The riches and happiness enjoyed by the people, under the rein of Emperor Dasharatha, along with the details of its valiant heroes, elephants, horses and the town planning are narrated.
तस्याम् पुर्याम् अयोध्यायाम् वेदवित् सर्व संग्रहः |
दीर्घदर्शी महातेजाः पौर जानपद प्रियः || १-६-१
इक्ष्वाकूणम् अतिरथो यज्वा धर्मपरो वशी |
महर्षिकल्पो राजर्षिः त्रिषु लोकेषु विश्रुतः || १-६-२
बलवान् निहत अमित्रो मित्रवान् विजित इन्द्रियः |
धनैः च संचयैः च अन्यैः शक्र वैश्रवण उपमः || १-६-३
यथा मनुर् महातेजा लोकस्य परिरक्षिता |
तथा दशरथो राजा लोकस्य परिरक्षिता || १-६-४
1-4. veda vit = Veda-s, knower of [well-versed in Veda-s]; sarva sangrahaH = all, gatherer [of all riches, forces, learned men etc]; diirgha darshii = foreseer; mahatejaa = very resplendent one; paura janapada priyaH = urbanites, countrymen, esteemed by; ikshwakuuNaam ati rathaH = among Ikshwaku kings, top-speeded, chariot-warrior; yaGYva = one who performed Vedic rituals; dharma paraH = to probity, dedicated one; vashii = controller; maharSi kalpaH rajarSi = saint, like, kingly, sage; triSu lokeshu visrutaH = among three, worlds, renowned one; balavaan = mighty one; nihata a mitraH = one who eradicated, unfriendly ones [enemies]; mitravaan = one who has many friends; vijita indriyaH = one who conquered, his senses; dhanaiH cha anyaiH sanchayaiH cha = with wealth, also, with accumulations, with other, too; shakraH vaisravanaH upamaH = Indra and Kubera, similar to; yatha manuH mahaateja = as with, Manu, great magnificent one; lokasya parirakshitaa = world, who protected; tatha raja dasharathaH = likewise, king, Dasharatha,; tasyaam puryaam ayodhyayaam = in that, city, Ayodhya; [vasan = while dwelling]; lokasya parirakshitaa = world, protected.
He who is well-versed in Veda-s, who is a gatherer of all scholars, riches and forces as well, a foreseer and a great resplendent one, also one who is esteemed by urbanites and countrymen alike, one who is a top-speeded chariot-warrior aamong the emperors of Ikshwaku kings, one who has performed many Vedic rituals, a virtuous one, a great controller, a saint-like kingly sage, one who he is renowned in all the three worlds, a mighty one with all his enemies eradicated, nevertheless who has friends, one who conquered all his senses, one who is similar to Indra, or Kubera on earth with his wealth, accumulations and other possessions, he that king Dasharatha while dwelling in the city of Ayodhya protected the world, like Manu, the foremost protector of mankind. [1-6-3,4,5]
तेन सत्याभिसंधेन त्रिवर्गम् अनुष्टिता |
पालिता सा पुरी श्रेष्टा इन्द्रेण इव अमरावती || १-६-५
5. tena = by him; satya abhisandhena = truth, abiding; trivargam anuSTita = three-fold virtues, adherent; paalitaa saa sreSTaa purii = ruled, that, best, city; indreNa iva amaraavati = by Indra, like, Amaravati.
He that truth-abiding king, who adheres to the three-fold virtues rules the vast of that kingdom from that best city Ayodhya, as Indra rules heaven from his capital Amaravati. [1-6-5]
तस्मिन् पुरवरे हृष्टा धर्मात्मनो बहुश्रुताः |
नराः तुष्ठाः धनैः स्वैः स्वैः अलुब्धाः सत्यवादिनः ||१-६-६
6. tasmin pura vare = in that, city, the best; naraaH hR^iSTaa = people, exuberant; dharmaatmanaH bahu shrutaH = virtuous ones, variously, heard [learnt]; = joyous, stvaiH stvaiH = of their, their; dhanaiH = with riches; tuSTtaaH = satisfied; a lubdhaaH = not, greedy; satya vaadinaH = truth, advocating ones.
