UTF-8 encoding pratipadartha Update October 2011
Dasharatha decides to perform an elaborate Vedic ritual, called Aswamedha yajna, Horse Ritual, to beget children. He being a considerate king in taking conscience of the courtiers, he discusses this aspect with the Vedic scholars and ministers of his court, beforehand.
tasya ca evam prabhaavasya dharmaj~nasya mahaatmanaH |
sutaartham tapya maanasya na asiit vaMshakaraH sutaH || 1-8-1
1. evam prabhaavasya = this kind of, effectual king; dharmaj~nasya = virtue knower; mahaatmanaH = great soul; suta artham tapyamaanasya = children, to beget, burning, at heart; tasya cha = to him, also; va.nshakarH sutaH = dynasty, enriching, son; naasiit = is not, there.
To him, to such an effectual and virtuously great-souled King Dasharatha, , a dynasty-enriching son is not begotten though his heart is burning to beget children. [1-8-1]
chintayaanasya tasya evam buddhiH aasiin mahaatmanaH |
sutaartham vaajimedhena kim artham na yajaami aham || 1-8-2
2. chintayaanasya = while thinking; tasya = to him; mahaatmanaH = to that great soul; evam = this way; buddhiH aasiit = thought, occurred; suta artham = sons, for the purpose of; vaaji medhena = by Horse Ritual; kim artham = why, not; na yajaami aham = not, perform, I shall.
To that anguished great-soul, a thought occurred this way, "To beget sons, why should not I perform Horse ritual...[and thus appease the gods in order to beget worthy sons..."] [1-8-2]
sa nishchitaam matim kR^itvaa yaShTavyam iti buddhimaan |
maMtribhiH saha dharmaatmaa sarvaiH api kR^ita aatmabhiH || 1-8-3
tato.abraviit mahaatejaaH sumaMtram maMtri sattamam |
shiighram aanaya me sarvaan guruun taan sa purohitaan || 1-8-4
3, 4. buddhimaan = intellectual one; dharma aatmaa = conscientious souled; kR^ita aatmabhiH = with decent, souled [sagacious ministers]; sarvaiH api = with all, even; mantribhiH = with ministers; yaShTavyam iti = performable, thus; nishchitaam matim kR^itvaa = resolved, mind, on making; tataH = then; mantri sattamam sumantram = best of ministers, to Sumantra; abraviit = addressed; sa purohitaan = with, clerics; taan sarvaan = them, all; me guruun = my teachers; shiighram aanaya = quickly, fetch.
That intellectual and a conscientious king having resolved with all of his sagacious ministers that such a Vedic ritual is performable, then addressed best ne among ministers, namely Sumantra, "fetch all my teachers and clerics, quickly.." [1-8-3,4]
tataH sumaMtraH tvaritam gatvaa tvarita vikramaH |
sam aanayat sa taan sarvaan samastaan veda paaragaan || 1-8-5
suyaj~nam vaamadevam cha jaabaalim atha kaashyapam |
purohitam vashishhTham cha ye cha api anye dwijottamaaH || 1-8-6
5. tataH = then; tvaritaH vikramaH = in quickness, dauntless; sumantraH = Sumantra; tvaritam gatvaa = quickly, gone; suyaj~nam = Suyajna; vaamadevam = Vaama Deva; cha = also; atha = then; jaabaalim = Jaabaali; kaashyapam = Kaashyapa; purohitam = the clerics; vashiShTham cha = Vashishta, also; ye anye dwija uttamaaH = those, other, Brahman-s, eminent ones; veda paaragaan = Vedic scholars are there; samaanayat = fetched; taan sarvaan = them, all.
Then Sumantra gone quickly, for he in quickness is a dauntless one, and fetched all of the clerics like Suyajna, Vaama Deva, Jaabala, Kshyapa, and even Sage Vashishta, and also those other eminent Brahman that are Vedic scholars. [1-8-5,6]
taan pUjayitvaa dharmaatmaa raajaa dasharathaH tadaa |
idam dharma artha sahitam shlakShNam vachanam abraviit ||1-8-7
7. dharmaatmaa raajaa dasharathaH = virtuous king, Dasharatha; tadaa = then; taan puujayitvaa = them, on adoring; idam = this; dharma artha sahitam = justification, meaning, having; shlakshNam vachanam abraviit = impressible, sentence, spoke to.
