Shiva on his marriage with Uma is in the conjugal bliss for a long period due to his yogic powers. Fearing the result of that prolonged activity all gods prey for the cessation of it because none in any world can carry that offspring. Shiva accepting that request asks them where to discharge the sperm that has already stirred up. Gods indicate the earth as the taker. Shiva accordingly inundates the earth with his fluid. Then the Fire-god is dispatched to consolidate that into a reed forest called sharavaNa . Goddess Uma ireful at the prevention of begetting a son, now curses gods and earth to be childless.
उक्त वाक्ये मुनौ तस्मिन् उभौ राघव लक्ष्मणौ |
प्रतिनंद्य कथाम् वीरौ ऊचतुः मुनि पुंगवम् || १-३६-१
1. tasmin munau = = that, sage; ukta vaakye = who has spoken word - who said so - finished narration; viirau raaghava lakSmaNau ubhau = brave, Raghava, Lakshmana, both; kathaam prati nandya = at the story, in turn, praised it; muni punigavam uucatuH = to, sage, eminent, spoke.
When that sage Vishvamitra has finished narration of the legend of the daughters of Himavanta, both the brave ones, namely Raghava and Lakshmana in their turn have extolled that legend and spoke to that eminent-sage. [1-36-1]
धर्म युक्तम् इदम् ब्रह्मन् कथितम् परमम् त्वया |
दुहितुः शैल राजस्य ज्येष्ठाय वक्तुम् अर्हसि |
विस्तरम् विस्तरज्ञो असि दिव्य मानुष संभवम् || १-३६-२
2. brahman = oh, Brahman; dharma yuktam = righteousness, exhaustive of; paramam = admirable - story; idam = this; tvayaa kathitam = by you, discoursed; shaila raajasya jyeSThaaya duhituH = mountain, king [Himavanta] elder, daughter of [Ganga]; divya maanuSa sambhavam = divine, humanly [legend,] happenings; vistaram vaktum arhhasi = emphatically, to tell, apt of you; vistara j~naH asi = expatiation, knower - aware olf, you are.
"This admirable discourse given by you about Ganga is exhaustive in righteousness, oh, Brahman, and it will be apt of you to tell emphatically about the divine and earthly legend of the elder daughter of Himavanta, namely Ganga, for you are aware to expatiate upon it. [1-36-2]
त्रीन् पथो हेतुना केन पावयेत् लोक पावनी |
कथम् गङ्गा त्रिपथगा विश्रुता सरित् उत्तमा || १-३६-३
त्रिषु लोकेषु धर्मज्ञ कर्मभिः कैः समन्विता |
3, 4a. loka paavanii = worlds, purifier of - Ganga; kena hetunaa = by which, reason; triin pathaH plaavayet = three, paths, she is flooding - flowing; dharma j~na = oh, virtue-knower [Vishvamitra]; tri patha gaa = in three, way, coursing; ga~Ngaa = Ganga; kaiH karmabhiH samanvitaa = by which, deeds, she is connected with - deeds of merit; triSu lokeSu = in three, worlds; sarit uttamaa = among rivers, the best one; [katham = in which way]; vi shrutaa well, known - renowned.
"By which reason that world purifier Ganga influxes into three paths? Oh, virtue-knower, and connected with which deeds of merit this triple-courser Ganga is renowned as the best one among all the rivers in three worlds?" Thus Rama and Lakshmana have asked the sage Vishvamitra. [1-36-3, 4a]
तथा ब्रुवति काकुत्स्थे विश्वामित्रः तपोधनः || १-३६-४
निखिलेन कथाम् सर्वाम् ऋषि मध्ये न्यवेदयत् |
4b, 5a. kaakutsthe tathaa bruvati = by Kakutstha-s [Rama, Lakshmana,] that way, said; tapaH dhanaH vishvaamitraH = ascesis-wealthy, Vishvamitra; sarvaam kathaam nikhilena = all, legend, in entirety; R^iSi madhye nyavedayat = sages, among, submitted - spoken.
