Book I : Bala Kanda - The Youthful Majesties
Vashishta offers hospitality to Vishvamitra and his armies. Even though the King Vishvamitra is disinclined to pressurise a hermit with such a burdensome affair of hospitality to hosts, Vashishta entreats the king to accept. Vishvamitra had to oblige the same. Vashishta summons his do-all Divine Sacred Cow, Shabala, also known as Kaamadhenu, requests her to generate heaps of tasteful foodstuffs for a royal banquet as well as for military rations.
tam dR^iShTvaa parama priito vishvaamitro mahaabalaH |
praNato vinayaat viiro vasiShTham japataam varam || 1-52-1
1. mahaabalaH viiraH vishvaamitraH = great-mighty, valorous one, Vishvamitra; japataam varam = [who is] among meditators, the best sage; tam vasiSTham dR^iSTvaa = him, Vashishta, on seeing; parama priitaH = is highly, rejoiced; vinayaat praNataH = obediently, made an obeisance.
On seeing at that best sage among best meditators Sage Vashishta, the great-mighty and valorous Vishvamitra is highly rejoiced and obediently made an obeisance to the sage. [1-52-1]
svaagatam tava ca iti ukto vasiShThena mahaatmanaa |
aasanam ca asya bhagavaan vasiShTho vyaadidesha ha || 1-52-2
2. tava svaagatam = to thee, welcome; iti mahaa aatmanaa vasiSThena uktaH = thus, by great-souled, Vashishta, is spoken to [Vishvamitra]; bhagavaan vasiSThaH = godly, Vashishta; asya aasanam ca vyaadidesha ha = to him [to Vishvamitra, ] seat, also, ordering [showing,] indeed.
The great-souled Vashishta spoke, "you are welcome," and that godly sage has indeed shown a high seat to Vishvamitra. [1-52-2]
upaviShTaaya ca tadaa vishvaamitraaya dhiimate |
yathaa nyaayam muni varaH phala muulam upaaharat || 1-52-3
3. tadaa = then; muni varaH = saint, eminent; upaviSTaaya dhiimate vishvaamitraaya = to one who is sitting, courageous one, to Vishvamitra; yathaa nyaayam = according, to custom; phala muulam upaaharat = fruits, tubers, submitted - offered.
The eminent saint Vashishta then customarily offered fruits and tuber to the courageous Vishvamitra who by now has assumed a seat. [1-52-3]
pratigR^ihya tu taam puujaam vasiShThaat raaja sattamaH |
tapo agni hotra shiShyeShu kushalam paryapR^icChata || 1-52-4
vishvaamitro mahaatejaa vanaspati gaNe tathaa |
sarvatra kushalam ca aaha vasiShTho raaja sattamam || 1-52-5
4. raaja sattamaH = king, unsurpassed; mahaatejaa = great-resplendent one; vishvaamitraH = Vishvamitra; vasiSThaat = from Vashishta; taam puujaam pratigR^ihya = that, deference, on receiving; tapaH agni hotra shiSyeSu = concerning ascesis, fire, rituals, disciples; tathaa = likewise; vanaspati gaNe = regarding trees, clumps of - of flora and implied fauna of hermitage; kushalam = well being; paryapR^icChata = in turn asked after; vasiSThaH = Vashishta; sarvatra kushalam ca = all round, well-being, also; raaja sattamam aaha = to king, the matchless, said - reported.
On receiving that deference from Vashishta, then that unsurpassed king Vishvamitra asked after the well-being of the ascesis, Fire-rituals and disciples and their progress in that hermitage, and that great-resplendent Vishvamitra has also asked after the well being of flora and fauna of the hermitage, and Vashishta reported to the matchless king about the all round well-being of every activity. [1-52-4, 5]
sukha upaviShTam raajaanam vishvaamitram mahaatapaaH |
papracCha japataam shreShTho vasiShTho brahmaNaH sutaH || 1-52-6
6. japataam shreSThaH = among meditators, supreme one; mahaatapaaH = great-ascetic; brahmaNaH sutaH vasiSThaH = Brahma's, son [brainchild,] Vashishta; sukha upaviSTam = at ease, on sitting; raajaanam vishvaamitram = to king, Vishvamitra; papracCha = asked.
Vashishta the supreme one among meditators, a great-ascetic, and the brainchild of Brahma has then asked Vishvamitra who is sitting at ease. [1-52-6]
kaccit te kushalam raajan kaccit dharmeNa raMjayan |
prajaaH paalayase raajan raaja vR^ittena dhaarmika || 1-52-7
7. raajan = oh, king; te kushalam kaccit = to you, well-being, I hope - All is well!; raajan = oh, king; dhaarmikaH = as a righteous one; prajaaH dharmeNa ranjayan = people, righteously, while satisfying to their contentment; raaja vR^ittena = by kingly, righteousness; paalayase kaccit = are you ruling, hopefully.
