Janaka narrates his lineage while offering his daughters as brides to Rama and Lakshmana. In doing so, he elaborates more about his brother Kushadhvaja, whose daughters are the would-be-wives of Bharata and Shatrughna. They even fix the timings for marriage.
एवम् ब्रुवाणम् जनकः प्रत्युवाच कृतांजलिः |
श्रोतुम् अर्हसि भद्रम् ते कुलम् नः परिकीर्तितम् || १-७१-१
1. evam bruvaaNam = this way, to him who is saying - to Vashishta; janakaH kR^itaanjaliH pratyuvaaca = Janaka, reverentially making palm-fold, in reply said; te bhadram = you be safe; parikiirtitam = distinguished; naH kulam = of our, lineage; shrotum arhasi = to listen, apt of you - all of you.
When sage Vashishta said that way, Janaka reverentially made palm fold and said this in reply, "oh, sage, let safeness betide you all... now, it will be apt of you all to listen to our distinguished lineage... [1-71-1]
प्रदाने हि मुनि श्रेष्ठ कुलम् निरवशेषतः |
वक्तव्यम् कुल जातेन तन् निबोध महामुने || १-७१-२
2. muni shreSTha = oh, eminent sage; mahaamune = oh, great sage; kula jaatena = in [a particular noble] gens, born ones; pradaane = while offering [bride]; nir ava sheSataH = without, a little, remainder [completely, in entirety]; kulam vaktavyam hi = parentage, speakable - to be informed, isn't it; tat nibodha = thereby, let all be informed of our lineage.
"Oh, eminent sage Vashishta, he who is born in a particular noble gens has to inform about his parentage in its entirety, especially when he offers a bride... thereby oh, great sage, let all be informed of about our lineage... [1-71-2]
राजा अभूत् त्रिषु लोकेषु विश्रुतः स्वेन कर्मणा |
निमिः परम धर्मात्मा सर्व सत्त्ववताम् वरः || १-७१-३
3. svena karmaNaa = by his own, accomplishments; triSu lokeSu vishrutaH = in triad, of worlds, renowned one; parama dharma aatmaa = uniquely, seraphic, souled one; sarva sattvavataam varaH = among all, stalwart [emperors,] best one; raajaa nimiH abhuut = emperor, Nimi, was there - once upon a time.
"Once there was an emperor Nimi, who was renowned in the triad of worlds by his own accomplishments, and who was uniquely seraphic-souled and a best one among all stalwart emperors... [1-71-3]
तस्य पुत्रो मिथिः नाम जनको मिथि पुत्रकः |
प्रथमो जनको नाम जनकात् अपि उदावसुः || १-७१-४
4. mithiH naama = Mithi, named; tasya putraH= his, son; prathamaH janakaH naama = first, Janaka, by name [designated as]; mithi putrakaH janakaH = Mithi's, son, is Janaka; janakaat api udaavasuH = from Janaka, even, Udaavasu - are born.
"And his son was named as Mithi, and Janaka was Mithi's son... the first one to be designated as Janaka... and even from that Janaka it is Udaavasu who took birth... [1-71-4]
उदावसोः तु धर्मात्मा जातो वै नन्दिवर्धनः |
नन्दिवर्धन पुत्रः तु सुकेतुः नाम नामतः || १-७१-५
5. udaavasoH tu = from Udaavasu, on his part; dharmaatmaa nandivardhanaH jaataH = noble souled, Nandivardhana, took birth; nandivardhana putraH tu = Nandivardhana's, son, but; naamataH suketuH naama = by name, Suketu, named one.
"From Udaavasu it is noble souled Nandivardhana took birth, and Nandivardhana's son is named as Suketu, by his name... [1-71-5]
सुकेतोः अपि धर्मात्मा देवरातो महाबलः |
देवरातस्य राजर्षेः बृहद्रथ इति स्मृउतः || १-७१-६
6. suketoH api = from Suketu, even; dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; mahaa balaH = highly powerful; devaraataH = Devaraata - is born; devaraatasya raajarSeH bR^ihadratha iti smR^iutaH = from Devaraata, kingly sage, Brihadratha, thus, heard - him to be his son.
"From Suketu the highly powerful and virtue-souled Devaraata is born, and from that kingly sage Devaraata, it is Brihadratha who took birth, thus we have heard... [1-71-6]
बृहद्रथस्य शूरो अभूत् महावीरः प्रतापवान् |
महावीरस्य धृतिमान् सुधृतिः सत्य विक्रमः || १-७१-७
7. bR^ihadrathasya = of Brihadratha; shuuraH prataapavaan mahaaviiraH abhuut = valiant one, highly brave, courageous one, Mahaaviira, became - took birth; mahaaviirasya = of Mahaavira; dhR^itimaan = bold one; satya vikramaH = truth, valiant; sudhR^itiH = Sudhriti - is the son.