In that best city Ayodhya all are exuberant yet virtuous ones, and scholars are variously learned ones, people are satisfied with their own riches, they have no greed, and they advocate truthfulness alone. [1-6-6]
न अल्प संनिचयः कश्चिद् आसीत् तस्मिन् पुरोत्तमे |
कुटुंबी यो हि असिद्धर्थः अगवा अश्व धन धान्यवान् || १-६-७
7. na alpa sannichaya = none, meagre, in accumulations; kaschit aasiit tasmin = anyone, is there, in that; pura uttame = city, the great; kuTumbii = a householder; yaH hi = who, really; a siddha artha = unearned, means; a gaava = without, cows; ashva = horses; dhana = monies; dhanyavaan = cereals, the one with them.
None with meagre accumulations is there in that great city and no householder is there without unearned means, and without cows, horses, monies or cereals and who could not sustain his family. [1-6-7]
An ordinary family kuTumba is an assemblage of the householder, his wife, two of his parents, two sons, two daughters-in-law, one daughter, and one guest, totalling to ten members.
कामी वा न कदर्यो वा नृशंसः पुरुषः क्वचित् |
द्रष्टुम् शक्यम् अयोध्यायाम् न अविद्वान् न च नास्तिकः || १-६-८
8. kaamii vaa = lustful one, either; na kadaryaH vaa = none, miserly one, either; nR^ishamsaH = cruel one; puruSaH = person; a vidvaan cha = none, unscholarly, also [nondescripts]; naastikaH = non-believers; kvachit = anywhere; ayodhyayaam = in Ayodhya; draSTum na sakyam = to see, not, possible.
None can see a lustful person, or a miser or a cruel one anywhere in that Ayodhya, along with nondescripts or non-believers, for there are no such persons. [1-6-8]
सर्वे नराः च नार्यः च धर्मशीलाः सु संयताः |
मुदिताः शील वृत्ताभ्याम् महर्षय इव अमलाः || १-६-९
9. sarve naraaH cha = all the males, also; naaryaaH cha = females, also; dharma shiilaaH = virtue, minded; su samyataaH = well, self-controlled ones; shiila vR^ittaabhyaam = in character and conduct; muditaaH = self-satisfied ones; maharSayaH iva = great, saints, like; a malaaH = without, a blemish.
All the ladies and gentlemen in that city are virtuous in mind, self-controlled ones, they are all self-satisfied like great saints, and both in their conduct and character they are blameless. [1-6-9]
न अकुण्डली न अमुकुटी न अस्रग्वी न अल्पभोगवान् |
न अमृष्टो न अलिप्ताङ्गो न असुगन्धः च विद्यते || १-६-१०
10. na a kunDalii = without, earrings; na vidyate = not, known - not there; a mukuTii = without, headgear; a sragvrii = without, garlands; na = not there; alpa bhogavaan = lowly, enjoyer; na = not there; a mR^iSTaH = without oil-baths; na = not there; a lipta angaH = without, cream-coated, body; na = not there; a sungandhaH cha = un-perfumed, also; na = not there.
In that city none is there without his earrings, headgear, or garlands, none is an enjoyer of lowly things, or misses his regular oil-baths, or with an un-creamed body with sandalwood paste or with other body cream, or with an un-perfumed physique. [1-6-10]
Earrings are the indicators of scholarship, and there are grades in their make and design, on par with the education one receives. The headgears present their social status, while other decorations are to exhibit their lavishness.
न अमृष्ट भोजी न अदाता न अपि अनङ्दनिष्कधृक् |
न अहस्ताभरणो वा अपि दृश्यते न अपि अनात्मवान् || १-६-११
11. a mRiSTa bhojii = not, eating stomachfuls - on an empty stomach, not famished; a daata = none, uncharitable; na dR^ishyate = not, seen; na api = none, even; ana~NgadaniSkadhR^ik = with undecorated body ornaments; na = unseen; na a hasta aabharaNaH = none, without, arms' ornaments; va api = either, also; na an aatma vaan = none, without, a heart.
