Sage Vishvamitra starts to narrate Kusha's legend. Vishvamitra is the offspring of Kusha's dynasty. Brahma gives boon to Kusha to beget four sons and one among them is Kushanaabha. Kushanaba begets a hundred daughters of excellent beauty. When Vayu, Air-god cherishes them all, those girls refuse him, as they prefer an arranged marriage by their father. Then Air-god in his indignation disfigures them all.
brahma yonir mahān āsīt kuśo nāma mahātapāḥ |
akliṣṭa vrata dharmajñaḥ sajjana prati pūjakaḥ || 1-32-1
1. brahma yoniH = Brahma, as causation - Brahma's, brainchild; mahaa tapaaH = on with higher order, ascesis; a kliSTa vrata dharma j~naH = one who has - without, hampered, vows, their virtue, knower - who has never flouted the rules of rituals and vows; sat jana = virtue, knowers; prati puujakaH = in turn, revered - one who reveres virtue knowers; mahaan = highly righteous - kingly sage; kushaH naama = Kusha, named; aasiit = [once upon a time] was there.
"Once there was a highly righteous kingly sage who is the brainchild of Brahma, whose ascesis is of higher order, who has never flouted the rules of rituals or his vows, and who revered the knowers of virtue by name Kusha." Thus Sage Vishvamitra commenced narration. [1-32-1]
sa mahātmā kulīnāyām yuktāyām sumahābalān |
vaidarbhyām janayām āsa caturaḥ sadṛśān sutān || 1-32-2
kuśāmbam kuśanābham ca āsūrtarajasam vasum |
2, 3a. saH mahaa aatmaa = he, great, soul; kuliinaayaam = one with noble birth; yuktaayaam = an eligible one [as wife]; vaidarbhyaam = in the princess from Vidarbha; kushaambam kushanaabham aassuurtarajasam vasum = Kushamba, Kushanaabha, Asuurtaraja, Vasu; su mahaa balaan = very, great, mighty ones; sadR^ishaan = selfsame ones; caturaH sutaan janayaamaasa = four, sons, he begot.
"That great-souled Kusha begot four selfsame and mighty sons, namely Kusumba, Kushanaabha, Asuurtarajasa, or also called Adhuurtarajasa, and Vasu through the princess of Vidarbha, which princess is of noble birth and an eligible wife of Kusha. [1-32-2, 3a]
dīpti yuktān mahotsāhān kṣatradharma cikīrṣayā || 1-32-3
tān uvāca kuśaḥ putrān dharmiṣṭhān satyavādinaḥ |
kriyatām pālanam putrā dharma prāpyatha puṣkalam || 1-32-4
3b, 4. kushaH = Kusha; diipti yuktaan = brilliance, having; mahaa utsaahaan = highly, enthusiastic ones; dharmiSThaan = virtue abiding; satya vaadinaH = truth, advocators of; taan putraan = to those, sons; kSatra dharma cikiirSayaa = Kshatriya, principle, with an aspiration to uphold; uvaaca = spoke to them; putraa = oh, sons; paalanam kriyataam = ruling over [kingdom,] let it be done - establish your rulership; puSkalam dharmam praapyatha = in abundance, righteousness, you achieve.
"With an aspiration that his sons shall uphold the principles of Kshatriya-s, Kusha spoke to them who are brilliant, highly enthusiastic, virtue abiding, and the advocators of truth saying, 'establish your rulership, sons, and achieve righteousness abundantly.' [1-32-3b, 4a]
kuśasya vacanam śrutvā catvāro loka sattamāḥ |
niveśam cakrire sarve purāṇām nṛ varāḥ tadā || 1-32-5
5. tadaa = then; kushasya vacanam shrutvaa = Kusha's, words, on hearing; loka sattamaaH = in world, formidable ones; catvaaraH = four of them; nR^i varaaH = among people's, best ones; sarve = all of them; puraaNaam nivesham cakrire = of cities, initiation - building, the started to do.
"On hearing the words of Kusha those four sons that are the formidable ones in the world and the best men among people initiated to build four cities. [1-32-5]
kuśāmbaḥ tu mahātejāḥ kauśāṃbīm akarot purīm |
kuśanābhaḥ tu dharmātmā puram cakre mahodayam || 1-32-6
6. mahaatejaaH kushaambaH tu = great-resplendent one, Kushamba, for his part; kaushaambiim puriim akarot = Kaushaambi, city, built; dharmaatmaa kushanaabhaH tu = virtue-souled, Kushanaatha, for his part; mahodayam puram cakre = Mahodaya [named,] city, built.