"From Brihadratha it is the highly braving, courageous and valiant Mahaaviira has come, and the bold and truth-valiant Sudhriti from Mahaaviira... [1-71-7]
सुधृतेः अपि धर्मात्मा धृष्टकेतुः सु धार्मिकः |
धृष्टकेतोः च राजर्षेः हर्यश्व इति विश्रुतः || १-७१-८
8. sudhR^iteH api = from Sudhriti, even; dharmaatmaa = right-minded one; su dhaarmikaH = highly, generous one; dhR^iSTaketuH = it is Dhristaketu; raajarSeH dhR^iSTaketoH = from kingly sage, Dhristakeu; haryashva iti vishrutaH = Haryashva, thus, renowned - son is born.
"Form Sudhriti, the right-minded and highly generous Dhristaketu took birth, and from the kingly sage Dhristaketu it is highly renowned Haryashva is the son... [1-71-8]
हर्यश्वस्य मरुः पुत्रो मरोः पुत्रः प्रतीन्धकः |
प्रतीन्धकस्य धर्मात्मा राजा कीर्तिरथः सुतः || १-७१-९
9. haryashvasya putraH maruH = Haryashva's, son is, Maru; maroH putraH pratiindhakaH = Maru's, son is, Pratiindhaka; pratiindhakasya sutaH = Pratiindhaka's, son is; dharmaatmaa = noble souled one; raajaa kiirtirathaH = king, Kiiriratha.
"Haryashva's son is Maru, and Maru's, son is Pratiindhaka, and the son of Pratiindhaka's is noble-souled king Kiirtiratha... [1-71-9]
पुत्रः कीर्तिरथस्य अपि देवमीढ इति स्मृतः |
देवमीढस्य विबुधो विबुधस्य महीध्रकः || १-७१-१०
10. kiirtirathasya api putraH = of Kiirtiratha, even, son is; devamiiDha iti smR^itaH = Devamidha, thus, remembered; devamiiDhasya vibudho = of Devamiidha, Vibudha; vibudhasya mahiidhrakaH = Vibudha's, Mahiidraka.
"The son of Kiirtiratha is remembered as Devamiidha, and the son of Devamiidha is Vibudha, and Vibudha's son is Mahiidraka... [1-71-10]
महीध्रक सुतो राजा कीर्तिरातो महाबलः |
कीर्ति रातस्य राजऋषेः महारोमा व्यजायत || १-७१-११
11. mahaabalaH = great mighty one; raajaa kiirtiraataH = king, Kiirtiraata is; mahiidhraka sutaH = Mahiidraka's, son; raajaR^iSeH kiirtiraatasya = to sagely king, Kiirtiraata; mahaaromaa vyajaayata = Mahaaroma, born.
"Mahiidraka's son is the great mighty king Kiirtiraata, and the son born to sagely king Kiirtiraata is Mahaaroma... [1-71-11]
महारोम्णः तु धर्मात्मा स्वर्णरोमा व्यजायत |
स्वर्णरोम्णः तु राजर्षेः ह्रस्वरोमा व्यजायत || १-७१-१२
12. mahaaromNaH tu = from Mahaaroma, but; dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; svarNaromaa vyajaayata = Swarnaroma, is born; raajarSeH svarNaromNaH tu = to kingly sage, Swarnaroma, on his part; hrasvaromaa vyajaayata = Hrasvaroma, is born.
"From Mahaaroma it is the virtue-souled Swarnaroma, and from kingly sage Swarnaroma it is Hrasvaroma... [1-71-12]
तस्य पुत्र द्वयम् जज्ञे धर्मज्ञस्य महात्मनः |
ज्येष्ठो अहम् अनुजो भ्राता मम वीरः कुशध्वज || १-७१-१३
13. dharmaj~nasya tasya = that virtue, knower, from him; mahaatmanaH = noble-souled ones; putra dvayam jaj~ne = sons, a pair of, are born; aham jyeSThaH = I am, elder; viiraH kushadhvaja = brave one, Kushadhvaja is; mama = my; anu jaH = later, born [younger]; bhraataa = brother.
"Two sons are born to that knower of virtue and noble souled Hrasvaroma, I am the elder, and my younger brother is this brave Kushadhvaja... [1-71-13]
माम् तु ज्येष्ठम् पिता राज्ये सो अभिषिच्य नराधिप |
कुशध्वजम् समावेश्य भारम् मयि वनम् गतः || १-७१-१४
14. pitaa saH naraadhipa = father, he, that king; jyeSTham maam = elder me; raajye abhiSicya = in kingdom, anointed; kushadhvajam bhaaram = Kushadhvaja's, burden [duty to look after]; mayi samaaveshya = in me, vesting; vanam gataH = to forests, departed.