There is none who is famsihed, an uncharitable one in his nature, one with an undecorated body with ornaments like bracelets or chest plates, and there is none without a heart. [1-6-11]
न अनाहित अग्नीः न अयज्वा न क्षुद्रो वा न तस्करः |
कश्चित् असीत् अयोध्यायाम् न च आवृत्तो न संकरः || १-६-१२
12. na an aahita agniiH = none, without, sacrificial, fires; a yajvaa = non performer of rituals; na kshudraH = none, mean or low; va = or; na taskaraH = none, a thief; kaschit = someone; aasiit = is there; ayodhyaayaam = in Ayodhya; na cha = none, also; aavR^irittaH na sankaraH = immoral, nor bastardised.
There is none someone who is without sacrificial fires, and none without performing sacrificial rituals, and none is low in living; neither an immoral, nor a bastard nor even a thief, can be found in Ayodhya. [1-6-12]
स्व कर्म निरता नित्यम् ब्राह्मणा विजितेन्द्रियाः |
दान अध्यन शीलाः च संयताः च प्रतिग्रहे || १-६-१३
13. sva karma nirataa = in one's own, rituals, works, engaged in; nityam = always; brahmaNaa = Brahmana-s; vijitendriyaH = with conquered, senses; dana adhyana shiilaH cha = donating, practicing, minded, also; samyataaH cha = principled, also; pratigrahe = in accepting donations.
The sense-controlled scholarly Vedic Brahmans are always engaged in their rituals, and they donate the education of Vedas to their students, as well practice their own, and while receiving donations they are principle-minded. [1-6-13]
The donations received by Vedic scholars are not alms to beggars or charities to the destitute. The Vedic scholars do not receive them from anybody or everybody. There are set rules to accept such donations like cows, gold coins, villages, temples etc., from a befitting hand. Otherwise, the recipient is destined to go to Hell for having received greedily. Thus, if ever somebody wants to donate to such a scholar he should first notify his bona fides, which are verifiable by the recipient. Another kind of donation is referred here as daana adhyana, meaning that these scholars while receiving donations from a righteous source, they also have to donate something to others. It is the education in Veda, which they have to impart to their students free of any charge and that too, to the befitting students only. Thus, the words, daana and pratigrahaNa mean all these rules to accept a donation or to accord it.
नास्तिको न अनृती वा अपि न कश्चित् अबहुश्रुतः |
न असूयको न च अशक्तो न अविद्वान् विद्यते क्वचित् || १-६-१४
14. naastikaH na = atheist, none; anR^itii = liar; vaa api = or, either; na kaschit = none, anyone; a bahu shrutaH = not, much, heard [learned]; na asuuyakaH = none, jealous; na cha = not, also; ashaktaH = disabled; na a vidvaan = none, un, scholarly; vidyate tada = is found, thus.
There is no atheist, no liar, and none is less learnt in Veda-s, and no one is found to be jealous, or disabled, or unscholarly person. [1-6-14]
न अषड्ंग वित् न अस्ति न अव्रतो न असहस्रदः |
न दीनः क्षिप्त चित्तओ वा व्यथितो वा अपि कश्चन ||१-६-१५
15. na = none; a SaDa~Nga vida na asti = unknowing scholar of Veda's ancillaries, is not there; na a vrataH = none, non-performer of rituals; a sahasra daH = none, in thousands, donor; na diina = none, saddened person; kshipta chittaH = with mental turmoil; vaa = or; vyathitaH = agonised one; vaa api = or, even; kaschana = anywhere.
None can be found anywhere in Ayodhya without the knowledge of the six ancillaries of Veda-s like astrology, prosody, grammar etc., none a non-performer of the prescribed rituals, and none a non-donor in thousands, thus none with a saddened heart, turmoil in mind or agonised in will is there. [1-6-15]
कश्चिन् नरो वा नारी वा न अश्रीमान् न अपि अरूपवान् |
द्रष्टुम् शक्यम् अयोध्यायाम् न अपि राजन्य अभक्तिमान् || १-६-१६
16. kaschin = whoever; naraH vaa naarii vaa = gentleman, either, lady, or; na a sriimaan = none, without, wealth; na api = not, even; a ruupavaan = without, elegance; draSTum = to see; a shakyam = not, possible; ayodhyayaam = in Ayodhya; na api = not, even; raajanya a bhaktimaan = to king, not, devout one.