" 'I hope that you are fine! And oh, righteous king, hope that you are ruling people righteously with kingly righteousness to their contentment. [1-52-7]
The kingly righteousness is one component among the four primary concerns of the kingcraft as said at: nyaayena aarjanam arthasya varthanam paalanam tathaa | sat paatre pratipattiH ca raaja vR^ittam catur vidham || 'monies are to be earned righteously, they are to be enriched righteously, and safeguarded righteously, and they are to be endowed to righteous deeds or persons, for welfare of the state, righteously...'
kaccit te subhR^itaa bhR^ityaaH kaccit tiShThanti shaasane |
kaccit te vijitaaH sarve ripavo ripu suudana || 1-52-8
8. te bhR^ityaaH = your, servants; su bhR^itaa kaccit = well-served - are they looked after well, I hope; shaasane tiSThanti kaccit = by rulership, abiding, I hope; ripu suudana = oh, adversary, vanquisher of; te ripavaH = your, enemies; sarve = all of them; vi jitaaH = surely, vanquished; kaccit = I hope.
" 'I hope your servants are looked after well, hope all of them are abiding by the rulership, oh, vanquisher of adversaries, I hope that you have surely vanquished all of your adversaries. [1-52-8]
kaccit bale ca koshe ca mitreShu ca paraMtapa |
kushalam te nara vyaaghra putra pautre tathaa anagha || 1-52-9
9. parantapa = oh, enemy-inflamer; anagha = oh, impeccable one; nara vyaaghra = oh, man, tigerly; bale ca koshe ca mitreSu ca = in forces, and, in exchequer, and, among friends [confederates,] also; tathaa = likewise; te putra pautre = your, in sons, in grandsons; kushalam kaccit = well-being, I hope.
" 'For you are an impeccable one and an emery-inflamer, oh, tigerly-man, I hope that your forces, exchequer and confederates are fine, and all is well with your sons and grandsons." Thus Vashishta asked the well-being of Vishvamitra. [1-52-9]
sarvatra kushalam raajaa vasiShTham pratyudaaharat |
vishvaamitro mahaatejaa vasiShTham vinaya anvitam || 1-52-10
10. mahaatejaa raajaa vishvaamitra = great-resplendent, king, Vishvamitra; vasiSTham vinaya anvitam = to Vashishta, respect, having - respectfully; sarvatra kushalam = everywhere, fineness - everything is fine; vasiSTham = to Vashishta; prati udaaharat, in turn [in reply,] exemplified - replied.
"The great-resplendent king Vishvamitra respectfully replied Sage Vashishta saying, 'everything is fine.' [1-52-10]
kR^itvaa tau suciram kaalam dharmiShThau taaH kathaaH tadaa |
mudaa paramayaa yuktau priiyetaam tau parasparam || 1-52-11
11. dharma iSThau = conscientious celebrities of; tau [ubhau] = both of them; paramayaa mudaa yuktau = heightened, rejoice, along with; su ciram kaalam = for a very, long, time; taaH kathaaH = those, stories [pleasantries]; tadaa kR^itvaa = thus, on making [exchanging]; tau = those two; parasparam - paraH aparam = one, another; priiyetaam = gladdened.
"Both of those celebrities of conscientious then exchanged pleasantries for a long time with their rejoice heightening and gladdening one another. [1-52-11]
tato vasiShTho bhagavaan kathaa ante raghunaMdana |
vishvaamitram idam vaakyam uvaaca prahasan iva || 1-52-12
12. raghunandana = oh, legatee of Raghu - Rama; tataH = then; bhagavaan vasiSThaH = godly sage, Vashishta; kathaa ante = story, at end [of discussions]; prahasan iva = smilingly, like; vishvaamitram idam vaakyam uvaaca = to Vishvamitra, this, sentence, spoke.
"Then at the end of discussions, oh, Rama the legatee of Raghu, that godly Sage Vashishta smilingly spoke this sentence to Vishvamitra. [1-52-12]
aatithyam kartum icChaami balasya asya mahaabala |
tava ca eva aprameyasya yathaa arham saMpratiicCha me || 1-52-13
13. mahaabalaH = oh, great-forceful one - Vishvamitra; asya balasya = to this, military force; a prameyasya = without, a match [matchless one]; tava ca eva = to you, also, as well; yathaa arham = as, befitting - to your status; aatithyam kartum icChaami = guestship, to do [to offer,] I wish to[ me = from me; sampratiicCha [sam prati icCha = well, in turn, you accede] = kindly accede to it.