When Kakutstha-s have enquired that way, the ascetically-wealthy sage Vishvamitra has narrated all the legend of Ganga in its entirety, staying among the sages. [1-36-4b, 5a]
पुरा राम कृत उद्वाहः शिति कण्ठो महा तपाः || १-३६-५
दृष्ट्वा च भगवान् देवीम् मैथुनाय उपचक्रमे |
5b, 6a. raama = oh, Rama; puraa kR^ita udvaahaH = once, getting, married [to Uma]; mahaa tapaaH shiti kaNThaH = sublime, ascetic, blue, throated god - Shiva; deviim = consort [Shiva's consort, Goddess Uma]; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing - having a penchant; bhagavaan maithunaaya upacakrame = God - Siva, for lovemaking, began.
"On his getting married to Uma, oh, Rama, the sublime-ascetic and bluish throated god Shiva, as his throat became blue when he consumed poison during the churning of Milky Ocean, at one time with a predilection towards her he has started lovemaking with her. [1-36-5b, 6a]
तस्य संक्रीडमानस्य महादेवस्य धीमतः |
शितिकण्ठस्य देवस्य दिव्यम् वर्ष शतम् गतम् || १-३६-६
न च अपि तनयो राम तस्याम् आसीत् परंतप |
6b, c, 7. param tapa raama = oh, enemy-scorcher, Rama; mahaa dhiimataH = of that sagacious one; devasya shitikaNThasya samkriiDamaanasya = of god, blue-throated Shiva, while nuptial merrymaking - lovemaking; tasya devasya = of that, god's; divyam varSa shatam gatam = divine, years, hundred, elapsed; api ca = even, also - even then; tasyaam = in her - in Uma; tanayaH na aasiit = son, has not, become - not born.
"While that sublime, sagacious and blue-throated God Shiva is in lovemaking, oh, enemy-scorcher Rama, a hundred divine years have elapsed, even then he had no son in her, namely Goddess Uma. [1-36-6b, c, 7]
The hundred divine years are said to be 36,000 mortal years and this goes with the calculation of yuga Indian 'era' calculation where two thousand of four yuga-s, kR^ita, treta, dvaapara, kali yuga-s are one brahma dina Brahma's day etc.
सर्वे देवाः समुद्युक्ताः पितामह पुरोगमाः || १-३६-७
यत् इह उत्पद्यते भूतम् कः तत् प्रतिसहिष्यति |
7b, 8a. [tataH = then]; pitaamaha purogamaaH = Forefather [Brahma], going before- leading the delegation; devaaH = gods; thought among themselves; iha = in this - goddess Uma; yat bhuutam utpadyate = which, being, emerges; tat = that being; kaH prati sahiSyati = who, in turn [inevitably], sustains; thinking so; sarve samudyuktaaH [sam udyuktaaH, = all, prepared for action; [or, sam udvignaa = all are worried.]
"All the gods headed by Brahma have then started to ponder, 'is there anybody who can inevitably sustain that being which emerges from this goddess Uma after this prolonged yogic act of copulation with Shiva?' This being the worry of all gods they have prepared for action. [1-36-7b, 8a]
अभिगंय सुराः सर्वे प्रणिपत्य इदम् अब्रुवन् || १-३६-८
देव देव महादेव लोकस्य अस्य हिते रत |
सुराणाम् प्रणिपातेन प्रसादम् कर्तुम् अर्हसि || १-३६-९
8b, 9. suraaH sarve abhi gamya = gods, all of them, towards, on going - on approaching Shiva; praNipatya idam abruvan = paying deference to [Siva,] this, they spoke; deva deva = oh, God of Gods, asya lokasya hite rata = of this, world's, welfare, oh, one who is interested in; mahaa deva = oh, Great-God; suraaNaam = of gods, such as we are; our; praNipaatena = by ['consideration of] supplication; prasaadam kartum arhasi = grace, to bestow, apt of you.