Whoever it may be, either a gentleman or a lady, none is without wealth, even none without elegance or devoid of devotion to their king, and it is impossible to see suchlike person in Ayodhya. [1-6-16]
वर्णेषु अग्र्य चतुर्थेषु देवता अतिथि पूजकाः |
कृतज्ञाः च वदान्यः च शूरा विक्रम संयुताः || १-६-१७
17. varNeSu = in four caste-system; agrya = first one; chaturtheSu = among four; devtaa atithi puujakaaH = deities, guests, worshippers; kR^itaGYaaH cha = faithful ones, also; vadaanyaaH cha = illustrious, also; shuuraaH = valiant ones; vikrama = bravery; samyutaaH = having with him.
In the four-caste system, from the first caste to the last, everyone is a worshipper of deities and guests and everyone is also faithful, illustrious, valiant, and each one is a brave one. [1-6-17]
Though the word 'caste - Spanish and Portuguese casta - lineage, race, breed' is distasteful, it is used here for an easy communication. Latin classis - assembly' or section of society would be more suitable.
दीर्घ आयुषो नराः सर्वे धर्मम् सत्यम् च संश्रिताः |
सहिताः पुत्र पौत्रैः च नित्यम् स्त्रीभिः पुरोत्तमे || १-६-१८
18. diirgha aayuSaH = long, life [longevity]; naraaH sarve = people, all of them; dharmam = virtuousness; satyam = truthfulness; cha = also; samsritaaH = they have; sahitaH = along with; putra = sons; pautraiaH cha = grandsons, also; striibhiH = ladies; pura uttame = city, the best.
Longevity is there for all of the people, all are with virtuosity and truthfulness, and they lived in that best city along with their sons, grandsons and their ladies. [1-6-18]
क्षत्रम् ब्रह्ममुखम् च आसीत् वैश्याः क्षत्रम् अनुव्रताः |
शूद्राः स्व धर्म निरताः त्रीन् वर्णान् उपचारिणः || १-६-१९
19. kshatram = Kshatriya-s, warrior-class; brahma mukham = Brahmans, towards; cha aasiit = only, is there; vaisyaaH = Vyasya-s, trading-class; kshatram anuvrataa = Kshatriya, following; shuudraH = Shuudra-s, working-class; sva dharma nirataa = their own, duty, performing; triin varNaan upachariNaH = other three, castes, working for them.
The warrior class Kshatriya-s is turned towards the Brahmans, the scholarly class, for intellectual and religious support. The trading class, Vyasya-s, is the follower of the Kshatriya-s, the ruling class, for the state's economy is dependent on the rulership. And the fourth one, Shuudra-s, the working class, while performing its own duties, is always working for the other castes. [1-6-19]
सा तेन इक्ष्वाकु नाथेन पुरी सु परिरक्षिता |
यथा पुरस्तात् मनुना मानवेन्द्रेण धीमता || १-६-२०
20. saa = she [that city]; purii = the city; tena ikshwaku naathena = by him, Ikshwaku, king; su pari rakshitaa = very well, protected; yatha = = like; purastaat = earlier; manuna = by Manu; maanava indreNa = mankind, king of; dhiimataa = the wise king.
That city is well protected by that king from Ikshwaku dynasty namely Dasharatha, like Manu, the foremost king of mankind in earlier times. [1-6-20]
योधानाम् अग्नि कल्पानाम् पेशलानाम् अमर्षिणाम् |
संपूर्णा कृत विद्यानाम् गुहा केसरिणाम् इव || १-६-२१
21. gni kalpaanaam = firebrand, like; apeshalaanaam = skilful ones; amarSiNaam = intolerant of insults; kR^ita vidyanaam = who prosecuted, their education; yodhaanaam = [with such] warriors; kesariiNaam guhaa iva = lions, cave, like; [saa purii] sampuurNaam = replete with.
