Vishvamitra proposes the marriages of Bharata ad Shatrughna with the two daughters of Kushadhvaja, the younger brother of Janaka. This being a welcome offer, Janaka accords his immediate consent. Then Dasharatha proceeds with the initiatory rituals for the bridegrooms and donates cows and riches.
tam uktavaMtam vaideham vishvaamitro mahaamuniH |
uvaaca vacanam viiram vasiShTha sahito nR^ipam || 1-72-1
1. mahaamuniH vishvaamitraH = eminent-saint, Vishvamitra; vasiSTha sahitaH = Vashishta, together with; uktavantam = to one who said [about his lineage, Janaka]; viiram = valiant one; tam vaideham nR^ipam = to him, Videha, king - Janaka; uvaaca vacanam = said, words.
Then the eminent-saint Vishvamitra together with Vashishta said these words to Janaka, the valiant king of Videha, who has just said about his lineage. [1-72-1]
aciMtyaani aprameyaaNi kulaani narapuMgava |
ikShvaakuuNaam videhaanaam na eShaam tulyo asti kashcana || 1-72-2
2. narapungava = oh, best one among men; ikSvaakuuNaam videhaanaam = of Ikshvaku-s, of Videha-s; kulaani = dynasties; a cintyaani = not, imaginably [admirable]; a prameyaaNi = not, measurably [distinguished]; eSaam tulyaH = to them - kings of dynasties, comparable king; kashcana = anyone; na asti = not, is there.
"The Ikshvaku-s and Videha-s are unimaginably admirable and immeasurably distinguished dynasties, oh, Janaka, the best one among all men, there is no single king comparable to one from these dynasties... [1-72-2]
sadR^isho dharma saMbandhaH sadR^isho ruupa saMpadaa |
raama lakShmaNayo raajan siitaa ca uurmilayaa saha || 1-72-3
3. raajan = oh, king; uurmilayaa saha siitaa = Urmila, with, Seetha; raama lakSmaNayoH = to Rama, Lakshmana; this espousal is; sadR^ishaH = behovely; dharma sambandhaH = righteous, alliance [espousal for dynastical prestige]; ruupa sampadaa sadR^ishaH ca = by winsome, charms [of brides and bridegrooms,] befitting, even.
"Oh, king Janaka, these espousals of Seetha with Rama and Urmila with Lakshmana is behovely to each other's dynastical prestige and even it is befitting to the winsome charms of the brides and bridegrooms, but that being so... [1-72-3]
vaktavyam ca nara shreShTha shruuyataam vacanam mama |
bhraataa yaviiyaan dharmaj~na eSha raajaa kushadhvajaH || 1-72-4
4. nara shreSTha = oh, man, the best [grand sire, that being so]; mama vaktavyam ca = by me, mentionable [advisable,] also; vacanam shruuyataam = words, be heard; yaviiyaan bhraataa = younger, brother; eSa raajaa kushadhvajaH = this, king, Kushadhvaja; dharma j~naH = probity, at home in.
"Oh, grand sire, you may listen to my words of advise... this younger brother of yours, king Kushadhvaja, is at home in every kind of probity... [1-72-4]
asya dharmaatmano raajan ruupeNa apratimam bhuvi |
sutaa dvayam narashreShTha patni artham varayaamahe || 1-72-5
5. raajan = oh, king; narashreSTha = oh, grand sire, Janaka; ruupeNa bhuvi a pratimam = by looks, in world, not, matchable [nonpareil]; asya dharmaatmanaH = of this, right-minded [Kushadhvaja's]; sutaa dvayam = daughters, pair of; patni artham varayaamahe = wife for the purpose of[to pair off with Bharata and Shatrughna,] we choose.
"Oh, king, the pair of daughters of this right-minded Kushadhvaja is nonpareil in comeliness in this world, hence, oh, grand sire, we choose to pair them off with Bharata and Shatrughna... [1-72-5]
bharatasya kumaarasya shatrughnasya ca dhiimataH |
varayema sute raajan tayoH arthe mahaatmanoH || 1-72-6
6. raajan = oh, king; kumaarasya = young man; bharatasya = for Bharata; dhiimataH shatrughnasya ca = smart, for Shatrughna, even; mahaatmanoH tayoH arthe = right-minded [honourable ones,] for their, sake; sute varayema = [brothers] daughters, we opt.