"All of the gods on approaching and paying their deference to Shiva spoke this to him, 'oh, God of Gods, oh, one who is interested in the welfare of these worlds, oh, Great-God, considering the supplication of all gods it will be apt of you to bestow grace.' [1-36-8b, 9]
This prolonged act of copulation is an act of yoga called mahaa maithuna. The Shaktaite Tantriks who practise panca ma kaara : madya, maamsa, matsya, mudra, maithuna 'liquor' 'mutton' 'fish' 'postures' [loosely: callisthenics] and 'copulation' make use of these things. In these practises, the yogis use mudra-s 'posture' 'callisthenics' at the time of copulation even, so that there will be no ejaculation for a longer period. This is their 'Five-element theory...'
न लोका धारयिष्यन्ति तव तेजः सुरोत्तम |
ब्राह्मेण तपसा युक्तो देव्या सह तपः चर || १-३६-१०
त्रैलोक्य हित काम अर्थम् तेजः तेजसि धारय |
रक्ष सर्वान् इमान् लोकान् न अलोकम् कर्तुम् अर्हसि || १-३६-११
10, 11. sura uttama = oh, of gods, supreme one - oh, supreme god; tava tejaH = your, offspring born out of your effulgence; lokaa na dhaarayiSyanti = worlds, cannot be, capable to bear; braahmeNa tapasaa yuktaH = as per Vedic ancillary [Yoga,] postulates of asceticism, unified with; devyaa saha = with Goddess Uma, along with; tapaH cara = asceticism, you practise; trailokya hita kaama artham = three, world's, welfare, desiring; tejaH tejasi dhaaraya = your refulgent seed, in your own radiance, you sustain. rakSa sarvaan imaan lokaan = protect, all, these, worlds [in universe]; na a lokam kartum arhasi = not, devoid of [annihilate], worlds [in universe,] to render, apt of you
" 'Worlds cannot capably bear your offspring born out of your effulgence, oh, Supreme-God, hence you may practice yogic asceticism along with your consort Goddess Uma in unison with Vedic postulates of Yoga, rather than progeniture, and desiring the welfare of the three worlds you may please retain your refulgent seed within your own radiance, thus protect this universe, since it will not be apt of you to render it devoid of worlds with the efflux of the unmanageable potence of yours .' So said gods to Shiva. [1-36-10, 11]
The word tejas also means semen, or offspring, besides resplendence tejaH paraakrame praaNe varcas arciShi retasi - ratnamaala thus the prospective offspring through ejaculation is the problem here, because Kumara, or, Skanda takes birth with all the irrepressible effulgence of Shiva, plus his own.
देवतानाम् वचः श्रुत्वा सर्व लोक महेश्वरः |
बाढम् इति अब्रवीत् सर्वान् पुनः च इदम् उवाच ह || १-३६-१२
12. sarva loka maheshvaraH = all, universe's, Rarefied-God [Shiva]; devataanaam vacaH shrutvaa = of gods, words, on listening; baaDham = = so be it; iti abraviit thus, said to them; punaH = again - further; sarvaan = to all gods; idam uvaaca ha = this, spoke, indeed.
"On listening the words of gods that Rarefied-God of Universe, namely Shiva said, 'so be it,' and further spoke this to all of the gods, indeed. [1-36-12]
धारयिष्यामि अहम् तेजः तेजसि एव सह उमया |
त्रिदशाः पृथिवी चैव निर्वाणम् अधिगच्छतु || १-३६-१३
13. umayaa saha aham = Uma, along with, I; tejaH tejasi eva = sperm, in virility; dhaarayiSyaami = I wish to bear; tridashaaH pR^ithivii caiva = divinities [immortals,] earthly [mortals,] also; nirvaaNam adhigacChatu = perfect bliss, enter upon derive.