That city Ayodhya is replete with firebrand like skillful warriors that are intolerant of insults, and who have prosecuted their education in archery, chariot-wars, swordplay etc. and with them it is like a cave replete with lions. [1-6-21]
कांभोज विषये जातैः बाह्लिकैः च हय उत्तमैः |
वनायुजैः नदीजैः च पूर्णा हरिहय उत्तमैः || १-६-२२
22. kaambhoja viSaye = Kaambhoja, the country; jaataiH = born in; baahlikaiH = in Baahlika country; haya uttamaiH = horses, the best ones; vanaayu jaiH = Vanaayu, born; nadii jaH = rivers, born; cha = also; puurNaa = full with; hari haya uttamaiH = like Indra's, horse, the best one.
That city is full with best horses born in countries like Kaambhoja, Baahlika, Vanaayu, and also in river-bed counties, which are like the horse of Indra namely ucChiashrava. [1-6-22]
It is said that the horses born in the rivers nadii+ja are brought to the city Ayodhya. They are not water horses but horses born at the place where the historically prominent Seven Rivers of Indus Valley Rivers flow.
Here again an account of countries is given as a glimpse. These countries Kambhoja, Bahlika, Vanayu may not be taken as the provincial countries within the present day India. Prior to the present-day peninsular India, the belt from Himalayas to Alps had a great rapport in cultural and trade exchanges without demarcations of east or west, which paved the way for Alexander, the Great, towards India.
Sometime back, say during 1985-87, the National Geography magazine contained a beautiful article under the heading " IRAQ, the crucible of civilisation ," Merle Severy, as its Asst. Editor. In its carefully worded introduction, it is stated that Iraq is "the traditional birthplace of man for Jews, Christians and Muslims... " On the other hand, Hindus naturally believe that the Southward Himalayan region is the birthplace of man. In the same article, the regions around Euphrates and Tigris are said to be the "Fertile Crescent, the cradle of Western civilization ... in the third millennium BC ". Further that " To the east a similar florescence occurred in the Indus and Yellow River Valleys... " This florescence in Indus Valley and far eastward did not occur later to Mesopotamian or Babylonian civilisations but flourished much earlier, as per Hindu scripts and the dating of which is the eternal question like Aryan Question. However, Hindu scripts centre the present world, Bhuuloka, surrounding Meru Mountain and its geography includes the land unto Rome, Russia, China. We will refer to Meru mountain-oriented geography and its geographical account at the appropriate place. Since Ramayana dates back to Buddhism and Buddhism's westward spread is unto Afghanistan, the Kings of Ramayana must have had no problem to draft horses from Persian, Arabian or the other of Middle East countries. These countries are always famous for horse breeding, right from the days of Ramayana to Moses. Hence the accounts of horses and the countries from where they are brought may be treated as cross-continental culture. Since history believes only in the unearthed iconography and the epics or their content can not stand to the carbon-testing, the countries named here as Kambhoja, Baahlika may nearly mean Babylonian, Mesopotamian, Arabian or other unknown or unearthed historic countries of the crucible of Western civilisation, Iraq. Vanaayu, another country referred may nearly mean Roman, as Persians term Greeks as Unani in India, advent to the arrival of Alexander, the Great. We still have an herbal medication called Unani, a hybrid between Ayurveda, Greek and Persian herbal treatments.
विंध्य पर्वतजैः मत्तैः पूर्णा हैमवतैः अपि |
मदान्वितैः अतिबलैः मातङ्गैः पर्वतौपमैः || १-६-२३
23. vindhya parvata jaiH = Vindhya, mountains, born in; mattaiH = vigorous; puurNa = full of; haimavataiH api = Himalayan born, also; mada anvitaiH = fattened, fully; ati balaiH = most, mighty; maatangaiH = elephants; parvata upamaiH = mountain, in similitude.
Born in Vindhya Mountains, and also from Himalayan regions, mighty are the elephants fully vigorous and fattened ones, and most powerful in their strength and each in similitude is a huge mountain. [1-6-23]
इरावत कुलीनैः च महापद्म कुलैः तथा |
अंजनादपि निष्क्रान्तैः वामनादपि च द्विपैः || १-६-२४
24. iraavata = Iravata [the Elephant of Indra]; kuliinaiH cha = from that breed of; mahaapadma kulaiH = from Mahapadma breed; tatha = thus; anjanaat api = From Anjana breed, also; niSkraantaiH = derived from; vaamanaat api cha = from Vamana breed, too; dvipaiH = elephants.