"He that king and father of ours, Hrasvaroma, anointing me in kingdom as I am the elder, and vesting the duty of looking after Kushadhvaja in me, he departed to forests... [1-71-14]
वृद्धे पितरि स्वर् याते धर्मेण धुरम् आवहम् |
भ्रातरम् देव संकाशम् स्नेहात् पश्यन् कुशध्वजम् || १-७१-१५
15. vR^iddhe pitari svar yaate sati = aged, father, to heaven, on departure; bhraataram = brother; and; deva sankaasham kushadhvajam = god, similar, Kushadhvaja - his upbringing; snehaat pashyanem =by friendship [with brotherliness,] while looking after; dharmeNa = righteously; dhuram = burden [of kingship]; aavaham = lugging around.
"On the departure of our aged father to heaven, I am looking after this godlike Kushadhvaja with brotherliness and lugging around the burden of this kingship... [1-71-15]
कस्यचित् तु अथ कालस्य सांकाश्यात् अगमत् पुरात् |
सुधन्वा वीर्यवान् राजा मिथिलाम् अवरोधकः || १-७१-१६
16. atha = later; kasyacit tu kaalasya = sometime, but, after time; viiryavaan = valorous one; sudhanvaa raajaa = Sudhanva, a king; mithilaam avarodhakaH = Mithila, to beleaguer; saamkaashyaat puraat = from Saamkaasha, city; agamat = he came.
"Then after sometime, a valorous king named Sudhanva came beleaguering Mithila, from his city Saamkaasha... [1-71-16]
स च मे प्रेषयामास शैवम् धनुः अनुत्तमम् |
सीता कन्या च पद्माक्षी मह्यम् वै दीयताम् इति || १-७१-१७
17. anuttamam shaivam dhanuH = unexcelled, Shiva's, bow; padmaakSii kanyaa siitaa ca = lotus-eyed, virgin, Seetha, along with; mahyam diiyataam = to me, be given; iti saH ca me preSayaamaasa = thus, he, even, me, started to urge.
" 'The unexcelled bow of Shiva shall be given to me, along with the lotus-eyed virgin, Seetha...' thus he started to urge me... [1-71-17]
तस्य अप्रदानात् ब्रह्मर्षे युद्धम् आसीत् मया सह |
स हतो अभिमुखो राजा सुधन्वा तु मया रणे || १-७१-१८
18. brahmarSe = oh, Brahma-sage Vashishta; a pradaanaat = non, bestowal - for the reason of; tasya = to him; mayaa saha = me, with; yuddham aasiit = war, occurred; raNe abhimukhaH = in war, he who affronted; saH raajaa sudhanvaa tu = he, king, Sudhanva, on his part; mayaa hataH = by me, put to the sword.
"Oh, Brahma sage Vashishta, for the reason of my non-bestowal of bow or bride he warred with me, and when he affronted me in that war I have put that Sudhanva to the sword... [1-71-18]
निहत्य तम् मुनिश्रेष्ठ सुधन्वानम् नराधिपम् |
सांकाश्ये भ्रातरम् शूरम् अभ्यषिंचम् कुशध्वजम् || १-७१-१९
19. munishreSTha = oh, best sage; naraadhipam tam sudhanvaanam nihatya = lord of people, him, Sudhanva, on eliminating; bhraataram shuuram kushadhvajam = brother, valiant one, Kushadhvaja; saamkaashye abhyaSincam = in Saamkaasha, I have anointed.
"Oh, best sage Vashishta, on eliminating king Sudhanva, I have anointed my valiant brother Kushadhvaja in the kingdom of Saamkaasha... [1-71-19]
कनीयान् एष मे भ्राता अहम् ज्येष्ठो महामुने |
ददामि परम प्रीतो वध्वौ ते मुनिपुंगव || १-७१-२०
सीताम् रामाय भद्रम् ते ऊर्मिलाम् लक्ष्मणाय वै |
20, 21a. mahaamune = oh, best saint; eSa me kaniiyaan bhraataa = he is, my, younger, brother; aham jyeSThaH = I am, elder; munipungava = oh, eminent-saint; parama priitaH = highly, gladdened; te vadhvau dadaami = those, brides, I am bestowing; siitaam raamaaya = Seetha, for Rama; uurmilaam lakSmaNaaya vai = Urmila, for Lakshmana, for sure; te bhadram = to you - to all, let there be felicity,.
