UTF-8 encoding pratipadartha Update October 2011
Dasharatha decides to perform an elaborate Vedic ritual, called Aswamedha yajna, Horse Ritual, to beget children. He being a considerate king in taking conscience of the courtiers, he discusses this aspect with the Vedic scholars and ministers of his court, beforehand.
tasya ca evam prabhāvasya dharmajñasya mahātmanaḥ |
sutārtham tapya mānasya na asīt vaṃśakaraḥ sutaḥ || 1-8-1
1. evam prabhāvasya = this kind of, effectual king; dharmajñasya = virtue knower; mahātmanaḥ = great soul; suta artham tapyamānasya = children, to beget, burning, at heart; tasya ca = to him, also; vaṃśakarḥ sutaḥ = dynasty, enriching, son; nāsīt = is not, there.
To him, to such an effectual and virtuously great-souled King Dasharatha, , a dynasty-enriching son is not begotten though his heart is burning to beget children. [1-8-1]
cintayānasya tasya evam buddhiḥ āsīn mahātmanaḥ |
sutārtham vājimedhena kim artham na yajāmi aham || 1-8-2
2. cintayānasya = while thinking; tasya = to him; mahātmanaḥ = to that great soul; evam = this way; buddhiḥ āsīt = thought, occurred; suta artham = sons, for the purpose of; vāji medhena = by Horse Ritual; kim artham = why, not; na yajāmi aham = not, perform, I shall.
To that anguished great-soul, a thought occurred this way, "To beget sons, why should not I perform Horse ritual...[and thus appease the gods in order to beget worthy sons..."] [1-8-2]
sa niścitām matim kṛtvā yaṣṭavyam iti buddhimān |
maṃtribhiḥ saha dharmātmā sarvaiḥ api kṛta ātmabhiḥ || 1-8-3
tato.abravīt mahātejāḥ sumaṃtram maṃtri sattamam |
śīghram ānaya me sarvān gurūn tān sa purohitān || 1-8-4
3, 4. buddhimān = intellectual one; dharma ātmā = conscientious souled; kṛta ātmabhiḥ = with decent, souled [sagacious ministers]; sarvaiḥ api = with all, even; mantribhiḥ = with ministers; yaṣṭavyam iti = performable, thus; niścitām matim kṛtvā = resolved, mind, on making; tataḥ = then; mantri sattamam sumantram = best of ministers, to Sumantra; abravīt = addressed; sa purohitān = with, clerics; tān sarvān = them, all; me gurūn = my teachers; śīghram ānaya = quickly, fetch.
That intellectual and a conscientious king having resolved with all of his sagacious ministers that such a Vedic ritual is performable, then addressed best ne among ministers, namely Sumantra, "fetch all my teachers and clerics, quickly.." [1-8-3,4]
tataḥ sumaṃtraḥ tvaritam gatvā tvarita vikramaḥ |
sam ānayat sa tān sarvān samastān veda pāragān || 1-8-5
suyajñam vāmadevam ca jābālim atha kāśyapam |
purohitam vaśiṣṭham ca ye ca api anye dvijottamāḥ || 1-8-6
5. tataḥ = then; tvaritaḥ vikramaḥ = in quickness, dauntless; sumantraḥ = Sumantra; tvaritam gatvā = quickly, gone; suyajñam = Suyajna; vāmadevam = Vaama Deva; ca = also; atha = then; jābālim = Jaabaali; kāśyapam = Kaashyapa; purohitam = the clerics; vaśiṣṭham ca = Vashishta, also; ye anye dvija uttamāḥ = those, other, Brahman-s, eminent ones; veda pāragān = Vedic scholars are there; samānayat = fetched; tān sarvān = them, all.
Then Sumantra gone quickly, for he in quickness is a dauntless one, and fetched all of the clerics like Suyajna, Vaama Deva, Jaabala, Kshyapa, and even Sage Vashishta, and also those other eminent Brahman that are Vedic scholars. [1-8-5,6]
tān pūjayitvā dharmātmā rājā daśarathaḥ tadā |
idam dharma artha sahitam ślakṣṇam vacanam abravīt ||1-8-7
7. dharmātmā rājā daśarathaḥ = virtuous king, Dasharatha; tadā = then; tān pūjayitvā = them, on adoring; idam = this; dharma artha sahitam = justification, meaning, having; ślakṣṇam vacanam abravīt = impressible, sentence, spoke to.