"Great-resplendent Kushamba built the city named Kaushambii for his part, and for his part the virtue-souled Kushanaabha built a city named Mahodaya. [1-32-6]
asūrtarajaso rāma dharmāraṇyam mahāmatiḥ |
cakre puravaram rājā vasur nāma girivrajam || 1-32-7
7. raama = oh, Rama; mahaamatiH asuurtarajasaH = noble-minded, Asuurtarajasa; dharmaaraNyam = DharmaaraNya - namely; pura varam = city, the best; cakre = built; raajaa vasuH = king, Vasu; girivrajam naama = Girivraja, in the name of- city he built.
"Oh, Rama, noble-minded Asuurtarajasa built a city named Dharmaaranya, and king Vasu built a city in the name of Girivraja. [1-32-7]
It is believed that the city Kaushambii is the present day Kannauj and Girivraja the present day Rajgir.
eṣā vasumatī nāma vasoḥ tasya mahātmanaḥ |
ete śailavarāḥ paṃca prakāśante samaṃtataḥ || 1-32-8
8. eSaa = this one; tasya mahaatmanaH vasoH = of that, virtue-souled one, Vasu's; vasumatii naama = land, known as; samantataH = all around; ete panca shaila varaaH = these, five mountains, best ones; prakaashante = shine forth - standing high.
"This land on which we are presently staying is known as the land of virtue-souled Vasu, all around which these five best mountains are standing high. [1-32-8]
sumāgadhī nadī raṃyā māgadhān viśrutā āyayau |
paṃcānām śaila mukhyānām madhye mālā iva śobhate || 1-32-9
9. ramyaa = charming one; vishrutaa = well known; su = worthy of respect; maagadhii nadii = maagadhii - worthy River Sona which took birth in Magadha country; maagadhaan = into Magadha country; aa yayau = coming, going - on entering and exiting; pancaanaam shaila mukhyaanaam madhye = five of, mountains, important - elevated ones, amid; maalaa iva shobhate = garland, like, shines forth.
"This charming river that enters and exits Magadha province is well known as the worthy River Maagadhi, and flowing amid the five of these elevated mountains it shines forth like a garland enwreathing them. [1-32-9]
This river is said to be the present day River Son
sā eṣā hi māgadhī rāma vasoḥ tasya mahātmanaḥ |
pūrva abhicaritā rāma sukṣetrā sasya mālinī || 1-32-10
11. raama = oh, Rama; saa eSaa maagadhii = this, that, river Maagadhi; mahaa aatmanaH tasya vasoH = of the great-souled one, his, of Vasu [this is that river which pertains to the developmental works of king Vasu]; puurva abhi caritaa = to east, towards, while going - flowing; su kSetraa = she has best, farmlands; sasya maalinii = crops, garland of.
"This Maagadhi is that river which pertains to the developmental works of the great-souled king Vasu and oh, Rama, flowing towards east to its confluence in Ganga, this river garlands best farmlands and their crops on its way. [1-32-10]
The confluence of this river with Ganga is said as the one now available near at Patna, Bihar.
kuśanābhaḥ tu rājarṣiḥ kanyā śatam anuttamam |
janayāmāsa dharmātmā ghṛtācyām raghu naṃdana || 1-32-11
11. raghu nandana = oh, Raghu's descendent; dharmaatmaa raajarSiH = virtue-souled one, kingly saint; kushanaabhaH tu = Kushanaabha, but; ghR^itaacyaam = through [celestial maiden] Ghritaachi; an uttamam = un, excelling; kanyaa shatam = maids, hundred; janayaamaasa = engendered.
"The virtue-souled kingly saint Kushanaabha gave birth to a hundred daughters with unexcelled beauty through a celestial female called Ghritaachi. [1-32-11]
Children begotten through celestial maidens are of superior nature for further procreating a divine generation, like Shakuntala, who begot Bharata, the earliest dynastic king.
tāḥ tu yauvana śālinyo rūpavatyaḥ svalaṃkṛtāḥ |
udyāna bhūmim āgaṃya prāvṛṣi iva śatahradāḥ || 1-32-12
gāyaṃtyo nṛtyamānāḥ ca vādayaṃtyaḥ ca rāghava |
āmodam paramam jagmur vara ābharaṇa bhūṣitāḥ || 1-32-13
12 raaghava = oh, Raghava; yauvana shaalinyaH = youthfulness, having; ruupavatyaH = having loveliness; taaH = those girls; sva alankR^itaaH = themselves, decorating well; udyaana bhuumim aagamya = park, lands, arriving at; praa vR^iSi = in rainy season; shata hradaaH iva = in hundred way, flowing - like hundred streaked lightning; gaayantyaH nR^ityamaanaaH ca vaadayantyaH ca = singing, dancing, also, playing instruments; vara aabharaNa bhuuSitaaH = select, ornaments, decorated with; paramam aamodam jagmuH = fantastic, felicity, they went into.