High bred from the classes of Iravata, the Elephant of Lord Indra, and from Mahapadma, Anjana and Vamana, too...are the elephants [of that city] [1-6-24]
It is said that eight elephants from eight corners called aSTa diggaja support the Universe. And these eight elephants have their presiding deities. From those eight elephants, four are prominent. They are iravata , the Elephant of Indra, anjana , the Elephant of varuNa , the Rain-god, vaamana , the Elephant of Yama, the Lord of Death, and another is punDariika . Thus, the elephants of Ayodhya are termed as divine breed.
भद्रैः मन्द्रैः मृगैः च एव भद्र मन्द्र मृगैः थथा |
भद्र मन्द्रैः भद्र मृगैः मृग मन्द्रैः च सा पुरी || १-६-२५
नित्य मत्तैः सदा पूर्णा नागैः अचल सन्निभैः |
25-26a. saa purii = that city; bhadra = class of Bhadra; mandra = class of Mandra; mR^iga = class of mriga; cha eva = like that; bhadra mandra mR^igaH tathaa = a mixture of these three; bhadra mandraiH = bhadra and mandra; bhadra mR^ igaiH = bhadra and mriga; mR^iga mandra cha = mriga and mandra, also; nitya mattaiH = always, vigorous; naagaiH = elephants; achala sannibhaiH = mountain, like; sadaa puurNaa = always, full with.
That city is always full with vigorous and mountain like elephants bred mainly from three classes viz., Bhadra, Mandra and Mriga. And inter-bred among these three main classes are Bhadra-Mandra, Mandra-Mriga, Bhadra-Mriga and the like. [1-6-25-26a]
The bhadra is the elephant class for King's ride, called bhadra gaja . It is a state elephant with high honors and for occasional or ceremonial use. mandra and mR^iga are classes of breed tamed and used in wars or for the ride of other nobility. These are the essential mammals used for other lifting and carrying works.
सा योजने च द्वे भूयः सत्यनामा प्रकाशते |
यस्याम् दशरथो राजा वसन् जगत् अपालयत् || १-६-२६
26b-c. raajaa = king; dasharathaH naama = Dasharatha, named; yasyaam = in which [city]; vasan = while residing; jagat = world; apaalayat = ruled; saa = she that Ayodhya; bhuuyaH = further - outside also; dve yojane = two, yojana-s; satya naama = true to its name; prakaashate = shines forth [well fortified.]
While residing in which city King Dasharatha ruled the world that city is further fortified up to two more yojana-s outside city, true to its name a yodhya , an un-assailable one. [1-6-26]
ताम् पुरीम् स महातेजा राजा दशरथो महान् |
शशास शमित अमित्रो नक्षत्राणीव चन्द्रमाः ||१-६-२७
27. maha tejaaH = he, the great, resplendent; mahaan = admirable one; raaja dasharathaH = king, Dasharatha; shamitaH amitraH = silenced, enemies; taam puriim = that, city; chandramaaH nakshatraaNi iva = moon, for the stars, like; sashaasa = ruled.
In which city the great resplendent and admirable king Dasharatha resided, he ruled the world from that city with silenced enemies, like the moon governing the stars. [1-6-27]
ताम् सत्य नामाम् दृढ तोरण अर्गलाम्
गृहैः विचित्रैः उपशोभिताम् शिवाम् |
पुरीम् अयोध्याम् नृ सहस्र संकुलाम्
शशास वै शक्र समो महीपतिः || १-६-२८
28. dhR^iDha = firm; thoraNa argalaam = arches, castle-door-bars; vichitraiH = amazing; gR^ihaiH = with houses; shobhitaam = magnificent; shivaam = auspicious one; nR^i sahasra sankulaan = people, thousands, full with; satya naamaam = true to its name taam = her; puriim aydhyaam = city, Ayodhya; shakra samaH = Indra, coequal of; mahiipatiH = king; shashaasa = ruled; vai = indeed.
With gorgeous arches, castle-door-bars and with amazingly built houses that city is magnificent and auspicious one, and full with thousands of provincial kings too, and king Dasharatha, a coequal of Indra, indeed ruled that city which is true to its name. [1-6-28]
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये बाल काण्डे षष्ठः सर्गः
© 1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised - March 04]