" 'I wish to bear my sperm in my virility and Uma in hers, let the immortals and mortals as well, derive a perfect bliss. [1-36-13]
यद् इदम् क्षुभितम् स्थानात् मम तेजो हि अनुत्तमम् |
धारयिष्यति कः तत् मे ब्रुवन्तु सुर सत्तमाः || १-३६-१४
14. mama = mine; anuttamam = unexcelled [semen]; yat = that which; idam tejaH = this, refulgence is, semen is; sthaanaat kSubhitam = from its place, stirred up; tat = that, that much semen; kaH dhaarayiSyati = who, will bear; sura sattamaaH = oh, gods, eminent ones; regarding that; me bruvantu = to me, you tell.
" 'But that part which has already stirred up from its place is irrestrainable, as such, oh gods of eminence, you tell me who can contain that part of the unexcelled potence.' So said Shiva to gods. [1-36-14]
एवम् उक्ताः ततो देवाः प्रत्यूचुर् वृषभ ध्वजम् |
यत् तेजः क्षुभितम् हि अद्य तद् धरा धारयिष्यति || १-३६-१५
15. evam uktaaH = thus, who are spoken to [by Shiva]; tataH = then; devaaH = gods; vR^iSabha dhvajam = Divine-Bull, bannered [god Shiva]; prati uucuH = in reply, spoke to; yat tejaH kSubhitam = that which, sperm, stirred up; tat adya = that - part, now; dharaa dhaarayiSyati hi = earth, endures, indeed.
"Thus spoken by Shiva, then the gods in reply spoke to him whose banner is Divine-Bull, namely Shiva, 'that part of the potence which has already stirred up, the earth indeed endures that now. [1-3-15]
एवम् उक्तः सुर पतिः प्रमुमोच महाबलः |
तेजसा पृथिवी येन व्याप्ता स गिरि कानना || १-३६-१६
16. evam uktaH = thus, said [by gods]; sura patiH = god's, god; yena tejasaa = by which, refulgence - of Shiva; sa giri kaananaa pR^ithivii = with, mountains, forests, earth is; vyaaptaa = overspread; such a refulgence; [mahii tale = on earth's, surface]; mahaabalaH = greatly virile one [Yogi, of par excellence]; pra mumoca = well, discharged.
"Thus said by the gods that Yogi of par excellence and the God of Gods, Shiva, discharged his refulgent semen with which the earth together with its mountains and forests is overspread. [1-36-16]
ततो देवाः पुनर् इदम् ऊचुः च अपि हुताशनम् |
आविश त्वम् महातेजो रौद्रम् वायु समन्वितः || १-३६-१७
17. tataH = thereby; devaaH = gods; punaH = in turn; huta ashanam api = to Fire-oblations, consumer [Fire-god,] even; idam uucuH ca = this, said, also; tvam vaayu samanvitaH = you, Wind-god, along with; raudram = pertaining to Rudra; mahaatejaH = his semen, great-potence; aavisha = enter.
"Thereby the gods in their turn said even to Fire-god, 'you enter the great-potence of Rudra along with Wind-god, lest that potence may annihilate the earth and earthlings, because you can consume anything that comes in touch with you. [1-36-17]
तद् अग्निना पुनर् व्याप्तम् संजातम् श्वेत पर्वतम् |
दिव्यम् शरवणम् चैव पावक आदित्य संनिभम् || १-३६-१८
यत्र जातो महातेजाः कार्तिकेयो अग्नि संभवः |
18, 19a. agninaa = by Fire-god; vyaaptam = pervaded; tat = that great-potence; punaH = again; shveta parvatam sam jaatam = as white, mountain, well, emerged; paavaka aaditya samnibham = Fire, Sun, equal in shine; divyam shara vaNam caiva = divine, reeds, forest, also thus; it has become; yatra = wherefrom; mahaatejaaH = highly brilliant; agni sambhavaH = one who is born out of the refulgence of Shiva through Fire-god; kaartikeyaH = one who is suckled by Krittika-s; jaataH = has emerged.