Then on adoring them virtuous King Dasharatha spoke this impressible sentence that included justification and meaning. [1-8-7]
mama lālasya mānasya sutārtham nāsti vai sukham |
tadartham hayamedhena yakṣhyāmi iti matir mama || 1-8-8
8. sutārtham = for sons; lālasya mānasya = tumultuous, mind; mama = my; sukham = quietude; na asti = not there; vai = verily; tat artham = for that, reason; haya medhena = by Horse Ritual; yakṣhyami = Vedic worship; iti = thus; matiḥ mama = thinking, of mine.
"My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons... for that reason, I wish perform Aswametha, Vedic Horse Ritual... this is my thinking... [1-8-8]
tat aham yaṣṭum icchami śāstra dṛṣṭena karmaṇā |
katham prāpsyāmi aham kāmam buddhiḥ atra vicintyatām || 1-8-9
9. tat aham = therefore, I; śāstra dṛṣṭena = scriptures, point of view [as enshrined in]; karmaṇā = rite-oriented; yaṣṭum icchami = to perform ritual, I contemplate to; katham = how; prāpyāmi = I get; kāmam = my desire; buddhiḥ atra vicintyatām = contemplation, for that, be thought of.
"Therefore, I contemplate to perform that ritual as enshrined in the scriptures and as a rite-oriented one as well... let this contemplation of mine be well thought of... and as to how my desire to beget sons will be fulfilled... [1-8-9]
tataḥ sādhu iti tadvākyam brāhmaṇāḥ pratyapūjayan |
vaśiṣṭha pramukhāḥ sarve pārthivasya mukheritam || 1-8-10
10. tataḥ = then; vaśiṣṭhaḥ = Sage Vashishta; brāhmaṇāḥ = Brahman-s; pramukhāḥ sarve = important personalities, all of them; pārthivasya mukha īritam = from king's, mouth, voiced; tat vākyam = that, sentence [idea]; sādhu iti = splendid, it is; prati apūjayan = in turn, honoured him
Then the Brahman scholars along with Sage Vashishta and all other important personalities in their turn have blessed and honoured him, saying that "splendid is this idea..." thus, for that which is voiced by the king. [1-8-10]
ūcuḥ ca parama prītāḥ sarve daśaratham vacaḥ |
saṃbhārāḥ saṃbhriyaṃtām te turagaḥ ca vimucyatām || 1-8-11
11. sarve = all of them; parama prītāḥ = very, happy; daśaratham = to Dasharatha; vacaḥ = these words; ucuḥ ca = they said, also; sambhārāḥ = paraphernalia; saṃbhriyantām = be provided; te turagaḥ ca vimucyatām = your, horse, also, be released.
All of them becoming happy have also said to King Dasharatha, "let the paraphernalia be provided, and your ritual-horse be released... [1-8-11]
sarayvāḥ ca uttare tīre yajña bhūmir vidhīyatām |
sarvathā prāpsyase putrān abhipretān ca pārthiva || 1-8-12
yasya te dharmikī buddhiḥ iyam putrārtham āgatā |
12, 13a. pārthiva = oh king; sarvathā = by all means; prāpyase = you will beget; abhipretān ca = as you desired; putrān = sons; sarayvāḥ ca uttare tīre = River Sarayu's, on northern banks; yajña bhūmiḥ vidhīyatām = ritual, ground, be arranged yasya te = to whom, like you; dhārmikī buddhiḥ iyam = virtuous, thought, like this; putra artham āgatā = to beget sons, suggested itself to.
"Oh, king, by all means you will beget sons as you desired, since you, to whom an upright thinking has suggested itself... let the ritual ground be arranged on the northern banks of River Sarayu..." So said the scholars. [1-8-12, 13a]
tataḥ tuṣṭo.abhavat rājā śrutvā tad dvija bhāṣitam || 1-8-13
amātyān abravīt rājā harṣa paryākula locana |
saṃbhārāḥ saṃbhriyaṃtām me gurūṇām vacanāt iha || 1-8-14
13b, 14. tataḥ = then; rājā = king; tat dvija bhāṣitam śrutvā = that, Brahmans', saying, on hearing; tuṣṭaḥ abhavat = glad, he became; rājā = king; harṣa paryākula locanaḥ = happiness, lurching, on eyes; amātyān abravīt = to ministers, spoke to; iha me gurūṇām vacanāt = now, on my, teacher's, advise; sambhārāḥ saṃbhriyantām = paraphernalia, be procured.