Then on adoring them virtuous King Dasharatha spoke this impressible sentence that included justification and meaning. [1-8-7]
mama laalasya maanasya sutaartham naasti vai sukham |
tadartham hayamedhena yakshhyaami iti matir mama || 1-8-8
8. sutaartham = for sons; laalasya maanasya = tumultuous, mind; mama = my; sukham = quietude; na asti = not there; vai = verily; tat artham = for that, reason; haya medhena = by Horse Ritual; yakshhyami = Vedic worship; iti = thus; matiH mama = thinking, of mine.
"My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons... for that reason, I wish perform Aswametha, Vedic Horse Ritual... this is my thinking... [1-8-8]
tat aham yaShTum icchhami shaastra dR^iShTena karmaNaa |
katham praapsyaami aham kaamam buddhiH atra vichintyataam || 1-8-9
9. tat aham = therefore, I; shaastra dR^iShTena = scriptures, point of view [as enshrined in]; karmaNaa = rite-oriented; yaShTum icchhami = to perform ritual, I contemplate to; katham = how; praapyaami = I get; kaamam = my desire; buddhiH atra vichintyataam = contemplation, for that, be thought of.
"Therefore, I contemplate to perform that ritual as enshrined in the scriptures and as a rite-oriented one as well... let this contemplation of mine be well thought of... and as to how my desire to beget sons will be fulfilled... [1-8-9]
tataH saadhu iti tadvaakyam braahmaNaaH pratyapUjayan |
vashishhTha pramukhaaH sarve paarthivasya mukheritam || 1-8-10
10. tataH = then; vashiShThaH = Sage Vashishta; braahmaNaaH = Brahman-s; pramukhaaH sarve = important personalities, all of them; paarthivasya mukha iiritam = from king's, mouth, voiced; tat vaakyam = that, sentence [idea]; saadhu iti = splendid, it is; prati apuujayan = in turn, honoured him
Then the Brahman scholars along with Sage Vashishta and all other important personalities in their turn have blessed and honoured him, saying that "splendid is this idea..." thus, for that which is voiced by the king. [1-8-10]
uuchuH cha parama priitaaH sarve dasharatham vachaH |
saMbhaaraaH saMbhriyaMtaam te turagaH cha vimuchyataam || 1-8-11
11. sarve = all of them; parama priitaaH = very, happy; dasharatham = to Dasharatha; vachaH = these words; uchuH cha = they said, also; sambhaaraaH = paraphernalia; saMbhriyantaam = be provided; te turagaH cha vimuchyataam = your, horse, also, be released.
All of them becoming happy have also said to King Dasharatha, "let the paraphernalia be provided, and your ritual-horse be released... [1-8-11]
sarayvaaH ca uttare tiire yaj~na bhuumir vidhiiyataam |
sarvathaa praapsyase putraan abhipretaan cha paarthiva || 1-8-12
yasya te dharmikii buddhiH iyam putraartham aagataa |
12, 13a. paarthiva = oh king; sarvathaa = by all means; praapyase = you will beget; abhipretaan cha = as you desired; putraan = sons; sarayvaaH ca uttare tiire = River Sarayu's, on northern banks; yaj~na bhuumiH vidhiiyataam = ritual, ground, be arranged yasya te = to whom, like you; dhaarmikii buddhiH iyam = virtuous, thought, like this; putra artham aagataa = to beget sons, suggested itself to.
"Oh, king, by all means you will beget sons as you desired, since you, to whom an upright thinking has suggested itself... let the ritual ground be arranged on the northern banks of River Sarayu..." So said the scholars. [1-8-12, 13a]
tataH tuShTo.abhavat raajaa shrutvaa tad dvija bhaaShitam || 1-8-13
amaatyaan abraviit raajaa harshha paryaakula lochana |
saMbhaaraaH saMbhriyaMtaam me guruuNaam vachanaat iha || 1-8-14
13b, 14. tataH = then; raajaa = king; tat dvija bhaaShitam shrutvaa = that, Brahmans', saying, on hearing; tuShTaH abhavat = glad, he became; raajaa = king; harSha paryaakula lochanaH = happiness, lurching, on eyes; amaatyaan abraviit = to ministers, spoke to; iha me guruuNaam vachanaat = now, on my, teacher's, advise; sambhaaraaH saMbhriyantaam = paraphernalia, be procured.