"And when Fire-god invaded that great-potence of Shiva it has emerged as White-mountain, also thus it has become as a divine forest of reeds equalling the Sun and Fire in its resplendence, wherefrom the highly brilliant Kumara has emerged. [1-36-18, 19a]
Because Kumara, or Skanda took birth through Fire-god from the great-potence of Shiva, he is called the one born out of fire. Because Krittika stars have suckled him he is also called as Kaaritkeya. The birth and legend of Kaartikeya is detailed in the next chapter relating to Ganga.
अथ उमाम् च शिवम् चैव देवाः स ऋषि गणाः तदा || १-३६-१९
पूजयामासुः अत्यर्थम् सुप्रीत मनसः ततः |
19b, 20a. atha = later; sa R^iSi gaNaaH devaaH = with, sages, assemblages of, gods; tataH = thereby, as it has happened so; su priita manasaH = well, pleased, at heart; tadaa = then; umaam ca shivam caiva = Uma, also, Shiva, also thus; ati artham puujayaamaasuH = fulsomely, adored.
"Later on, the gods together with the assemblages of sages are well pleased at heart as it has happened according to their prayer, thereby they fulsomely adored Shiva and even Uma. [1-36-19b, 20a]
अथ शैल सुता राम त्रिदशान् इदम् अब्रवीत् || २०
समन्युः अशपत् सर्वान् क्रोध संरक्त लोचना |
20b, 21a. raama = oh, Rama; atha = then; shaila sutaa = mountain's, daughter - Uma; sa manyuH = with, ire; tridashaan idam abraviit = to divinities, this, said; krodha sam rakta locanaa = in anger, with, reddened, eyes; sarvaan ashapat = all of them, cursed.
"Oh, Rama, but the daughter of Himalayan Mountain, namely Uma, while irefully saying this to the divinities she cursed them all with her eyes reddened in anger. [1-36-20b, 21a]
यस्मात् निवारिता च अहम् संगता पुत्र कांयया || १-३६-२१
अपत्यम् स्वेषु दारेषु न उत्पदयितुम् अर्हथ |
21b, 22a. yasmaat = wherefore; putra kaamyayaa = son, desirous of; aham samgataa ni vaaritaa = I am, from intimacy, back, moved - prevented; [tasmaat = therefore]; sveSu daareSu = in one's own, wives; apatyam = progeny; na utpadayitum arhatha = not, to bring forth, eligible - worthy enough, infecund - you are prevented to bear children.
" 'Wherefore, I who am desirous of a son had been prevented from the intimacy with my husband, therefore you shall be infecund to beget progeny through your own wives. [1-36-21b, 22a]
अद्य प्रभृति युष्माकम् अप्रजाः सन्तु पत्नयः || १-३६-२२
एवम् उक्त्वा सुरान् सर्वान् शशाप पृथिवीम् अपि |
22, 23a. adya prabhR^iti = from now, onwards; yuSmaakam = yours; patnayaH = wives; a prajaaH = without, progeny; santu = they will be - they remain; sarvaan suraan = to all, gods; evam uktvaa = this way, on saying [by Uma,]; pR^ithiviim api = to earth, also; shashaapa = cursed - gave a curse.
" 'And from now onwards you wives shall remain infertile...' and on saying this way to all of the gods she also gave a curse to the earth. [1-36-22, 23a]
Thus the celestials do not directly breed. They take the agency of humans or other mortals to bring forth their offspring as in the case of the monkey race, and Menaka, and as in the case of Vishvamitra giving birth to Shakuntala, who in her turn gave birth to Bharata, so on.
