage Sanatkumara predicted the 'arrival' of Vishnu as Rama. The birth-event associated with Rishyasringa's name is that he is born with a horn on the crown of his head. Thus he is named as Rishyasringa, i.e., em> R^iSi the Sage; shR^i~Nga horn; a Sage with a horn on his forehead at his birth time. This being the mythological import, he is an acme among sages, as shR^i~Nga also means a peak.
na anyam jaanaati viprendro nityam pitra anuvartanaat |
dvaividhyam brahmacaryasya bhaviShyati mahaatmanaH || 1-9-5
5. vipra indraH = Brahman, the best; na anyam jaanaati = not, others, knowing [not knowing others]; nityam pitra anu vartanaat = always, father, abiding; dvai vidhyam = hindrance, [or, two kinds]; brahma charyasya = of his celibacy; bhaviSyasi = he will be following/will occur to him; mahaatmanaH = to that great soul.
"Not knowing others, that Brahman the best, namely Rishyasringa, will always be abiding his father and he will follow celibacy of two kinds Brahmanical vows namely vratitva , praajaapatya ...
Not knowing others that Brahman the best, will always be abiding his father, lest his renowned celibacy always praised by the Brahmans, will be hindered. [1-9-5]
The word dvaividhyam also means two kinds of celibacy, vratitva and prajaapatyam. One, as a bachelor and the other after marriage, voluntarily distancing away from his wife on certain forbidden days like full moon and new moon days, during daytime, eclipses, and other astronomical occurrences and some more. This kind of self-imposed celibacy is one way of observing sustained family planning methods, instead of resorting to medicaments. Here, this word is more nearer to mean 'hindrance', than to mean the 'two way celibacy' as deciphered by some commentators.
lokeShu prathitam raajan vipraiH cha kathitam sadaa |
tasya evam vartamaanasya kaalaH samabhivartata || 1-9-6
6. lokeSu prathitam = in the world, famous; raajan = O King; vipraiH cha kathitam sadaa = by Brahmans, praised, always; tasya evam vartamaanasya = him, thus, with that conduct; kaalaH sam abhi vartata = time, will pass on.
"In the world he becomes famous for his celibacy, oh king, and he will always be praised by Brahmans, and thus time will pass on with that kind of his conduct, [1-9-6]
agnim shushruuShamaaNasya pitaram cha yashasvinam |
etasmin eva kaale tu romapaadaH prataapavaan || 1-9-7
aa~NgeShu prathito raajaa bhaviShyati mahaabalaH |
7, 8a. agnim = to Sacrificial Fire; shushrushhamaaNasya = while in servitor-ship of; pitaram cha = to his father, also; yashasvinam = prosperous one; etasmin eva = in this, only; kaale = meantime; prataapavaan = valiant one; raajaa = king; romapaadaH = Romapaada; angeshu = in Anga kingdom; prathitaH = famed one; bhavishhyati = will be there; mahaabalaH = very strong one.
Sage Rishyasringa looses no time with his servitor-ship to the Sacrificial Fire and also to his celebrated father, and during this period alone there will be a famed and very strong king Romapaada, a valiant in Anga country... [1-9-7, 8a]
tasya vyatikramaat raaGYo bhaviShyati sudaaruNaa || 1-9-8
anaavR^iShTiH sughoraa vai sarvaloka bhayaaavahaa |
8b, 9. tasya raaGYaH vyatikramaat = his, that king's, violation of righteousness; su ghoraa = very, devastating; su daaruNaa = verily, shocking; sarva loka bhayaaavahaa = to all, living beings, frightening one; anaavR^iSTiH bhaviSyati = famine, will be there.
"But by a violation of righteousness of that king there will be a shocking and devastating famine in that country...[1-9-8b, 9]
anaavR^iShTyaam tu vR^ittaayaam raajaa duHkha samanvitaH || 1-9-9
braahmaNaan shruta saMvR^iddhaan cha samaanIya pravakshyati |
9b, 10a. anaavR^iSTyaam = due to drought; vR^ittaayaaam = [famine] while besetting; raajaa = the king; duHkha = grim; samanvitaH = afflicted with; braahmanaan = Brahmans; shruta samvriddhaanaam = in scriptures well versed ones[learned, scholars]; samaaniiya = onn summoning; pravakshyati = addresses them.