" Then King Dasharatha is gladdened on hearing the sayings of those Brahmans. And with happiness lurching on his eyes the king spoke to the ministers, "As advised by my Vedic teachers let the paraphernalia be procured... [1-8-13b, 14]
samartha adhiShThitaH cha ashvaH saH upaadhyaayo vimuchyataam |
sarayvaaH cha uttare tiire yaj~na bhUmir vidhiiyataam || 1-8-15
15. sarayavyaaH cha uttare tiire = of River Sarayu, on northern banks; yaj~na bhuumiH vidhiiyataam = ritual, ground, be arranged; samartha adhiShTitaH = capable ones [warriors,] monitored by; saha upaadhyaayaH = with, religious teachers [following]; ashvaH vimuchyataam = Ritual Horse, be released.
"On the northern banks of River Sarayu the ritual ground be arranged... and the Ritual-Horse be released monitored by capable warriors, along with the religious teachers..." So said the king. [1-8-15]
shaantayaH cha api vardhantaam yathaa kalpam yathaa vidhi |
shakyaH praaptum ayam yaj~naH sarveNa api mahiikshitaa |
na aparaadho bhavet kaShTo yadi asmin kratu sattame | 1-8-16|
16, 17a. shaantayaaH cha api = peace invocations, also, even; vardhantaam = be prevailing; yathaa kalpam = as ordained [by tradition]; yathaa vidhi = as per scriptures; ayam yaj~naH = this, ritual; kaShTtaH aparaadhaH = difficult, fault; yadi = if; na bhavet = not occurs; asmin = in that; kratu sattame = ritual, the great; sarveNa api mahii kshitaa = by all, even, kings, on earth; shakyaH praaptum = possible, to obtain [to perform and obtain results.]
"Let peace invocations be prevailing and prospering, as ordained in the scriptures and tradition...if it is possible for the correct performance to obtain results of this ritual, and if it is possible to conduct this ritual without any difficult faults during its performance, then all the kings on earth would have performed it... [1-8-16, 17a]
chhidram hi mR^igayante sma vidvaaMso brahma raakshasaaH |
vidhi hiinasya yaj~nasya sadyaH kartaa vinashyati || 1-8-17
17b, 18a. atra = therein the ritual; vidvaa.nsaH brahma raakshasaaH = scholarly, Brahmans [who became] Brahma-demons; chhidram hi mR^igayante = faults, alone, they hunt for; vidhi hiinasya = procedure, depraved; yaj~asya = ritual's; kartaa = performer; vinashyati = gets ruined.
"Scholarly Brahma-demons will be hunting for the faults alone in the course of this ritual... should the procedure of this ritual be depraved of its set rules, the performer gets ruined... [1-8-17b, 18a]
tadyathaa vidhi puurvam me kratureSha samaapyate |
tathaa vidhaanam kriyataam samarthaaH saadhaneShu iti || 1-8-18
18b, 19a. tat = therefore; me eSha kratuH = my, this, ritual; vidhi puurvam = procedurally; yathaa samaapyate = as to how, it will be concluded; tathaa vidhaanam kriyataam = in that way, it shall be done; samarthaaH saadhaneShu = experts, [you all] in [such] performances; iti = thus [the king said to his teachers.]
"Therefore, you all shall see as to how this ritual of mine be conducted and concluded procedurally, and all of you are evidently experts in conducting such rituals... isn't it! [1-8-18b, 19a]
Vedic Brahmans are to be very cautious and vigilant while performing the ritual in the order of ritual acts, faultless rendering of the Vedic hymns and other observant items of the Vedic canon. Should they by overconfidence or by negligence commit any mistake or fault, they take rebirth as Brahma-demons. After taking rebirth as such demons they, with their inherent jealousy and ire will always be hunting for such mistakes in other's ritual performances. If they cannot find one, they cause certain hindrances in that performance, so that the performer may commit mistakes and get ruined in the present life span and then take rebirth as Brahma-demon. Hence, every Vedic-ritual performer shall be vigilant.
tathaa iti cha abruvan sarve maMtriNaH pratipuujitaa |
paarthivendrasya tad vaakyam yathaa puurvam nishaMya te || 1-8-19
19b, 20a. te sarve mantriNaH = those, all, ministers; paarthiva indrasya tat vaakyam = king's, the best one's, that, word; nishamya = on listening; pratipuujitaa = adored him; yathaa puurvam = as, earlier [ as has been conducted]; tathaa = that way [this will also be conducted]; iti = thus; cha abruvan = also, said [assured.]
