Vishvamitra proposes the marriages of Bharata ad Shatrughna with the two daughters of Kushadhvaja, the younger brother of Janaka. This being a welcome offer, Janaka accords his immediate consent. Then Dasharatha proceeds with the initiatory rituals for the bridegrooms and donates cows and riches.
tam uktavaṃtam vaideham viśhvāmitro mahāmuniḥ |
uvācha vachanam vīram vasiṣhṭha sahito nṛpam || 1-72-1
1. mahaamuniH vishvaamitraH = eminent-saint, Vishvamitra; vasiSTha sahitaH = Vashishta, together with; uktavantam = to one who said [about his lineage, Janaka]; viiram = valiant one; tam vaideham nR^ipam = to him, Videha, king - Janaka; uvaaca vacanam = said, words.
Then the eminent-saint Vishvamitra together with Vashishta said these words to Janaka, the valiant king of Videha, who has just said about his lineage. [1-72-1]
achiṃtyāni aprameyāṇi kulāni narapuṃgava |
ikṣhvākūṇām videhānām na eṣhām tulyo asti kaśhchana || 1-72-2
2. narapungava = oh, best one among men; ikSvaakuuNaam videhaanaam = of Ikshvaku-s, of Videha-s; kulaani = dynasties; a cintyaani = not, imaginably [admirable]; a prameyaaNi = not, measurably [distinguished]; eSaam tulyaH = to them - kings of dynasties, comparable king; kashcana = anyone; na asti = not, is there.
"The Ikshvaku-s and Videha-s are unimaginably admirable and immeasurably distinguished dynasties, oh, Janaka, the best one among all men, there is no single king comparable to one from these dynasties... [1-72-2]
sadṛśho dharma saṃbandhaḥ sadṛśho rūpa saṃpadā |
rāma lakṣhmaṇayo rājan sītā cha ūrmilayā saha || 1-72-3
3. raajan = oh, king; uurmilayaa saha siitaa = Urmila, with, Seetha; raama lakSmaNayoH = to Rama, Lakshmana; this espousal is; sadR^ishaH = behovely; dharma sambandhaH = righteous, alliance [espousal for dynastical prestige]; ruupa sampadaa sadR^ishaH ca = by winsome, charms [of brides and bridegrooms,] befitting, even.
"Oh, king Janaka, these espousals of Seetha with Rama and Urmila with Lakshmana is behovely to each other's dynastical prestige and even it is befitting to the winsome charms of the brides and bridegrooms, but that being so... [1-72-3]
vaktavyam cha nara śhreṣhṭha śhrūyatām vachanam mama |
bhrātā yavīyān dharmajña eṣha rājā kuśhadhvajaḥ || 1-72-4
4. nara shreSTha = oh, man, the best [grand sire, that being so]; mama vaktavyam ca = by me, mentionable [advisable,] also; vacanam shruuyataam = words, be heard; yaviiyaan bhraataa = younger, brother; eSa raajaa kushadhvajaH = this, king, Kushadhvaja; dharma j~naH = probity, at home in.
"Oh, grand sire, you may listen to my words of advise... this younger brother of yours, king Kushadhvaja, is at home in every kind of probity... [1-72-4]
asya dharmātmano rājan rūpeṇa apratimam bhuvi |
sutā dvayam naraśhreṣhṭha patni artham varayāmahe || 1-72-5
5. raajan = oh, king; narashreSTha = oh, grand sire, Janaka; ruupeNa bhuvi a pratimam = by looks, in world, not, matchable [nonpareil]; asya dharmaatmanaH = of this, right-minded [Kushadhvaja's]; sutaa dvayam = daughters, pair of; patni artham varayaamahe = wife for the purpose of[to pair off with Bharata and Shatrughna,] we choose.
"Oh, king, the pair of daughters of this right-minded Kushadhvaja is nonpareil in comeliness in this world, hence, oh, grand sire, we choose to pair them off with Bharata and Shatrughna... [1-72-5]
bharatasya kumārasya śhatrughnasya cha dhīmataḥ |
varayema sute rājan tayoḥ arthe mahātmanoḥ || 1-72-6
6. raajan = oh, king; kumaarasya = young man; bharatasya = for Bharata; dhiimataH shatrughnasya ca = smart, for Shatrughna, even; mahaatmanoH tayoH arthe = right-minded [honourable ones,] for their, sake; sute varayema = [brothers] daughters, we opt.