"While the famine is besetting that king Roamapada will be afflicted with grim, and on summoning Brahmans and learned scholars he will address them... [1-9-9b. 10a]
bhavantaH shruta karmaaNo loka chaaritra vedinaH || 1-9-10
samaadishantu niyamam praayashcittam yathaa bhavet |
10b, 11a. bhavantaH = all of you; shruta = well versed; kararmaaNaH = in rituals; loka chaaritra vedinaH = world, history, knowers; sam aadishatantu = order me; yathaa = as to how; niyamam = the procedure is; praayaschittam = for purification; bhavet = will be.
"All of you are well versed in rituals and knowers of the world history... order me how to how the purification from sin will be... [1-9-10b, 11a]
iti uktaaH te tato raaGYaa sarve braahmaNa sattamaaH || 1-9-11
vakshyanti te mahiipaalam braahmaNaa veda paaragaaH |
vibhaaNDaka sutam raajan sarva upaayaiH iha aanaya || 1-9-12
11b, 12. iti uktavaa te raaGYaa sarve = thus, said, to them, by king, to all; braahmaNa sattamaH = those Brahmans, scholarly ones; veda paaragaaH braahmaNaa = Brahmans, Veda scholars; mahiipaalam = to the king; te vakshyanti = they, will say; raajan = oh king; vibhaaNDaka sutam = Sage Vibhandaka's son; sarva upaayaiH = by all, methods; iha aanaya = here, you fetch.
"Thus said by king those scholarly Brahmans and Vedic scholars will say to the king, 'oh, king, son of Sage Vibhaandaka, namely Rishyasringa, is to be fetched by all methods... [1-9-11b, 12]
aanaayya tu mahIpaala R^ishyashR^i~Ngam susatkR^itam |
vibhaaNDaka sutam raajan braahmaNam veda paaragam |
prayachchha kanyaam shaantaam vai vidhinaa susamaahitaH||1-9-13
13. mahiipala = oh king; aanaayya = on bringing; R^ishhyashR^ingam = Rishyasringa; vibhaaNDaka sutam = Vibhaandaka's son; braahmaNam veda paaragam = Brahman, Veda, scholar; susatkR^itam = well, honoured one; samaahitaH = with good care; kanyaam shaantaam vidhinaa prayacCha = girl [daughter,] Shanta, procedurally, you give [in marriage.]
"Oh! King, having brought Sage Rishyasringa and honouring him well with good care, procedurally give him your daughter Shanta in marriage to that Vedic Brahman and the son of Sage Vibhaandaka... [1-9-13]
teShaam tu vachanam shrutvaa raajaa chintaam prapatsyate |
kena upaayena vai shakyam iha aanetum sa vIryavaan || 1-9-14
14. teSaam tu = their, but; vachanam = words; shrutvaa = having listening; raajaa = the king; chintaam prapatsyate = thought, will obtain [becomes thoughtful]; kena upaayena = by which, means; shakyam = possible; saH viiryavaan = he, who has controlled his senses; iha aanetum = to here, be fetched.
"On listening them the king becomes thoughtful about the idea by which it is possible to bring that self-controlled sage to his place... [1-9-14]
tato raajaa vinishchitya saha maMtribhiH aatmavaan |
purohitam amaatyaam cha preShayiShyati satkR^itaan || 1-9-15
15. tataH = then; raajaa = the king; vinishchitya = decides; saha = along with; mantribhiH = ministers; aatmavaan = one with intelligence; purohitam = clergymen; amaatyaam cha = ministers, also; tataH = then; preshyati = will send.