" Then King Dasharatha is gladdened on hearing the sayings of those Brahmans. And with happiness lurching on his eyes the king spoke to the ministers, "As advised by my Vedic teachers let the paraphernalia be procured... [1-8-13b, 14]
samartha adhiṣṭhitaḥ ca aśvaḥ saḥ upādhyāyo vimucyatām |
sarayvāḥ ca uttare tīre yajña bhūmir vidhīyatām || 1-8-15
15. sarayavyāḥ ca uttare tīre = of River Sarayu, on northern banks; yajña bhūmiḥ vidhīyatām = ritual, ground, be arranged; samartha adhiṣṭitaḥ = capable ones [warriors,] monitored by; saha upādhyāyaḥ = with, religious teachers [following]; aśvaḥ vimucyatām = Ritual Horse, be released.
"On the northern banks of River Sarayu the ritual ground be arranged... and the Ritual-Horse be released monitored by capable warriors, along with the religious teachers..." So said the king. [1-8-15]
śāntayaḥ ca api vardhantām yathā kalpam yathā vidhi |
śakyaḥ prāptum ayam yajñaḥ sarveṇa api mahīkṣitā |
na aparādho bhavet kaṣṭo yadi asmin kratu sattame | 1-8-16|
16, 17a. śāntayāḥ ca api = peace invocations, also, even; vardhantām = be prevailing; yathā kalpam = as ordained [by tradition]; yathā vidhi = as per scriptures; ayam yajñaḥ = this, ritual; kaṣṭtaḥ aparādhaḥ = difficult, fault; yadi = if; na bhavet = not occurs; asmin = in that; kratu sattame = ritual, the great; sarveṇa api mahī kṣitā = by all, even, kings, on earth; śakyaḥ prāptum = possible, to obtain [to perform and obtain results.]
"Let peace invocations be prevailing and prospering, as ordained in the scriptures and tradition...if it is possible for the correct performance to obtain results of this ritual, and if it is possible to conduct this ritual without any difficult faults during its performance, then all the kings on earth would have performed it... [1-8-16, 17a]
chidram hi mṛgayante sma vidvāṃso brahma rākṣasāḥ |
vidhi hīnasya yajñasya sadyaḥ kartā vinaśyati || 1-8-17
17b, 18a. atra = therein the ritual; vidvāṃsaḥ brahma rākṣasāḥ = scholarly, Brahmans [who became] Brahma-demons; chidram hi mṛgayante = faults, alone, they hunt for; vidhi hīnasya = procedure, depraved; yaj~asya = ritual's; kartā = performer; vinaśyati = gets ruined.
"Scholarly Brahma-demons will be hunting for the faults alone in the course of this ritual... should the procedure of this ritual be depraved of its set rules, the performer gets ruined... [1-8-17b, 18a]
tadyathā vidhi pūrvam me kratureṣa samāpyate |
tathā vidhānam kriyatām samarthāḥ sādhaneṣu iti || 1-8-18
18b, 19a. tat = therefore; me eṣa kratuḥ = my, this, ritual; vidhi pūrvam = procedurally; yathā samāpyate = as to how, it will be concluded; tathā vidhānam kriyatām = in that way, it shall be done; samarthāḥ sādhaneṣu = experts, [you all] in [such] performances; iti = thus [the king said to his teachers.]
"Therefore, you all shall see as to how this ritual of mine be conducted and concluded procedurally, and all of you are evidently experts in conducting such rituals... isn't it! [1-8-18b, 19a]
Vedic Brahmans are to be very cautious and vigilant while performing the ritual in the order of ritual acts, faultless rendering of the Vedic hymns and other observant items of the Vedic canon. Should they by overconfidence or by negligence commit any mistake or fault, they take rebirth as Brahma-demons. After taking rebirth as such demons they, with their inherent jealousy and ire will always be hunting for such mistakes in other's ritual performances. If they cannot find one, they cause certain hindrances in that performance, so that the performer may commit mistakes and get ruined in the present life span and then take rebirth as Brahma-demon. Hence, every Vedic-ritual performer shall be vigilant.
