Book I : Bala Kanda - The Youthful Majesties
Janaka narrates his lineage while offering his daughters as brides to Rama and Lakshmana. In doing so, he elaborates more about his brother Kushadhvaja, whose daughters are the would-be-wives of Bharata and Shatrughna. They even fix the timings for marriage.
evam bruvāṇam janakaḥ pratyuvācha kṛtāṃjaliḥ |
śhrotum arhasi bhadram te kulam naḥ parikīrtitam || 1-71-1
1. evam bruvaaNam = this way, to him who is saying - to Vashishta; janakaH kR^itaanjaliH pratyuvaaca = Janaka, reverentially making palm-fold, in reply said; te bhadram = you be safe; parikiirtitam = distinguished; naH kulam = of our, lineage; shrotum arhasi = to listen, apt of you - all of you.
When sage Vashishta said that way, Janaka reverentially made palm fold and said this in reply, "oh, sage, let safeness betide you all... now, it will be apt of you all to listen to our distinguished lineage... [1-71-1]
pradāne hi muni śhreṣhṭha kulam niravaśheṣhataḥ |
vaktavyam kula jātena tan nibodha mahāmune || 1-71-2
2. muni shreSTha = oh, eminent sage; mahaamune = oh, great sage; kula jaatena = in [a particular noble] gens, born ones; pradaane = while offering [bride]; nir ava sheSataH = without, a little, remainder [completely, in entirety]; kulam vaktavyam hi = parentage, speakable - to be informed, isn't it; tat nibodha = thereby, let all be informed of our lineage.
"Oh, eminent sage Vashishta, he who is born in a particular noble gens has to inform about his parentage in its entirety, especially when he offers a bride... thereby oh, great sage, let all be informed of about our lineage... [1-71-2]
rājā abhūt triṣhu lokeṣhu viśhrutaḥ svena karmaṇā |
nimiḥ parama dharmātmā sarva sattvavatām varaḥ || 1-71-3
3. svena karmaNaa = by his own, accomplishments; triSu lokeSu vishrutaH = in triad, of worlds, renowned one; parama dharma aatmaa = uniquely, seraphic, souled one; sarva sattvavataam varaH = among all, stalwart [emperors,] best one; raajaa nimiH abhuut = emperor, Nimi, was there - once upon a time.
"Once there was an emperor Nimi, who was renowned in the triad of worlds by his own accomplishments, and who was uniquely seraphic-souled and a best one among all stalwart emperors... [1-71-3]
tasya putro mithiḥ nāma janako mithi putrakaḥ |
prathamo janako nāma janakāt api udāvasuḥ || 1-71-4
4. mithiH naama = Mithi, named; tasya putraH= his, son; prathamaH janakaH naama = first, Janaka, by name [designated as]; mithi putrakaH janakaH = Mithi's, son, is Janaka; janakaat api udaavasuH = from Janaka, even, Udaavasu - are born.
"And his son was named as Mithi, and Janaka was Mithi's son... the first one to be designated as Janaka... and even from that Janaka it is Udaavasu who took birth... [1-71-4]
udāvasoḥ tu dharmātmā jāto vai nandivardhanaḥ |
nandivardhana putraḥ tu suketuḥ nāma nāmataḥ || 1-71-5
5. udaavasoH tu = from Udaavasu, on his part; dharmaatmaa nandivardhanaH jaataH = noble souled, Nandivardhana, took birth; nandivardhana putraH tu = Nandivardhana's, son, but; naamataH suketuH naama = by name, Suketu, named one.
"From Udaavasu it is noble souled Nandivardhana took birth, and Nandivardhana's son is named as Suketu, by his name... [1-71-5]
suketoḥ api dharmātmā devarāto mahābalaḥ |
devarātasya rājarṣheḥ bṛhadratha iti smṛutaḥ || 1-71-6
6. suketoH api = from Suketu, even; dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; mahaa balaH = highly powerful; devaraataH = Devaraata - is born; devaraatasya raajarSeH bR^ihadratha iti smR^iutaH = from Devaraata, kingly sage, Brihadratha, thus, heard - him to be his son.
"From Suketu the highly powerful and virtue-souled Devaraata is born, and from that kingly sage Devaraata, it is Brihadratha who took birth, thus we have heard... [1-71-6]
bṛhadrathasya śhūro abhūt mahāvīraḥ pratāpavān |
mahāvīrasya dhṛtimān sudhṛtiḥ satya vikramaḥ || 1-71-7
7. bR^ihadrathasya = of Brihadratha; shuuraH prataapavaan mahaaviiraH abhuut = valiant one, highly brave, courageous one, Mahaaviira, became - took birth; mahaaviirasya = of Mahaavira; dhR^itimaan = bold one; satya vikramaH = truth, valiant; sudhR^itiH = Sudhriti - is the son.