"Oh, best saint Vashishta, this is that younger brother of mine, and I am the elder. Oh, eminent-saint, I am bestowing those brides with a highly gladdened heart... Seetha for Rama, and Urmila for Lakshmana, let there be felicity for all... [1-71-20, 21a]
वीर्य शुल्काम् मम सुताम् सीताम् सुर सुत उपमाम् || १-७१-२१
द्वितीयाम् ऊर्मिलाम् चैव त्रिः वदामि न संशयः |
ददामि परम प्रीतो वध्वौ ते मुनिपुंगव || १-७१-२२
21b, 22a. viirya shulkaam = bravery's, bounty; sura suta upamaam = divine Providence's, daughter, in simile; mama sutaam siitaam = my, daughter, Seetha; dvitiiyaam uurmilaam caiva = second one, Urmila, also thus; munipungava = oh, eminent-saint; triH vadaami = thrice, I reiterate; parama priitaH = highly, gladdened; te vadhvau dadaami = those, brides, I am bestowing; samshayaH na = doubt, is not there.
"My daughter Seetha is the bounty for bravery and in simile she is the daughter of the divine Providence, and thus the second one Urmila too... oh, eminent-saint, with a highly gladdened heart I reiterate thrice while I bestow those brides, there is no doubt about it... [1-71-21b, 22a]
The thrice reiteration is the threefold commitment mano vaak kaaya karaNaaH i.e., 'the three instruments of communication, mind, voice, and body... so I endow the brides whole-heartedly, clear-articulately, and agleam-physically...' Here this verse is addressed to Vashishta, while other mms say that it is aimed at Dasharatha by placing words 'raghunandana' instead of 'munipungava.'
राम लक्ष्मणयो राजन् गो दानम् कारयस्व ह |
पितृ कार्यम् च भद्रम् ते ततो वैवाहिकम् कुरु || १-७१-२३
22b, c, 23. raajan = oh, king Dasharatha; raama lakSmaNayaH = for Rama, Lakshmana; go daanam = cow, donation [lexically, but this is different and given in comment]; kaarayasva ha = make happen, indeed; pitR^i kaaryam ca = to manes, ritual, also [get it done]; tataH vaivaahikam kuru = afterwards, wedding celebrations, you make happen; te bhadram = all be blest.
"Oh, king Dasharatha, let the preceding ritual of samaavartna, be undertaken, and let manes be propitiated by the ritual, naandi shraadha, and afterwards you make happen the wedding celebrations ... thus, all will be blest... [1-71-22b, 23]
The wording go daana differs from the ordinary lexical meaning 'cow donation' as the word gaavaka means body hair and daana is releasing, or let-going, i.e., shaving. When the students return home after the studentship they will be admitted into household after some rituals like shaving off unnecessary hair, taking oil bath etc. gauH dvayoH tu rashmiH dR^ig baaNa svarja vajra ambu lomasu - naa naa - go daanam caula vat kaaryam shoDaaShe abde taducyate | In this there will be a real cow donation also to the teacher of that student, when the students sheds his hair, after the barber attends him. After shaving off the unwanted hair, then samaavartana is undertaken. The problem pointed out at this place is, that Rama or Lakshmana are born without vyanjana kesha unwanted hair, except head-hair, as Indian mytholoj~n will not give a hairy makeup to these four brothers. 'How then Janaka asked to undertake such ceremony, when discardable hair itself is not there...' is the objection. Whether they have hair or not, the ceremony has to go on.
मघा हि अद्य महाबाहो तृतीये दिवसे प्रभो |
फल्गुन्याम् उत्तरे राजन् तस्मिन् वैवाहिकम् कुरु |
राम लक्ष्मणयोः अर्थे दानम् कार्यम् सुखोदयम् || १-७१-२४
24. mahaabaaho = oh, great dextrous Dasharatha; prabho = oh, lord; adya maghaa hi = today, [ruling star is] Magha, isn't it; raajan = oh, king; tR^itiiye divase = on third, day from today; phalgunyaam = in Phalguni [when star Phalguni comes]; tasmin uttare = in that, later part [Uttara phalguNi]; vaivaahikam kuru = wedding, you make happen; raama lakSmaNayoH = for Rama, Lakshmana; sukha udayam arthe = for wellbeing, invoking, for purpose of [wellbeing is the only ensuing factor]; daanam kaaryam = bounties, doable [be accorded generously.]
"Oh, great dextrous Dasharatha, the star ruling today is magha, isn't it... oh, lord, on the third from now, say day after tomorrow, when the star phaalguNi comes, in its later part, namely uttara phalugNi, you may make happen this wedding, and the bounties like go bhuu tila hiraNya aadi i.e., ' cows, lands, grains, gold etc., that ensue the wellbeing of Rama and Lakshmana, may be accorded to the eligible generously... [1-71-24]
These old people have meticulously calculated stars and their sidereal times for marriage, but being old, they have forgotten to print the date of wedding on wedding invitations or, at least said about it. Thereby the dating of Ramayana has become a problem, and dating with Ramayana prospered.
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये बाल काण्डे एक सप्ततितमः सर्गः
© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]
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