"Oh, king, for the sake of those two honourable boys, for that young man Bharata and for that smart man Shatrughna, we opt your brother's daughters... [1-72-6]
putrā daśharathasya ime rūpa yauvana śhālinaḥ |
loka pāla samāḥ sarve deva tulya parākramāḥ || 1-72-7
7. ime dasharathasya putraaH = these, Dasharatha's [four] sons; sarve = all; ruupa yauvana shaalinaH = handsome, youthfulness, having; loka paala samaaH = world, rulers, equal to; deva tulya paraakramaaH = god [Vishnu's valour,] vie with, valorous ones.
"All these four sons of Dasharatha have handsomeness and youthfulness, and they are equal to the four rulers of the world from four quarters, and their valour vies with the valour of God Vishnu... [1-72-7]
ubhayoḥ api rājendra saṃbandhena anubadhyatām |
ikṣhvāku kulam avyagram bhavataḥ puṇya karmaṇaḥ || 1-72-8
8. raajendra = oh, best king; ikSvaaku [kulam] = Ikshvaku's, [is the impeccable dynasty]; puNya karmaNaH bhavataH [kulam] api = [having] pious, deeds, your [dynasty, ] as well - is an immaculate one; ubhayoH = both,; kulam = dynasty; sambandhena avyagram anubadhyataam = by alliance [wed-locks], not, loosely [compactly,] let them be interlocked.
"Oh, best king, let both theses dynasties of yours, the impeccable dynasty of Ikshvaku-s and the immaculate dynasty of yours as well, be interlocked by these wedlock-s..." Thus Vishvamitra advised Janaka. [1-72-8]
viśhvāmitra vachaḥ śhrutvā vasiṣhṭhasya mate tadā |
janakaḥ prāṃjaliḥ vākyam uvācha munipuṃgavau || 1-72-9
9. tadaa = then; vasiSThasya mate [sthivaa] = Vashishta's, concurrence [abiding with]; vishvaamitra vacaH shrutvaa = Vishvamitra's, words, on hearing; janakaH praanjaliH = Janaka, with adjoined palms[ reverently]; munipungavau = to two eminent-saints - Vishvamitra and Vashishta; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, said.
On hearing the words of Vishvamitra that have the concurrence of Vashishta then Janaka reverently said this to those two eminent-saints. [1-72-9]
kulam dhanyam idam manye yeṣhām tau munipuṃgavau |
sadṛśham kula saṃbandham yat ājñāpayathaḥ svayam || 1-72-10
10. yeSaam = by which; [naH = for us]; sadR^isham = befitting; kula sambandham = dynastical, alliance; tau munipungavau = you two, eminent-saints; svayam = personally; yat = by which reason; aaj~naapayathaH = you order - you bid fair; such; idam = this dynasty; kulam dhanyam manye = dynasty [of mine,] highly honoured, I opine.
"By which reason you two eminent-saints personally bid fair to this befitting proposal, thereby I opine that my dynasty is highly honoured... [1-72-10]
evam bhavatu bhadram vaḥ kuśhadhvaja sute ime |
patnyau bhajetām sahitau śhatrughna bharatau ubhau || 1-72-11
11. evam bhavatu = so, be it; vaH bhadram = you, be safe; ime kushadhvaja sute = these, Kushadhvaja's, daughters; sahitau = being together [brothers in perfect accord, paired brothers]; shatrughna bharatau = to Shatrughna Bharata; ubhau = two of them; patnyau bhajetaam = as wives, they devout themelves.