" 'I wish to offer guestship befitting to your status, oh, great-forceful king Vishvamitra, to a matchless one like you and to this military force of yours, kindly accept it from me. [1-52-13]
sat.hkriyaam tu bhavaan etaam pratiicChatu mayaa kR^itaam |
raajan tvam atithi shreShThaH puujaniiyaH prayatnataH || 1-52-14
14. bhavaan = you; mayaa kR^itaam = by me, done [offered]; etaam sat kriyaam tu = all these, good, works [hospitalities,] on their part; pratiicChatu = kindly take - accept; raajan = oh, king; tvam = you are; prayatnataH puujaniiyaH = one to be reverenced, effortfully; atithi shreSThaH = guest, important.
" 'You may kindly accept all these hospitalities offered by me, oh king, for you are an important guest you ought to be reverenced effortfully.' So said Vashishta to Vishvamitra. [1-52-14]
'It is quiet meaningless on the part of this sage, subsisting on wild fruits and tubers, to offer a royal banquet or rations to military and feed to horses and elephants' - is the thinking of King Vishvamitra. For that, the sage is saying that a king is to be reverenced 'effortfully...' But, Vishvamitra is reluctantly evading the so-called hospitality for 'royals' and 'armies' from a poor hermit.
evam ukto vasiShThena vishvaamitro mahaamatiH |
kR^itam iti abraviit raajaa puujaa vaakyena me tvayaa || 1-52-15
15. vasiSThena evam uktaH = by Vashishta, thus, said - to the sage; mahaamatiH raajaa vishvaamitraH = highly intellectual, king, Vishvamitra; tvayaa = by you; puujaa vaakyena = with [just by] reverential, words; me = to me; kR^itam = done[hospitality is deemed to have been offered - and nothing more is required; iti abraviit = thus, said.
"When sage Vashishta said in this way, that highly-intellectual king Vishvamitra said to him, 'hospitality is deemed to have been offered to me with your reverential words, it is enough and nothing more is necessary.' [1-52-15]
phala muulena bhagavan vidyate yat tava aashrame |
paadyena aacamaniiyena bhagavad dar.hshanena ca || 1-52-16
sarvathaa ca mahaapraaj~na puujaa arheNa supuujitaH |
namaste astu gamiShyaami maitreNa iikShasva cakShuShaa || 1-52-17
16. bhagavan = oh, godly sage; yat tava aashrame vidyate = what, in your, hermitage, obtains; with such; phala muulena = with fruits, tubers; paadyena aacamaniiyena = by water for feet-wash, by water for wetting mouth; bhagavat darshanena ca = godlike [you,] by [the very] visualisation, also; puujaa arheNa = [by you who are] for reverence, worthy; su puujitaH = [I am] well, reverenced; mahaa praaj~naH = oh, highly, noetic sage; gamiSyaami = I wish to go; te namaH astu = to you, obeisance, let there be [ le it be accepted]; sarvathaa = always; maitreNa cakSuSaa iikSasva = with a friendly, eye [regard,] you look upon [us.]
" 'I am entertained with whatever item that obtains in your hermitage, say fruits, tubers and water for feet-wash and to wet mouth. Why those petty items, I regaled just by seeing you, a godly sage like. Oh, highly noetic sage, by yourself you are a sage worthy to be reverenced by one and all, such as you are you alone have reverenced me. Now I wish to take leave, please accept my obeisance to you, and please look upon us with a friendlily regard. [1-52-16, 17]
The reverential salutation namas te astu is discussed in the endnote.
evam bruvantam raajaanam vasiShThaH punaH eva hi |
nyamaMtrayata dharmaatmaa punaH punaH udaara dhiiH || 1-52-18
18. evam bruvantam raajaanam = in this way, [obliquely] speaking, to king; dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; udaara dhiiH = benevolent, minded [magnanimous sage]; vasiSThaH = Vashishta; punaH eva hi = again, thus, indeed; punaH punaH = again, again [repeatedly]; nyamantrayata = entreated.
Even if the king was speaking in this way obliquely to him, that virtue-souled and magnanimous sage Vashishta entreated the king repeatedly. [1-52-18]
baaDham iti eva gaadheyo vasiShTham pratyuvaaca ha |
yathaa priyam bhagavataH tathaa astu muni sattama || 1-52-19
19. gaadheyaH = Gaadhi's son - Vishvamitra; vasiSTham = to Vashishta; said this; muni sattama = oh, saint, eminent; baaDham = Agreed!; bhagavataH yathaa priyam = to godlike you, as to how, it will be pleasing; tathaa astu = so, be it; iti prati uvaaca ha = thus, in turn, spoke [replied,] indeed.
"Gaadhi's son Vishvamitra then replied the eminent saint Vashishta, "Agreed! As it pleases the godly sage. So be it!' [1-52-19]
evam uktaH tathaa tena vasiShTho japataam varaH |
aajuhaava tataH priitaH kalmaaShiim dhuuta kalmaShaH || 1-52-20
20. tathaa tena evam uktaH = thus, that way, by him [Vishvamitra,] who is said; japataam varaH = among meditators, the best; dhuuta kalmaSaH = one who is laved, of blemishes; vasiSThaH = Vashishta; priitaH = is gladdened; tataH = then; kalmaaSiim = speckled cow [namely Shabala]; aa juhaava = to come, called - started calling.