"Oh, king, for the sake of those two honourable boys, for that young man Bharata and for that smart man Shatrughna, we opt your brother's daughters... [1-72-6]
putraa dasharathasya ime ruupa yauvana shaalinaH |
loka paala samaaH sarve deva tulya paraakramaaH || 1-72-7
7. ime dasharathasya putraaH = these, Dasharatha's [four] sons; sarve = all; ruupa yauvana shaalinaH = handsome, youthfulness, having; loka paala samaaH = world, rulers, equal to; deva tulya paraakramaaH = god [Vishnu's valour,] vie with, valorous ones.
"All these four sons of Dasharatha have handsomeness and youthfulness, and they are equal to the four rulers of the world from four quarters, and their valour vies with the valour of God Vishnu... [1-72-7]
ubhayoH api raajendra saMbandhena anubadhyataam |
ikShvaaku kulam avyagram bhavataH puNya karmaNaH || 1-72-8
8. raajendra = oh, best king; ikSvaaku [kulam] = Ikshvaku's, [is the impeccable dynasty]; puNya karmaNaH bhavataH [kulam] api = [having] pious, deeds, your [dynasty, ] as well - is an immaculate one; ubhayoH = both,; kulam = dynasty; sambandhena avyagram anubadhyataam = by alliance [wed-locks], not, loosely [compactly,] let them be interlocked.
"Oh, best king, let both theses dynasties of yours, the impeccable dynasty of Ikshvaku-s and the immaculate dynasty of yours as well, be interlocked by these wedlock-s..." Thus Vishvamitra advised Janaka. [1-72-8]
vishvaamitra vacaH shrutvaa vasiShThasya mate tadaa |
janakaH praaMjaliH vaakyam uvaaca munipuMgavau || 1-72-9
9. tadaa = then; vasiSThasya mate [sthivaa] = Vashishta's, concurrence [abiding with]; vishvaamitra vacaH shrutvaa = Vishvamitra's, words, on hearing; janakaH praanjaliH = Janaka, with adjoined palms[ reverently]; munipungavau = to two eminent-saints - Vishvamitra and Vashishta; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, said.
On hearing the words of Vishvamitra that have the concurrence of Vashishta then Janaka reverently said this to those two eminent-saints. [1-72-9]
kulam dhanyam idam manye yeShaam tau munipuMgavau |
sadR^isham kula saMbandham yat aaj~naapayathaH svayam || 1-72-10
10. yeSaam = by which; [naH = for us]; sadR^isham = befitting; kula sambandham = dynastical, alliance; tau munipungavau = you two, eminent-saints; svayam = personally; yat = by which reason; aaj~naapayathaH = you order - you bid fair; such; idam = this dynasty; kulam dhanyam manye = dynasty [of mine,] highly honoured, I opine.
"By which reason you two eminent-saints personally bid fair to this befitting proposal, thereby I opine that my dynasty is highly honoured... [1-72-10]
evam bhavatu bhadram vaH kushadhvaja sute ime |
patnyau bhajetaam sahitau shatrughna bharatau ubhau || 1-72-11
11. evam bhavatu = so, be it; vaH bhadram = you, be safe; ime kushadhvaja sute = these, Kushadhvaja's, daughters; sahitau = being together [brothers in perfect accord, paired brothers]; shatrughna bharatau = to Shatrughna Bharata; ubhau = two of them; patnyau bhajetaam = as wives, they devout themelves.