"Those girls when attained youthfulness they are lovely and on an occasion they have gone to gardens and moved there about like one lightning with a hundred streaks during rainy season, and while those girls that are decorated with select ornaments are singing, dancing and playing musical instruments, they got into a fantastic felicity. [1-32-12, 13]
atha tāḥ cāru sarva aṃgyo rūpeṇa apratimā bhuvi |
udyāna bhūmim āgaṃya tārā iva ghana antare || 1-32-14
14. atha = then; caaru sarva angyaH = pretty, all, with limbs - whose all limbs are pretty; ruupeNa bhuvi a pratimaa = by aspect, on earth, un, paralleled; taaH = those girls; udyaana bhuumim aagamya = park, lands, on coming to; ghana antare = in clouds, amid; taaraa iva = stars, like; they shone forth among thick bushes.
"On their coming to parklands those girls whose all limbs are pretty and whose looks are unparalleled on earth, they looked like stars amid clouds within the cloudy thickets of garden bushes. [1-32-14]
tāḥ sarvaguṇa saṃpannā rūpa yauvana saṃyutāḥ |
dṛṣṭvā sarvātmako vāyur idam vacanam abravīt || 1-32-15
15. sarva aatmakaH vaayuH = all, pervading, Air-god; sarva guNa sampannaa = in all, aspects, well off; ruupa yauvana samyutaaH = comeliness, ripeness, together with; taaH = them; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; idam vacanam abraviit = this, word, spoke.
"On seeing them who are flourishing with all their aspects together with comeliness and ripeness, the all pervading Air-god, Vayu, spoke this word to them. [1-32-15]
aham vaḥ kāmaye sarvā bhāryā mama bhaviṣyatha |
mānuṣaḥ tyajyatām bhāvo dīrgham āyur avāpsyatha || 1-32-16
16. aham vaH sarvaa kaamaye = I, all, you, have a desire for; mama bhaaryaa bhaviSyatha = my, wives, you become; maanuSaH tyajyataam bhaavaH = pertaining to humans, leave off, notion; diirgham aayuH avaapsyatha = long, life, you acquire - like divinities.
" 'I have a desire for you all, hence leaving off the notions pertaining to human beings you all become my wives, thereby you too will acquire longevity like divinities. [1-32-16]
calam hi yauvanam nityam mānuṣeṣu viśeṣataḥ |
akṣayam yauvanam prāptā amaryaḥ ca bhaviṣytha || 1-32-17
17. nityam yauvanam calam hi = always, teenage, is moving, indeed; maanuSeSu visheSataH = in humans, expressly; a kshayam yauvanam praaptaa = un, diminishing, youthfulness, on achieving; amaryaH ca bhaviSytha = as immortal females, also, you can become.
" 'Teenage is always transitory, expressly in humans, but on marrying me you will achieve undiminished youthfulness and forever you can be youthful like immortal females.' Thus Air-god said to those girls. [1-32-17]
tasya tad vacanam śrutvā vāyoḥ akliṣṭa karmaṇaḥ |
apahāsya tato vākyam kanyā śatam atha abravīt || 1-32-18
18. tataH = then; a kliSTa karmaNaH = one with un, impeded, strives; tasya vaayoH = of that, Air-god; tat vacanam shrutvaa = that, sentence - proposal, on hearing; apahaasya = laughing off - his proposal; kanyaa shatam = maidens, hundred; atha vaakyam abraviit = then, sentence, spoke.
"On hearing that proposal of Vayu, the Air-god whose strives are unimpeded, then those hundred girls spoke this sentence laughing off his proposal. [1-32-18]
antaḥ carasi bhūtānām sarveṣām tvam sura sattama |
prabhāvajñāḥ ca te sarvāḥ kim artham avamanyase || 1-32-19
19. sura sattama = oh, divinity, the ablest; tvam sarveSaam bhuutaanaam = you, in all, of the beings; antaH carasi = inside, you move - you inspirit; sarvaaH te prabhaava j~naaH ca = all of us, your, uniqueness, knowers, also; [asmaan = us]; kim artham ava manyase = for what, reason, not, you honour [you dishonour us.]
" 'we are aware that you inspirit all the living beings from inside, oh, the ablest divinity, we are also aware of your uniqueness. But, what for you are dishonouring all of us. [1-32-19]
kuśanābha sutāḥ devam samastā sura sattama |
sthānāt cyāvayitum devam rakṣāmaḥ tu tapo vayam || 1-32-20
20. sura sattama = oh, divinity, the best; samastaa vayam = all, of us are; kushanaabha sutaaH = Kushanaabha's, daughters; devam = as god; sthaanaat cyaavayitum = from your realm, to displace; samarthaa = we are capable]; deva = oh, god; tu = but we are; tapaH rakSaamaH = [our] asceticism, we are conserving.