"So be it! Safe betides you all! Let the pair of Kushdhvaja's daughters, namely Maandavi, Shrutakiirti, devout themselves as a pair of wives to the paired brothers, namely Bharata and Shatrughna, respectively... [1-72-11]
eka ahnā rāja putrīṇām chatasṝṇām mahāmune |
pāṇīn gṛhṇantu chatvāro rāja putrā mahābalāḥ || 1-72-12
12. mahaamune = oh, eminent-saint Vishvamitra; mahaabalaaH = great mighty [mettlesome]; catvaaraH raaja putraa = four, king's, sons; eka ahnaa = in one, daylight; catasR^INaam raaja putriiNaam = four of the, king's, daughters; paaNiin gR^ihNantu = hand, take into hand [i.e., marry the princesses, assume husband-ship.]
"Oh, eminent-saint Vishvamitra, let the palms of four princesses be taken in the palms of these four mettlesome princes in marriage, in the light of one day... [1-72-12]
uttare divase brahman phalgunībhyām manīṣhiṇaḥ |
vaivāhikam praśhaṃsanti bhago yatra prajāpatiḥ || 1-72-13
13. brahman = oh, Brahman; phalguniibhyaam = in the day where both Phalguni stars are available; yatra = on which day; prajaapatiH bhagaH [devataa] = a deity for progeny, namely Bhaga [is the presiding deity]; uttare divase = later, day [later part of the day, or, when the star post-Phalguni is ruling]; vaivaahikam = for wedding [ceremonies on such a day]; maniiSiNaH = savants; prashamsanti = acclaim.
"Oh, Brahman, the savants acclaim that part of the day as the best for wedding ceremonies when both of the pre-Phalguni and post-Phalguni stars are available, and on such a time where post-Phalguni is ruling, for which Bhaga is the presiding deity for progeny..." So said Janaka to the marriage party. [1-72-13]
There is a lot of commentary from the viewpoint of astrology regarding these stars and days of this marriage. Some have said that uttare divase 'on best day...' phalguni= puurva phalguni 'pre-Phalguni... on the best day under pre-Phalguni star...' which usually does not happen, but it is also said to be correct by Maheshvara Tiirtha, as the Moon will be in the 12th house at that time, so the marriage is agreeable...' However the stars for best results of marriages are: rohiNii mR^igashiirShyaNi uttara phalgunii svaati iti vivaahasya nakShatraaNi | bodhaayana suutraaNi
evam uktvā vachaḥ sauṃyam pratyutthāya kṛtāṃjaliḥ |
ubhau muni varau rājā janako vākyam abravīt || 1-72-14
14. janakaH raajaa = Janaka, king; evam saumyam vacaH uktvaa = thus, gracious, words, on saying; prati utthaaya = in turn, getting up [from throne]; kR^itaanjaliH = reverently; ubhau muni varau = to both, saints, eminent; vaakyam abraviit = sentence, said.
On saying those gracious words thus, king Janaka got up from his throne and coming nigh of both of the eminent-saints, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, reverently said this sentence. [1-72-14]
paro dharmaḥ kṛto mahyam śhiṣhyo asmi bhavatoḥ sadā |
imāni āsana mukhyāni āsyatām munipuṃgavau || 1-72-15
15. mahyam paraH dharmaH kR^itaH = in my respect, excellent, kind deed [beau geste,] is done; sadaa bhavatoH shiSyaH asmi = for ever, of yours, proselyte, I am - I remain; munipungavau = oh, eminent-saints; imaani aasana mukhyaani = these, seats, important [thrones]; aasyataam = take a seat [preside over.]
"You two, oh, eminent-saints, have done an excellent generous act in my respect, thus I will ever remain your proselyte... you may please preside over these thrones, that of mine, my brother's, and that of Dasharatha... [1-72-15]
The kind deed done by the two sages, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, is fetching right husbands for his daughters, and for his brother's daughters, without flattening his own flatties. And this sitting on the three thrones is for assuming symbolic rulership on the three kingdoms, Ayodhya, Mithila, and Saamkaasya, in getting the marriages performed without a hitch.
yathā daśharathasya iyam tathā ayodhyā purī mama |
prabhutve na asti sandeho yathā arham kartum arhathaḥ || 1-72-16
16. iyam = this [city Mithila]; dasharathasya = Dasharatha's yathaa = as to how it [belongs to]; ayodhyaa purii mama tathaa = Ayodhya, city, to me, likewise [Ayodhya belongs to me]; prabhutve sandehaH na asti = in governance, doubt not, is there, [no need for hesitancy]; yathaa arham kartum arhathaH = as per, aptness, to make happen, apt of you.