"So be it! Safe betides you all! Let the pair of Kushdhvaja's daughters, namely Maandavi, Shrutakiirti, devout themselves as a pair of wives to the paired brothers, namely Bharata and Shatrughna, respectively... [1-72-11]
eka ahnaa raaja putriiNaam catasR^INaam mahaamune |
paaNiin gR^ihNantu catvaaro raaja putraa mahaabalaaH || 1-72-12
12. mahaamune = oh, eminent-saint Vishvamitra; mahaabalaaH = great mighty [mettlesome]; catvaaraH raaja putraa = four, king's, sons; eka ahnaa = in one, daylight; catasR^INaam raaja putriiNaam = four of the, king's, daughters; paaNiin gR^ihNantu = hand, take into hand [i.e., marry the princesses, assume husband-ship.]
"Oh, eminent-saint Vishvamitra, let the palms of four princesses be taken in the palms of these four mettlesome princes in marriage, in the light of one day... [1-72-12]
uttare divase brahman phalguniibhyaam maniiShiNaH |
vaivaahikam prashaMsanti bhago yatra prajaapatiH || 1-72-13
13. brahman = oh, Brahman; phalguniibhyaam = in the day where both Phalguni stars are available; yatra = on which day; prajaapatiH bhagaH [devataa] = a deity for progeny, namely Bhaga [is the presiding deity]; uttare divase = later, day [later part of the day, or, when the star post-Phalguni is ruling]; vaivaahikam = for wedding [ceremonies on such a day]; maniiSiNaH = savants; prashamsanti = acclaim.
"Oh, Brahman, the savants acclaim that part of the day as the best for wedding ceremonies when both of the pre-Phalguni and post-Phalguni stars are available, and on such a time where post-Phalguni is ruling, for which Bhaga is the presiding deity for progeny..." So said Janaka to the marriage party. [1-72-13]
There is a lot of commentary from the viewpoint of astrology regarding these stars and days of this marriage. Some have said that uttare divase 'on best day...' phalguni= puurva phalguni 'pre-Phalguni... on the best day under pre-Phalguni star...' which usually does not happen, but it is also said to be correct by Maheshvara Tiirtha, as the Moon will be in the 12th house at that time, so the marriage is agreeable...' However the stars for best results of marriages are: rohiNii mR^igashiirShyaNi uttara phalgunii svaati iti vivaahasya nakShatraaNi | bodhaayana suutraaNi
evam uktvaa vacaH sauMyam pratyutthaaya kR^itaaMjaliH |
ubhau muni varau raajaa janako vaakyam abraviit || 1-72-14
14. janakaH raajaa = Janaka, king; evam saumyam vacaH uktvaa = thus, gracious, words, on saying; prati utthaaya = in turn, getting up [from throne]; kR^itaanjaliH = reverently; ubhau muni varau = to both, saints, eminent; vaakyam abraviit = sentence, said.
On saying those gracious words thus, king Janaka got up from his throne and coming nigh of both of the eminent-saints, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, reverently said this sentence. [1-72-14]
paro dharmaH kR^ito mahyam shiShyo asmi bhavatoH sadaa |
imaani aasana mukhyaani aasyataam munipuMgavau || 1-72-15
15. mahyam paraH dharmaH kR^itaH = in my respect, excellent, kind deed [beau geste,] is done; sadaa bhavatoH shiSyaH asmi = for ever, of yours, proselyte, I am - I remain; munipungavau = oh, eminent-saints; imaani aasana mukhyaani = these, seats, important [thrones]; aasyataam = take a seat [preside over.]
"You two, oh, eminent-saints, have done an excellent generous act in my respect, thus I will ever remain your proselyte... you may please preside over these thrones, that of mine, my brother's, and that of Dasharatha... [1-72-15]
The kind deed done by the two sages, Vishvamitra and Vashishta, is fetching right husbands for his daughters, and for his brother's daughters, without flattening his own flatties. And this sitting on the three thrones is for assuming symbolic rulership on the three kingdoms, Ayodhya, Mithila, and Saamkaasya, in getting the marriages performed without a hitch.
yathaa dasharathasya iyam tathaa ayodhyaa purii mama |
prabhutve na asti sandeho yathaa arham kartum arhathaH || 1-72-16
16. iyam = this [city Mithila]; dasharathasya = Dasharatha's yathaa = as to how it [belongs to]; ayodhyaa purii mama tathaa = Ayodhya, city, to me, likewise [Ayodhya belongs to me]; prabhutve sandehaH na asti = in governance, doubt not, is there, [no need for hesitancy]; yathaa arham kartum arhathaH = as per, aptness, to make happen, apt of you.