" 'We are the daughters of Kushanaabha, oh, best divinity, and we are all capable of displacing you from your realm, but oh, god, we are restraining ourselves in doing so only to conserve our ascetic values. [1-32-20]
mā bhūt sa kālo durmedhaḥ pitaram satya vādinam |
avamanyasva sva dharmeṇa svayam varam upāsmahe || 1-32-21
21. dur medhaH = oh, evil, minded one - god with sordid thinking; satya vaadinam = truth, advocate of - veracious; pitaram = father; ava manya = dis, regarding - overlooking; sva dharmeNa = at our, liberty; svayam varam upaasmahe = independently, groom, [at which time we] look up; saH kaalaH maa bhuut = that, time, not, to come.
" 'That time shall never come, oh, god with sordid thinking, when we, at our liberty, may look up for our grooms overlooking our veracious father.' [1-32-21]
pitā hi prabhur asmākam daivatam paramam ca saḥ |
yasya no dāsyati pitā sa no bhartā bhaviṣyati || 1-32-22
22. asmaakam = for us; pitaa prabhuH hi = father [alone is,] lord, indeed; saH paramam daivatam ca = he [alone,] ultimate, god, also; pitaa = father; naH yasya daasyati = us, to whom [he] gives; saH naH bhartaa bhaviSyati = he [alone,] our, husband, becomes.
" 'Our father is indeed our lord and for us he is the ultimate god too. To whomever we are offered by our father in marriage he alone becomes our husband.' So said hundred girls to Air-god. [1-32-22]
tāsām tu vacanam śrutvā hariḥ parama kopanaḥ |
praviśya sarva gātrāṇi babhaṃja bhagavān prabhuḥ || 1-32-23
23. taasaam tu vacanam shrutvaa = their, but, sentence, on hearing; bhagavaan prabhuH = god, who has high impact; hariH [vaayuH] parama kopanaH = god, Air, very, angrily; sarva gaatraaNi pravishya = all, body-parts, on entering; babhanja = crooked [disfigured].
On hearing their sentence of rejection, Vayu, the Air-god whose impact is powerful, very angrily entered into all of the limbs of those girls only to disfigure them. [1-32-23]
tāḥ kanyā vāyunā bhagnā viviśur nṛpateḥ gṛham |
praviśya ca susaṃbhrāntāḥ sa lajjāḥ sa asra locana || 1-32-24
24. vaayunaa bhagnaa = by Air-god, disfigured; taaH kanyaa = those, girls; nR^ipateH gR^iham vivishuH = king's, house [palace,] entered; su sam bhraantaaH = very, highly, diffident; sa lajjaaH = with, embarrassment; sa asra locana = with, tears, in eyes; pravishya = entered.
"Those girls whom Air-god disfigured in that way have entered palace-chambers of the king, but they have entered diffidently, embarrassedly, and tearfully. [1-32-24]
sa ca tā dayitā bhagnāḥ kanyāḥ parama śobhanāḥ |
dṛṣṭvā dīnāḥ tadā rājā saṃbhrāṃta idam abravīt || 1-32-25
25. saH raajaa = he, the king; tadaa = then; dayitaa = dear ones; diinaaH = despondent ones; parama shobhanaaH = [once] very, attractive ones; taaH kanyaaH = those, girls; bhagnaaH = disfigured; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; sam bhraanta = he is highly, perturbed; idam abraviit = this, said.
"That king on seeing his dear and attractive daughters as disfigured and despondent girls he is highly perturbed and said this. [1-32-25]
kim idam kathyatām putryaḥ ko dharmam avamanyate |
kubjāḥ kena kṛtāḥ sarvāḥ ceṣṭantyo na abhibhāṣatha |
evam rājā viniḥśvasya samādhim saṃdadhe tataḥ || 1-32-26
26. putryaH = oh, daughters; idam kim = this, what is; kaH dharmam ava manyate = who is, probity, not, regarding; kathyataam = let it be said; sarvaaH kubjaaH = all of you, dwarfed [with hunchbacks, disfigured]; kena kR^itaaH = by whom, made; ceSTantyaH na abhibhaaSatha = you gesticulate, not, saying; raajaa evam = king, this way [on saying]; tataH = then; viniHshvasya = sighed; samaadhim sam dadhe = rumination, imposed upon himself - remained silent for their reply.
" 'Oh, daughters, what all is this? Who disregarded probity? Who disfigured you all? Let it be said! Why you gesticulate saying nothing.' asking thus that king sighed and quietened down waiting for a reply." Thus Sage Vishvamitra continued his narration. [1-32-26]
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye bāla kāṇḍe dvi triṃśaḥ sargaḥ
© 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : July 04]