"From Brihadratha it is the highly braving, courageous and valiant Mahaaviira has come, and the bold and truth-valiant Sudhriti from Mahaaviira... [1-71-7]
sudhṛteḥ api dharmātmā dhṛṣhṭaketuḥ su dhārmikaḥ |
dhṛṣhṭaketoḥ cha rājarṣheḥ haryaśhva iti viśhrutaḥ || 1-71-8
8. sudhR^iteH api = from Sudhriti, even; dharmaatmaa = right-minded one; su dhaarmikaH = highly, generous one; dhR^iSTaketuH = it is Dhristaketu; raajarSeH dhR^iSTaketoH = from kingly sage, Dhristakeu; haryashva iti vishrutaH = Haryashva, thus, renowned - son is born.
"Form Sudhriti, the right-minded and highly generous Dhristaketu took birth, and from the kingly sage Dhristaketu it is highly renowned Haryashva is the son... [1-71-8]
haryaśhvasya maruḥ putro maroḥ putraḥ pratīndhakaḥ |
pratīndhakasya dharmātmā rājā kīrtirathaḥ sutaḥ || 1-71-9
9. haryashvasya putraH maruH = Haryashva's, son is, Maru; maroH putraH pratiindhakaH = Maru's, son is, Pratiindhaka; pratiindhakasya sutaH = Pratiindhaka's, son is; dharmaatmaa = noble souled one; raajaa kiirtirathaH = king, Kiiriratha.
"Haryashva's son is Maru, and Maru's, son is Pratiindhaka, and the son of Pratiindhaka's is noble-souled king Kiirtiratha... [1-71-9]
putraḥ kīrtirathasya api devamīḍha iti smṛtaḥ |
devamīḍhasya vibudho vibudhasya mahīdhrakaḥ || 1-71-10
10. kiirtirathasya api putraH = of Kiirtiratha, even, son is; devamiiDha iti smR^itaH = Devamidha, thus, remembered; devamiiDhasya vibudho = of Devamiidha, Vibudha; vibudhasya mahiidhrakaH = Vibudha's, Mahiidraka.
"The son of Kiirtiratha is remembered as Devamiidha, and the son of Devamiidha is Vibudha, and Vibudha's son is Mahiidraka... [1-71-10]
mahīdhraka suto rājā kīrtirāto mahābalaḥ |
kīrti rātasya rājaṛṣheḥ mahāromā vyajāyata || 1-71-11
11. mahaabalaH = great mighty one; raajaa kiirtiraataH = king, Kiirtiraata is; mahiidhraka sutaH = Mahiidraka's, son; raajaR^iSeH kiirtiraatasya = to sagely king, Kiirtiraata; mahaaromaa vyajaayata = Mahaaroma, born.
"Mahiidraka's son is the great mighty king Kiirtiraata, and the son born to sagely king Kiirtiraata is Mahaaroma... [1-71-11]
mahāromṇaḥ tu dharmātmā svarṇaromā vyajāyata |
svarṇaromṇaḥ tu rājarṣheḥ hrasvaromā vyajāyata || 1-71-12
12. mahaaromNaH tu = from Mahaaroma, but; dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; svarNaromaa vyajaayata = Swarnaroma, is born; raajarSeH svarNaromNaH tu = to kingly sage, Swarnaroma, on his part; hrasvaromaa vyajaayata = Hrasvaroma, is born.
"From Mahaaroma it is the virtue-souled Swarnaroma, and from kingly sage Swarnaroma it is Hrasvaroma... [1-71-12]
tasya putra dvayam jajñe dharmajñasya mahātmanaḥ |
jyeṣhṭho aham anujo bhrātā mama vīraḥ kuśhadhvaja || 1-71-13
13. dharmaj~nasya tasya = that virtue, knower, from him; mahaatmanaH = noble-souled ones; putra dvayam jaj~ne = sons, a pair of, are born; aham jyeSThaH = I am, elder; viiraH kushadhvaja = brave one, Kushadhvaja is; mama = my; anu jaH = later, born [younger]; bhraataa = brother.
"Two sons are born to that knower of virtue and noble souled Hrasvaroma, I am the elder, and my younger brother is this brave Kushadhvaja... [1-71-13]
mām tu jyeṣhṭham pitā rājye so abhiṣhichya narādhipa |
kuśhadhvajam samāveśhya bhāram mayi vanam gataḥ || 1-71-14
14. pitaa saH naraadhipa = father, he, that king; jyeSTham maam = elder me; raajye abhiSicya = in kingdom, anointed; kushadhvajam bhaaram = Kushadhvaja's, burden [duty to look after]; mayi samaaveshya = in me, vesting; vanam gataH = to forests, departed.