"As to how this city Mithila appertains to Dasharatha, in the same way city of Ayodhya is mine... and there shall be no hesitancy for you two sages in governance on these three kingdoms, thus it will be apt of you to make the marriages happen as aptly as you can..." So said Janaka to the sages. [1-72-16]
tathaa bruvati vaidehe janake raghu naMdanaH |
raajaa dasharatho hR^iShTaH pratyuvaaca mahii patim || 1-72-17
17. vaidehe janake = Videha's, Janaka; tathaa bruvati = in that way [in such a hobnobbing way,] while talking; raghu nandanaH raajaa dasharathaH hR^iSTaH = Raghu's, legatee, king, Dasharatha, is gladdened; and; mahii patim pratyuvaaca = to king Janaka, replied.
The legatee of Raghu-s king Dasharatha is gladdened while the legatee of Videha is talking in such a hobnobbing way, and he replied king Janaka in this way. [1-72-17]
yuvaam asaMkhyeya guNau bhraatarau mithileshvarau |
R^iShayo raaja saMghaaH ca bhavadbhyaam abhipuujitaaH || 1-72-18
18. mithila iishvarau = oh, kings of Mithila [Kushadhvaja included]; bhraatarau = two brothers; yuvaam = you both; a sankhyeya = not, estimable; guNau = [good] manners; bhavadbhyaam = by you [are garnered, treasured]; R^iSayaH = sages; raaja sanghaaH ca = kings', coteries, also; abhipuujitaaH = reverenced.
"Oh, kings of Mithila, Janaka and Kushadhvaja, you two brothers have reverenced inestimable sages and coteries of kings, as such inestimable good manners are treasured in both of you... [1-72-18]
Annex: 'As said in good sayings like, 'good company and good discourse are the very sinews of virtue...' as such, your abilities in making these marriages happen will edge out our limited capabilities... and if we commit any mistake unwittingly, that may besmirch your unblemished personality, because for the first time I am marrying my sons, you shall pardon... by the way, you have performed many marriages, concluding that every bride is your own daughter-like, thus we hear... thus, your sitting complacently on intrusting all the works of marriages to us, is infeasible... so, you do all the works and we sit comfortably seeing the celebrations...'
svasti praapnuhi bhadram te gamiShyaamaH svam aalayam |
shraaddha kar.hmaaNi vidhivat vidhaasya iti ca abraviit || 1-72-19
19. svasti praapnuhi = blessedness, gain [enjoy]; te bhadram = you be safe; svam aalayam gamiSyaamaH = to our, to visitatorial-palace, we depart; shraaddha karmaaNi = tributary, rituals of; vidhivat = customarily; vidhaasya [vidhaasyaami] = I will carry out; iti ca abraviit = thus, also, said.
"Enjoy that blessedness! Let safe betide you! We now depart to our visitatorial-palace, and we shall customarily carry out the tributary rituals..." Dasharatha said thus. [1-72-19]
tam aapR^iShTvaa nara patim raajaa dasharathaH tadaa |
muniindrau tau puraskR^itya jagaama aashu mahaayashaaH || 1-72-20
20. tadaa = then; mahaayashaaH raajaa dasharathaH = highly renowned, king, Dasharatha; tam nara patim aapR^iSTvaa = him, sovereign [Janaka,] on seeking [leave of absence]; tau muniindrau puraskR^itya = both, eminent-saints, keeping afore; aashu jagaama = promptly, departed.
On seeking leave of absence from the sovereign of people, Janaka, that highly renowned king Dasharatha promptly departed from there, keeping both of the eminent-saints afore, namely Vishvamitra and Vashishta. [1-72-20]
sa gatvaa nilayam raajaa shraaddham kR^itvaa vidhaanataH |
prabhaate kaalyam utthaaya cakre go daanam uttamam || 1-72-21
21. saH raajaa = he that, king Dasharatha; nilayam gatvaa = to visitatorial-palace, on going to; vidhaanataH shraaddham kR^itvaa = procedurally, tributary rituals, on undertaking; prabhaate = in [next] morning; utthaaya = on getting up; kaalyam = in opportune time; uttamam go daanam = in grand [way,] cow, donation [samaavartna, snaataka, initiatory rituals]; cakre = he carried out.