अवने न एक रूपा त्वम् बहु भार्या भविष्यसि || १-३६-२३
न च पुत्र कृताम् प्रीतिम् मत् क्रोध कलुषीकृता |
प्राप्स्यसि त्वम् सुदुर्मेधे मम पुत्रम् अनिच्छती || १-३६-२४
23b, 24. avane = oh, earth; tvam = you; na eka ruupaa = not, with one, appearance - sui generis, bizarre; bahu bhaaryaa = to many, as wife; bhaviSyasi = you will become; su dur medhe = oh, very, base, minded one [earth]; mama putram an icChatii = to me, son, not, desirous - you are bigoted; tvam = you; mat krodha kaluSii kR^itaa = by my, anger, sully, rendered - sullied by my anger; putra kR^itaam priitim ca = by children, caused, delight, even; na praapsyasi = not, you will get.
" 'Oh, Earth, your appearance shall be bizarre and you will be a wife to many. And oh, verily base-minded earth, rendered sully by my anger you shall have no gratification caused by the children as you are bigoted against my son. [1-36-23b, 24]
The sin of earth to bear the curse of Uma Devi is to accept the semen of Shiva on her surface. The appearance of earth will not be in one kind or quality for it has lands and oceans, deserts and forests, volcanoes and mountains, ice and humidity, etc. Further, the earth is the official wife to numerous kings. The earth is also cursed to not to have the delight of her children. The earth has Naraka, the demon, and Seetha as her children. But these two are not begotten through any seminal contact by earth, and further, for earth it is as good as not having these two as her children, for such is the plight of these two so-called children of earth on earth. After many tumults in her life, even Seetha asks her mother on earth, i.e., mother earth herself, to take her back into her womb.
तान् सर्वान् पीडितान् दृष्ट्वा सुरान् सुरपतिः तदा |
गमनाय उपचक्राम दिशम् वरुण पालिताम् || १-३६-२५
25. sura patiH = god's, god - Shiva; tadaa = then; piiDitaan [vriiDitaan] = distressed [ashamed]; taan sarvaan suraan dR^iSTvaa = them, all, gods, on seeing - ill at ease to see their plight; varuNa paalitaam = by Rain-god, ruled by; disham = towards the quarter of compass; gamanaaya upacakraama = to go, started to.
"That God of Gods Shiva becoming ill at ease to look at all of the distressed gods, equally feeling small to convince his consort Uma, he has started to journey towards the western quarter which is ruled by Rain-god. [1-36-25]
स गत्वा तप आतिष्ठत् पार्श्वे तस्य उत्तरे गिरेः |
हिमवत् प्रभवे शृंगे सह देव्या महेश्वरः || १-३६-२६
26. saH maheshvaraH = he - Shiva; gatvaa = having gone to west; tasya gireH uttare paarshve = of that, mountain [Himalayas,] northern, side; himavat prabhave shR^i.nge = in Himalayas, emerged [a mountain,] on its peak; devyaa saha = concert [Uma,] along with; tapa aatiSThat = in ascesis, settled down.
"On going to the northern side of Himalayan Mountains, that God of Gods, Shiva settled down in ascesis along with his consort Uma on the peak of a mountain emerged from Himalayas. [1-36-26]
Here some say the mountain on which Shiva settled for ascesis as himavat prabhava giving it a full name, like Mt. Kailash or Kanchanjunga etc. If any such mountain peak is named and available in mythologies or in Himalayas, this needs a revision.
एष ते विस्तरो राम शैल पुत्र्या निवेदितः |
गन्गायाः प्रभवम् चैव शृणु मे सह लक्ष्मण || १-३६-२७
27. raama = oh, Rama; shaila putryaa = pertaining to mountain's, daughter eSa = this [Uma's legend]; vistaraH te niveditaH = vividly, to you, narrated; gangaayaaH prabhavam caiva = about Ganga's, emergence, also even; saha lakSmaNa = with, Lakshmana; shR^iNu me = listen, from me.
"This is the legend of mountain's daughter, namely Goddess Uma vividly narrated to you, oh, Rama, and now listen from me along with Lakshmana about the emergence of Ganga. [1-36-27]
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये बाल काण्डे षट् त्रिंशः सर्गः
© 2002, Desiraju Kumari [Revised : August 04]
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