"He that king and father of ours, Hrasvaroma, anointing me in kingdom as I am the elder, and vesting the duty of looking after Kushadhvaja in me, he departed to forests... [1-71-14]
vṛddhe pitari svar yāte dharmeṇa dhuram āvaham |
bhrātaram deva saṃkāśham snehāt paśhyan kuśhadhvajam || 1-71-15
15. vR^iddhe pitari svar yaate sati = aged, father, to heaven, on departure; bhraataram = brother; and; deva sankaasham kushadhvajam = god, similar, Kushadhvaja - his upbringing; snehaat pashyanem =by friendship [with brotherliness,] while looking after; dharmeNa = righteously; dhuram = burden [of kingship]; aavaham = lugging around.
"On the departure of our aged father to heaven, I am looking after this godlike Kushadhvaja with brotherliness and lugging around the burden of this kingship... [1-71-15]
kasyachit tu atha kālasya sāṃkāśhyāt agamat purāt |
sudhanvā vīryavān rājā mithilām avarodhakaḥ || 1-71-16
16. atha = later; kasyacit tu kaalasya = sometime, but, after time; viiryavaan = valorous one; sudhanvaa raajaa = Sudhanva, a king; mithilaam avarodhakaH = Mithila, to beleaguer; saamkaashyaat puraat = from Saamkaasha, city; agamat = he came.
"Then after sometime, a valorous king named Sudhanva came beleaguering Mithila, from his city Saamkaasha... [1-71-16]
sa cha me preṣhayāmāsa śhaivam dhanuḥ anuttamam |
sītā kanyā cha padmākṣhī mahyam vai dīyatām iti || 1-71-17
17. anuttamam shaivam dhanuH = unexcelled, Shiva's, bow; padmaakSii kanyaa siitaa ca = lotus-eyed, virgin, Seetha, along with; mahyam diiyataam = to me, be given; iti saH ca me preSayaamaasa = thus, he, even, me, started to urge.
" 'The unexcelled bow of Shiva shall be given to me, along with the lotus-eyed virgin, Seetha...' thus he started to urge me... [1-71-17]
tasya apradānāt brahmarṣhe yuddham āsīt mayā saha |
sa hato abhimukho rājā sudhanvā tu mayā raṇe || 1-71-18
18. brahmarSe = oh, Brahma-sage Vashishta; a pradaanaat = non, bestowal - for the reason of; tasya = to him; mayaa saha = me, with; yuddham aasiit = war, occurred; raNe abhimukhaH = in war, he who affronted; saH raajaa sudhanvaa tu = he, king, Sudhanva, on his part; mayaa hataH = by me, put to the sword.
"Oh, Brahma sage Vashishta, for the reason of my non-bestowal of bow or bride he warred with me, and when he affronted me in that war I have put that Sudhanva to the sword... [1-71-18]
nihatya tam muniśhreṣhṭha sudhanvānam narādhipam |
sāṃkāśhye bhrātaram śhūram abhyaṣhiṃcham kuśhadhvajam || 1-71-19
19. munishreSTha = oh, best sage; naraadhipam tam sudhanvaanam nihatya = lord of people, him, Sudhanva, on eliminating; bhraataram shuuram kushadhvajam = brother, valiant one, Kushadhvaja; saamkaashye abhyaSincam = in Saamkaasha, I have anointed.
"Oh, best sage Vashishta, on eliminating king Sudhanva, I have anointed my valiant brother Kushadhvaja in the kingdom of Saamkaasha... [1-71-19]
kanīyān eṣha me bhrātā aham jyeṣhṭho mahāmune |
dadāmi parama prīto vadhvau te munipuṃgava || 1-71-20
sītām rāmāya bhadram te ūrmilām lakṣhmaṇāya vai |
20, 21a. mahaamune = oh, best saint; eSa me kaniiyaan bhraataa = he is, my, younger, brother; aham jyeSThaH = I am, elder; munipungava = oh, eminent-saint; parama priitaH = highly, gladdened; te vadhvau dadaami = those, brides, I am bestowing; siitaam raamaaya = Seetha, for Rama; uurmilaam lakSmaNaaya vai = Urmila, for Lakshmana, for sure; te bhadram = to you - to all, let there be felicity,.