"Then that intellectual king decides along with ministers, to dispatch clergymen and ministers, honouring them well, and then sends them... [1-9-15]
te tu raaGYo vachaH shrutvaa vyathitaa vinata aananaaH |
na gacChema R^iSheH bhItaa anuneShyanti tam nR^ipam || 1-9-16
16. te tu = they, but; raajnaH vachaH = king's, words; shrutvaa = on hearing; vyathitaaH = awestruck; vi nata aananaaH = lowering, faces; na gacChema = [we] can not go; R^iSeH bhiitaaH = of that sage, afraid of; anuneshyanti = plead for mercy; tam nripam = of that, king.
"They on hearing king's words are awestruck and lowering their faces they will say, 'we can not go there as we are afraid of sage Vibhandaka, father of Rishyasringa...' [1-9-16]
vakshShyanti chiMtayitvaa te tasya upaayaam cha taan kshamaan |
aaneShyaamo vayam vipram na cha doSho bhaviShyati || 1-9-17
17. chintayitaa te vakSyanti = after thinking over, they [as a second thought,] will say; tat kshamaan upaayaam tasya = that, plan, to bring the sage; vayam vipram aaneshhyaamaH = will fetch, we, that Brahman, Rishyasringa,; na cha doshaH bhavishyati = no, also, stigma will occur.
"After thinking over they will say as a second thought, and having found a solution with a plan to bring that sage, 'we will fetch that Brahman and also by that no stigma will occur...' [1-9-18]
evam a~Ngaadhipena eva gaNikaabhiH R^iSheH sutaH |
aanIto.avarShayat deva shaantaa cha asmai pradIyate || 1-9-18
18. evam anga adhipena eva = thus, Anga country's, king [Romapaada.] thus; gaNikaabhiH = by courtesans; R^iSeH sutaH = Sage's, son [Rishyasringa]; aaniitaH = [sage will be] brought; [then] devaH avarSayat = god, Rain-god, rains, will give rain; shaanta pradiiyate cha = Shanta, to him, will be given, also.
"Thus by the king of Anga kingdom and by his courtesans the son of sage Rishyasringa will be brought and the presiding deity for rains will showers rains, and Shanta will also be given in marriage to that sage...' [1-9-18]
R^iShyashR^i~NgaH tu jaamaataa putraan tava vidhaasyati |
sanatkumaara kathitam etaavat vyaahR^itam mayaa || 1-9-19
19. RishyasringaH tu jaamaataa = Rishyasringa, but, son-in-law; putraan tava vidhaasyati = sons, to you, bless with; etaavat vyaahR^itam mayaa = all this, retold, by me; sanatkumaara kathitam = Sanatkumaara, as said by.
"Sage Rishyasringa, son-in-law of Romapaada, King of Anga ad as well as to you, if invited to our kingdom he will bless you to beget sons, oh! King... so said Sage Sanatkumaara to other sages and all this is retold by me." [Thus the charioteer and the Minister Sumantra completed his narration in confidence to King Dasharatha.] [1-9-19]
Comment: Sage Rishyasringa is also a son-in-law to King Dasharatha. Princess Shanta, in a distant relationship is a daughter to King Dasharatha in relation and the adopted daughter of Romapaada, the King of Anga. Thus Sumantra's saying son-in-law also means Dasharatha's son-in-law, besides Romapada's.
atha hR^iShTo dasharathaH sumaMtram pratyabhaaShata |
yathaa R^iShyashR^i~NgaH tu aaniito yena upaayena sa ucchataam || 1-9-20
20. athaH hR^iSTaH dasharathaH = then, delighted, Dasharatha; sumantram prati abhaaSata = to Sumantra, in turn, spoke; yathaa R^iSyashR^i~NgaH aaniitaH = how, Rishyasringa, brought [to Anga Kingdom]; yena upaayena sa ucchyataam = by what, idea, that be said.
Then King Dasharatha is delighted and in turn spoke to Sumantra "By what idea Rishyasringa is brought to Anga kingdom, that shall be said..." [1-9-20]
iti valmIki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe navamaH sargaH
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: Mar, '04]