"As to how this city Mithila appertains to Dasharatha, in the same way city of Ayodhya is mine... and there shall be no hesitancy for you two sages in governance on these three kingdoms, thus it will be apt of you to make the marriages happen as aptly as you can..." So said Janaka to the sages. [1-72-16]
tathā bruvati vaidehe janake raghu naṃdanaḥ |
rājā daśharatho hṛṣhṭaḥ pratyuvācha mahī patim || 1-72-17
17. vaidehe janake = Videha's, Janaka; tathaa bruvati = in that way [in such a hobnobbing way,] while talking; raghu nandanaH raajaa dasharathaH hR^iSTaH = Raghu's, legatee, king, Dasharatha, is gladdened; and; mahii patim pratyuvaaca = to king Janaka, replied.
The legatee of Raghu-s king Dasharatha is gladdened while the legatee of Videha is talking in such a hobnobbing way, and he replied king Janaka in this way. [1-72-17]
yuvām asaṃkhyeya guṇau bhrātarau mithileśhvarau |
ṛṣhayo rāja saṃghāḥ cha bhavadbhyām abhipūjitāḥ || 1-72-18
18. mithila iishvarau = oh, kings of Mithila [Kushadhvaja included]; bhraatarau = two brothers; yuvaam = you both; a sankhyeya = not, estimable; guNau = [good] manners; bhavadbhyaam = by you [are garnered, treasured]; R^iSayaH = sages; raaja sanghaaH ca = kings', coteries, also; abhipuujitaaH = reverenced.
"Oh, kings of Mithila, Janaka and Kushadhvaja, you two brothers have reverenced inestimable sages and coteries of kings, as such inestimable good manners are treasured in both of you... [1-72-18]
Annex: 'As said in good sayings like, 'good company and good discourse are the very sinews of virtue...' as such, your abilities in making these marriages happen will edge out our limited capabilities... and if we commit any mistake unwittingly, that may besmirch your unblemished personality, because for the first time I am marrying my sons, you shall pardon... by the way, you have performed many marriages, concluding that every bride is your own daughter-like, thus we hear... thus, your sitting complacently on intrusting all the works of marriages to us, is infeasible... so, you do all the works and we sit comfortably seeing the celebrations...'
svasti prāpnuhi bhadram te gamiṣhyāmaḥ svam ālayam |
śhrāddha karmāṇi vidhivat vidhāsya iti cha abravīt || 1-72-19
19. svasti praapnuhi = blessedness, gain [enjoy]; te bhadram = you be safe; svam aalayam gamiSyaamaH = to our, to visitatorial-palace, we depart; shraaddha karmaaNi = tributary, rituals of; vidhivat = customarily; vidhaasya [vidhaasyaami] = I will carry out; iti ca abraviit = thus, also, said.
"Enjoy that blessedness! Let safe betide you! We now depart to our visitatorial-palace, and we shall customarily carry out the tributary rituals..." Dasharatha said thus. [1-72-19]
tam āpṛṣhṭvā nara patim rājā daśharathaḥ tadā |
munīndrau tau puraskṛtya jagāma āśhu mahāyaśhāḥ || 1-72-20
20. tadaa = then; mahaayashaaH raajaa dasharathaH = highly renowned, king, Dasharatha; tam nara patim aapR^iSTvaa = him, sovereign [Janaka,] on seeking [leave of absence]; tau muniindrau puraskR^itya = both, eminent-saints, keeping afore; aashu jagaama = promptly, departed.
On seeking leave of absence from the sovereign of people, Janaka, that highly renowned king Dasharatha promptly departed from there, keeping both of the eminent-saints afore, namely Vishvamitra and Vashishta. [1-72-20]
sa gatvā nilayam rājā śhrāddham kṛtvā vidhānataḥ |
prabhāte kālyam utthāya chakre go dānam uttamam || 1-72-21
21. saH raajaa = he that, king Dasharatha; nilayam gatvaa = to visitatorial-palace, on going to; vidhaanataH shraaddham kR^itvaa = procedurally, tributary rituals, on undertaking; prabhaate = in [next] morning; utthaaya = on getting up; kaalyam = in opportune time; uttamam go daanam = in grand [way,] cow, donation [samaavartna, snaataka, initiatory rituals]; cakre = he carried out.