"Oh, best saint Vashishta, this is that younger brother of mine, and I am the elder. Oh, eminent-saint, I am bestowing those brides with a highly gladdened heart... Seetha for Rama, and Urmila for Lakshmana, let there be felicity for all... [1-71-20, 21a]
vīrya śhulkām mama sutām sītām sura suta upamām || 1-71-21
dvitīyām ūrmilām chaiva triḥ vadāmi na saṃśhayaḥ |
dadāmi parama prīto vadhvau te munipuṃgava || 1-71-22
21b, 22a. viirya shulkaam = bravery's, bounty; sura suta upamaam = divine Providence's, daughter, in simile; mama sutaam siitaam = my, daughter, Seetha; dvitiiyaam uurmilaam caiva = second one, Urmila, also thus; munipungava = oh, eminent-saint; triH vadaami = thrice, I reiterate; parama priitaH = highly, gladdened; te vadhvau dadaami = those, brides, I am bestowing; samshayaH na = doubt, is not there.
"My daughter Seetha is the bounty for bravery and in simile she is the daughter of the divine Providence, and thus the second one Urmila too... oh, eminent-saint, with a highly gladdened heart I reiterate thrice while I bestow those brides, there is no doubt about it... [1-71-21b, 22a]
The thrice reiteration is the threefold commitment mano vaak kaaya karaNaaH i.e., 'the three instruments of communication, mind, voice, and body... so I endow the brides whole-heartedly, clear-articulately, and agleam-physically...' Here this verse is addressed to Vashishta, while other mms say that it is aimed at Dasharatha by placing words 'raghunandana' instead of 'munipungava.'
rāma lakṣhmaṇayo rājan go dānam kārayasva ha |
pitṛ kāryam cha bhadram te tato vaivāhikam kuru || 1-71-23
22b, c, 23. raajan = oh, king Dasharatha; raama lakSmaNayaH = for Rama, Lakshmana; go daanam = cow, donation [lexically, but this is different and given in comment]; kaarayasva ha = make happen, indeed; pitR^i kaaryam ca = to manes, ritual, also [get it done]; tataH vaivaahikam kuru = afterwards, wedding celebrations, you make happen; te bhadram = all be blest.
"Oh, king Dasharatha, let the preceding ritual of samaavartna, be undertaken, and let manes be propitiated by the ritual, naandi shraadha, and afterwards you make happen the wedding celebrations ... thus, all will be blest... [1-71-22b, 23]
The wording go daana differs from the ordinary lexical meaning 'cow donation' as the word gaavaka means body hair and daana is releasing, or let-going, i.e., shaving. When the students return home after the studentship they will be admitted into household after some rituals like shaving off unnecessary hair, taking oil bath etc. gauH dvayoH tu rashmiH dR^ig baaNa svarja vajra ambu lomasu - naa naa - go daanam caula vat kaaryam shoDaaShe abde taducyate | In this there will be a real cow donation also to the teacher of that student, when the students sheds his hair, after the barber attends him. After shaving off the unwanted hair, then samaavartana is undertaken. The problem pointed out at this place is, that Rama or Lakshmana are born without vyanjana kesha unwanted hair, except head-hair, as Indian mytholoj~n will not give a hairy makeup to these four brothers. 'How then Janaka asked to undertake such ceremony, when discardable hair itself is not there...' is the objection. Whether they have hair or not, the ceremony has to go on.
maghā hi adya mahābāho tṛtīye divase prabho |
phalgunyām uttare rājan tasmin vaivāhikam kuru |
rāma lakṣhmaṇayoḥ arthe dānam kāryam sukhodayam || 1-71-24
24. mahaabaaho = oh, great dextrous Dasharatha; prabho = oh, lord; adya maghaa hi = today, [ruling star is] Magha, isn't it; raajan = oh, king; tR^itiiye divase = on third, day from today; phalgunyaam = in Phalguni [when star Phalguni comes]; tasmin uttare = in that, later part [Uttara phalguNi]; vaivaahikam kuru = wedding, you make happen; raama lakSmaNayoH = for Rama, Lakshmana; sukha udayam arthe = for wellbeing, invoking, for purpose of [wellbeing is the only ensuing factor]; daanam kaaryam = bounties, doable [be accorded generously.]
"Oh, great dextrous Dasharatha, the star ruling today is magha, isn't it... oh, lord, on the third from now, say day after tomorrow, when the star phaalguNi comes, in its later part, namely uttara phalugNi, you may make happen this wedding, and the bounties like go bhuu tila hiraNya aadi i.e., ' cows, lands, grains, gold etc., that ensue the wellbeing of Rama and Lakshmana, may be accorded to the eligible generously... [1-71-24]
These old people have meticulously calculated stars and their sidereal times for marriage, but being old, they have forgotten to print the date of wedding on wedding invitations or, at least said about it. Thereby the dating of Ramayana has become a problem, and dating with Ramayana prospered.
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye bāla kāṇḍe eka saptatitamaḥ sargaḥ
© May, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : January 05]
Read more about:
verse and locator
transported by Go FTP FREE Client