On listening the words of the king all the ministers adored and assured him saying, 'It will be conducted faultlessly as has been conducted earlier...' [1-8-19b, 20a]
tathaa dvijaaH te dharmaj~naa varthayato nR^ipottamam |
anuj~naataaH tataH sarve punar jagmur yathaa aagatam || 1-8-20
20b, 21a. dharmaj~naa = virtue knowers; te dwijaaH = those, Brahmans; tathaa varthayataH nR^ipottamam = enhancing [his royal stature,] of that king; tataH anuj~naataaH = then, permitted; sarve yathaa aagatam = all, as they have come; punaH jagmuH = again, went away.
On hearing those words of that best king, and what that is spoken earlier, then the virtue knowing Brahman scholars hailing that best king took leave of him and wentaway as they have come. [1-8-20b, 21a]
visarjayitvaa taan vipraan sachivaan idam abraviit |
R^itvigbhiH upasaMdiShTo yathaavat kratur aapyataam || 1-8-21
21b, 22a. tataH = then; visarjayitvaa = sending off; sarve = all; taan = them; vipraan = Brahmans; sachivaan idam abraviit = to ministers, this, said; R^itvigbhiH = by the Vedic scholars; upasa.ndiShTaH = as advised; yathaa vat kratuH aapyataam = procedurally, ritual, be conducted
Then on sending off those Brahman scholars, the king spoke this way to the ministers... "As advised by the Vedic scholars this ritual shall be conducted, procedurally..." [1-8-21b, 22A]
iti uktvaa nR^ipa shaardUlaH sachivaan samupasthitaan |
visarjayitvaa svam veshma pravivesha mahaamatiH || 1-8-22
22B, 23a. mahaa matiH nR^ipa shaardUlaH = highly intelligent, kingly tiger Dasharatha; samupasthitaan = who are in audience; sachivaan = to misters; iti uktvaa = thus, on saying; visarjayitvaa = sent them off; svam veshma pravivesha = his, palace, entered.
Tha tigerly-king and highly intellectual Dasharatha, on saying thus to his ministers who are still in his audience, sent away those ministers also, and he entered his palace. [1-8-22b, 23a]
tataH sa gatvaa taaH patniir narendro hR^idayaMgamaaH |
uvaacha diikshaam vishata yaxe.aham suta kaaraNaat || 1-8-23
23b, 24a. tataH = then; saH = he; narendraH = the king, the best; hR^idaya.ngamaa = heartily dear ones; taaH patniiH = to them his wives; gatvaa = on approaching; uvaacha = spoke; aham = I am; suta kaaraNaat = sons, for the reason of; yakshye = performing ritual; diikshaam vishata = vow, you enter;
And on approaching his wives, that best king's heartily dear ones, he said to them, " I am performing a Vedic ritual for the reason of begetting sons, and you all shall enter a vow..." [1-8-23b, 24a]
taasaam tena ati kaantena vachanena suvarchasaam |
mukha padmaan ashobhanta padmaaniiva himaatyaye || 1-8-24
24b, c. ati kaantinena = most pleasing; vachanena = by words [of king]; suvarchasaam = already lustrous; taasaam = their [the queens]; mukha padmaani = countenances, lotuses; padmaan iva = lotuses, like; tena = by those [words of king]; himaatyaye = dew-fall, clearance of; ashobhanta = became more gleaming.
On hearing those words of the king, the lustrous countenances of the queens have become more gleaming, like the blooming lotuses after the clearance of dew-fall. [1-8-24b, c]
iti vAlmIki rAmAyaNe Adi kAve aShTamaH sargaH
© 1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : March, 04]