King Dasharatha on going to his visitatorial-palace has procedurally undertaken the tributary rituals, and on getting up in the next morning, he carried out the initiatory rituals of marriages, in a grand way, in which donation of cows is a part. [1-72-21]
gavaam shata sahasram ca braahmaNebhyo naraadhipaH |
eka ekasho dadau raajaa putraan uddhishya dharmataH || 1-72-22
22. naraadhipaH raajaa = lord of people, king Dasharatha; putraan = for sons; eka ekashaH uddhishya = each, to each [of four sons,] intended for; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmans; gavaam = cows; shata sahasram ca = hundred, thousand, also; dharmataH dadau = righteously, he donated.
That lord of people king Dasharatha has righteously donated hundred thousand cows to Brahman-s, in the name of each of his four sons. [1-72-22]
suvarNa shR^iMgayaH saMpannaaH sa vatsaaH kaaMsya dohanaaH |
gavaam shata sahasraaNi catvaari puruSha R^iShabhaH || 1-72-23
vittam anyat ca su bahu dvijebhyo raghu naMdanaH |
dadau go daanam uddishya putraaNaam putra vatsalaH || 1-72-24
23-24. puruSa R^iSabhaH = man, the bullish [best one]; putra vatsalaH = sons, affectionate towards; raghu nandanaH = Raghu's, legatee; putraaNaam = sons'; go daanam uddishya = cow, donation, intended for; suvarNa shR^ingayaH = golden casing, horns; [su] sampannaaH = very abundant [milkers]; sa vatsaaH = with, calves; kaamsya dohanaaH = bell metal, with milking jugs; gavaam = cows; catvaari = four; shata sahasraaNi = hundred, thousands; anyat = other [kinds of]; su bahu vittam ca = very, many, assets, also; dvijebhyaH dadau = to Brahman-s, donated.
In that cow donation ceremony intended for his sons, he that best one among men and the one who is affectionate towards his sons, Dasharatha, the legatee of Raghu-s, has donated on behalf of each of his sons, four hundred thousand cows, that are abundant milkers, and that have golden casings on their horns, and that are with their calves, and along with milking jugs made with bell metal, and he even donated very many other kinds of assets to Brahmans. [1-72-23, 24]
sa sutaiH kR^ita go daanaiH vR^itaH saH nR^ipatiH tadaa |
loka paalaiH iva aabhaati vR^itaH sauMyaH prajaapatiH || 1-72-25
25. kR^ita go daanaiH = having performed, cow, donation [samaavartna, snaataka, initiatory ceremonies]; sa sutaiH vR^itaH = with, sons, encircling [amidst]; saH nR^ipatiH tadaa = he, king, then; loka paalaiH vR^itaH = world, administrators [four principle deities presiding over the four quarters of world,] encircled; saumyaH prajaapatiH iva = serene, mankind's, overlord [Brahma,] like; aabhaati = shone forth.
On performing the cow donations and samaavartna, snaataka, the initiatory ceremonies of his sons, as well, he that serene king Dasharatha who is amidst the quartet of his sons, shone forth like serene Brahma, who is quartet-faced, with the quartet of Veda-s, and who is the overlord of mankind, amidst the quartet of presiding deities in the quartet of the world. [1-72-25]
The 'unnecessarily' repeated word 'quartet' refers to dharma where its manifestation is with four horns, catvaarii shR^ingaa, trayo asya paadaa, dve shiirSe... 'dharma's horns is a quartet, three are its feet, two are its heads...' so on. When read together with 23, 24 verses, the bullish Dasharatha is said to have the quartet of bullhorn like sons, who are being readied to administer dharma in the world.
iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe dvi saptatitamaH sargaH
© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]