tathā iti ca abruvan sarve maṃtriṇaḥ pratipūjitā |
pārthivendrasya tad vākyam yathā pūrvam niśaṃya te || 1-8-19
19b, 20a. te sarve mantriṇaḥ = those, all, ministers; pārthiva indrasya tat vākyam = king's, the best one's, that, word; niśamya = on listening; pratipūjitā = adored him; yathā pūrvam = as, earlier [ as has been conducted]; tathā = that way [this will also be conducted]; iti = thus; ca abruvan = also, said [assured.]
On listening the words of the king all the ministers adored and assured him saying, 'It will be conducted faultlessly as has been conducted earlier...' [1-8-19b, 20a]
tathā dvijāḥ te dharmajñā varthayato nṛpottamam |
anujñātāḥ tataḥ sarve punar jagmur yathā āgatam || 1-8-20
20b, 21a. dharmajñā = virtue knowers; te dvijāḥ = those, Brahmans; tathā varthayataḥ nṛpottamam = enhancing [his royal stature,] of that king; tataḥ anujñātāḥ = then, permitted; sarve yathā āgatam = all, as they have come; punaḥ jagmuḥ = again, went away.
On hearing those words of that best king, and what that is spoken earlier, then the virtue knowing Brahman scholars hailing that best king took leave of him and wentaway as they have come. [1-8-20b, 21a]
visarjayitvā tān viprān sacivān idam abravīt |
ṛtvigbhiḥ upasaṃdiṣṭo yathāvat kratur āpyatām || 1-8-21
21b, 22a. tataḥ = then; visarjayitvā = sending off; sarve = all; tān = them; viprān = Brahmans; sacivān idam abravīt = to ministers, this, said; ṛtvigbhiḥ = by the Vedic scholars; upasaṃdiṣṭaḥ = as advised; yathā vat kratuḥ āpyatām = procedurally, ritual, be conducted
Then on sending off those Brahman scholars, the king spoke this way to the ministers... "As advised by the Vedic scholars this ritual shall be conducted, procedurally..." [1-8-21b, 22A]
iti uktvā nṛpa śārdūlaḥ sacivān samupasthitān |
visarjayitvā svam veśma praviveśa mahāmatiḥ || 1-8-22
22B, 23a. mahā matiḥ nṛpa śārdūlaḥ = highly intelligent, kingly tiger Dasharatha; samupasthitān = who are in audience; sacivān = to misters; iti uktvā = thus, on saying; visarjayitvā = sent them off; svam veśma praviveśa = his, palace, entered.
Tha tigerly-king and highly intellectual Dasharatha, on saying thus to his ministers who are still in his audience, sent away those ministers also, and he entered his palace. [1-8-22b, 23a]
tataḥ sa gatvā tāḥ patnīr narendro hṛdayaṃgamāḥ |
uvāca dīkṣām viśata yakṣe.aham suta kāraṇāt || 1-8-23
23b, 24a. tataḥ = then; saḥ = he; narendraḥ = the king, the best; hṛdayaṃgamā = heartily dear ones; tāḥ patnīḥ = to them his wives; gatvā = on approaching; uvāca = spoke; aham = I am; suta kāraṇāt = sons, for the reason of; yakṣye = performing ritual; dīkṣām viśata = vow, you enter;
And on approaching his wives, that best king's heartily dear ones, he said to them, " I am performing a Vedic ritual for the reason of begetting sons, and you all shall enter a vow..." [1-8-23b, 24a]
tāsām tena ati kāntena vacanena suvarcasām |
mukha padmān aśobhanta padmānīva himātyaye || 1-8-24
24b, c. ati kāntinena = most pleasing; vacanena = by words [of king]; suvarcasām = already lustrous; tāsām = their [the queens]; mukha padmāni = countenances, lotuses; padmān iva = lotuses, like; tena = by those [words of king]; himātyaye = dew-fall, clearance of; aśobhanta = became more gleaming.
On hearing those words of the king, the lustrous countenances of the queens have become more gleaming, like the blooming lotuses after the clearance of dew-fall. [1-8-24b, c]
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāve aṣṭamaḥ sargaḥ
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : March, 04]