"When Vishvamitra said that way then Vashishta, the best one among meditators, and one whose blemishes are laved is gladdened, and started calling his speckled cow, namely Shabala, yclept Kaamadhenu. [1-52-20]
ehi ehi shabale kShipram shR^iNu ca api vaco mama |
sabalasya asya raajarSheH kartum vyavasito asmi aham |
bhojanena mahaa arheNa satkaaram saMvidhat.hsva me || 1-52-21
21. shabale = oh, amazingly coloured [cow Shabala]; kSipram ehi ehi = quickly, come, come; mama vacaH shR^iNu ca api = my, word, listen, also, even; aham = I; mahaa arheNa bhojanena = with highly, delectable, feast [with a royal banquet]; sa balasya asya raajarSeH = together with, [all] forces, his, to kingly-sage; satkaaram kartum vyavasitaH asmi = hospitality, to do [to accord,] prepared, I am; me samvidhatsva = for me, you arrange for it.
" 'Come on, oh, Shabala! Come quickly and listen to my words. I prepared to accord hospitality with a highly delectable royal banquet to this kingly sage together with all his forces. You arrange it for me. [1-52-21]
yasya yasya yathaa kaamam ShaD raseShu abhipuujitam |
tat sarvam kaama dhuk divye abhivarSha kR^ite mama || 1-52-22
22. divye kaama dhuk = oh, divine, desires, milker [cow]; yasya yasya = whose, whose; [yadyad = yat yat = what, what - whatever]; abhipuujitam = cherished - savoured; SaD raseSu = from among - six, savours; tat sarvam = that, in entirety p- plentifully; yathaa kaamam = as, [he] wishes [as per his piquancy]; kR^ite mama = owing to, me - for my sake; abhivarSa = now shower.
"Oh, Kaamadhenu, the Divine Cow, the Milker of All-Desires, for my sake you shower whatsoever foodstuff is savoured by whosoever according to one's own piquancy from each of the six savour, that too plentifully. [1-52-22]
The six tastes that shall comprise an Indian meal are: 1] caustic, 2] acidic, 3] sweetish, 4] salty, 5] un-sweetish [bitter,] and 6] alkaline.
rasena annena paanena lehya coShyeNa saMyutam |
annaanaam nicayam sarvam sR^ijasva shabale tvara || 1-52-23
23. shabale = oh, Shabala; rasena annena paanena = with savourily, masticable, drinkables; lehya = [with dishes that can be] licked; coSyeNa = [that can be] sucked; samyutam = comprised of; sarvam anaanaam nicayam = every kind of, foodstuffs, heaps of; sR^ijasva = you create; tvara = be quick.
" 'Oh, Shabala, you create heaps of savourily foodstuffs comprised of masticable items like crunchy foods, drinkable items like soft-drinks, tasteable items like honey-like viscous dishes, squeezable items like pulpy fruits, and be quick.' " So said Sage Vashishta to that Sacred Cow, Kaamadhenu, and Vishvamitra continued his narration. [1-52-23]
namaste... namaskaar... I greet yau...
The reverential greeting namaste is from the root nam 'bend down a little...' before upper echelons and the word namas is usually translated a 'salutation by bending a little...' and namas kaara is the act of doing so. This word namaH= na aham is 'not me...' te astu but 'you, it shall be...' rather, 'I have lost my 'I-ness' before you as I am humbling myself to your high knowledge or, high seat, or elder age...' and let your 'your-ness' prevail over me, for I am somewhat an inferior being before you...' is the latent meaning.
This is either vocalised or coupled with the gesture of adjoining palms, and that mudra 'gesture...' is called an~jali or as a Latinian friend of ours has provided its Latin counterpart as:
The infinitive is iungere manus ante pectus 'to join hands in front of your chest...' or merely iungere manus 'to join hands...' We can say iungimus manus ante pectus 'we join or fold our hands in front of us...' iungo manus ante pectus 'I fold my hands...' iungite manus ante pectus 'fold your hands in front of you...' This last sentence is the - you, plural - is in command form. Again, you may leave out ante pectus for succinctness.
And if the word iun with a half 'n' nasal is matched with Sanskrit a~n in an~jali and the word ngo is matched with Sanskrit ~nja as the English 'g' is most often used for Sanskrit 'ja' by Max Muller et al., the two an~jali of Sanskrit and iungo Latin have same pronunciation and portent in prayer or traditional salutation.
iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe dvi paMcaashaH sargaH
© Dec, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : November 04]