King Dasharatha on going to his visitatorial-palace has procedurally undertaken the tributary rituals, and on getting up in the next morning, he carried out the initiatory rituals of marriages, in a grand way, in which donation of cows is a part. [1-72-21]
gavām śhata sahasram cha brāhmaṇebhyo narādhipaḥ |
eka ekaśho dadau rājā putrān uddhiśhya dharmataḥ || 1-72-22
22. naraadhipaH raajaa = lord of people, king Dasharatha; putraan = for sons; eka ekashaH uddhishya = each, to each [of four sons,] intended for; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmans; gavaam = cows; shata sahasram ca = hundred, thousand, also; dharmataH dadau = righteously, he donated.
That lord of people king Dasharatha has righteously donated hundred thousand cows to Brahman-s, in the name of each of his four sons. [1-72-22]
suvarṇa śhṛṃgayaḥ saṃpannāḥ sa vatsāḥ kāṃsya dohanāḥ |
gavām śhata sahasrāṇi chatvāri puruṣha ṛṣhabhaḥ || 1-72-23
vittam anyat cha su bahu dvijebhyo raghu naṃdanaḥ |
dadau go dānam uddiśhya putrāṇām putra vatsalaḥ || 1-72-24
23-24. puruSa R^iSabhaH = man, the bullish [best one]; putra vatsalaH = sons, affectionate towards; raghu nandanaH = Raghu's, legatee; putraaNaam = sons'; go daanam uddishya = cow, donation, intended for; suvarNa shR^ingayaH = golden casing, horns; [su] sampannaaH = very abundant [milkers]; sa vatsaaH = with, calves; kaamsya dohanaaH = bell metal, with milking jugs; gavaam = cows; catvaari = four; shata sahasraaNi = hundred, thousands; anyat = other [kinds of]; su bahu vittam ca = very, many, assets, also; dvijebhyaH dadau = to Brahman-s, donated.
In that cow donation ceremony intended for his sons, he that best one among men and the one who is affectionate towards his sons, Dasharatha, the legatee of Raghu-s, has donated on behalf of each of his sons, four hundred thousand cows, that are abundant milkers, and that have golden casings on their horns, and that are with their calves, and along with milking jugs made with bell metal, and he even donated very many other kinds of assets to Brahmans. [1-72-23, 24]
sa sutaiḥ kṛta go dānaiḥ vṛtaḥ saḥ nṛpatiḥ tadā |
loka pālaiḥ iva ābhāti vṛtaḥ sauṃyaḥ prajāpatiḥ || 1-72-25
25. kR^ita go daanaiH = having performed, cow, donation [samaavartna, snaataka, initiatory ceremonies]; sa sutaiH vR^itaH = with, sons, encircling [amidst]; saH nR^ipatiH tadaa = he, king, then; loka paalaiH vR^itaH = world, administrators [four principle deities presiding over the four quarters of world,] encircled; saumyaH prajaapatiH iva = serene, mankind's, overlord [Brahma,] like; aabhaati = shone forth.
On performing the cow donations and samaavartna, snaataka, the initiatory ceremonies of his sons, as well, he that serene king Dasharatha who is amidst the quartet of his sons, shone forth like serene Brahma, who is quartet-faced, with the quartet of Veda-s, and who is the overlord of mankind, amidst the quartet of presiding deities in the quartet of the world. [1-72-25]
The 'unnecessarily' repeated word 'quartet' refers to dharma where its manifestation is with four horns, catvaarii shR^ingaa, trayo asya paadaa, dve shiirSe... 'dharma's horns is a quartet, three are its feet, two are its heads...' so on. When read together with 23, 24 verses, the bullish Dasharatha is said to have the quartet of bullhorn like sons, who are being readied to administer dharma in the world.
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye bāla kāṇḍe dvi saptatitamaḥ sargaḥ
© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]
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