Sage Valmiki goes to river Tamasa for a bath and sees a couple of birds, of which a hunter kills one. Valmiki unintentionally utters a poem, which is rich in grammar and new in metre, of which he is very much confused as to why such a poem has come from his tongue. Brahma, the presiding deity of letters appears and ordains Valmiki to author Ramayana, excellent epic of Rama, for which purpose alone he gave such divine meter and grammar to him.
नारदस्य तु तद्वाक्यं श्रुत्वा वाक्यविशारदः |
पूजयामास धर्मात्मा सहशिष्यो महामुनिः || १-२-१
1. tu = then; mahaamuniH = the great sage [Valmiki]; vaakyavishaaradaH = a skilled speaker; dharmaatmaa = [and] a virtue minded one; tat vaakyam shrutvaa = having heard that speech; naaradasya = of Narada; puujayaamaasa = worshipped [him]; saha shiShyaH = along with disciples.
Then, the great sage Valmiki, a skilled orator and a virtue-minded one, having heard those words of Narada, worshipped him along with disciples. [1-2-1]
यथावत्पूजितस्तेन देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा |
अपृच्छैशभ्यनृज्ञातस्स जगाम विहायसम् || १-२-२
2. saH = That; devarShiH = divine sage; yathavat puujitaH = being worshipped befittingly;tena = by him [by Valmiki]; tathaa = in that way; apR^icCha = asking [for permission to leave]; abhyanuj~naataH = being permitted [by Valmiki]; vihaayasam jagaama = went heaven-ward.
That divine sage Narada being worshipped befittingly by Valmiki in that way, on seeking permission of Valmiki to leave and having been permitted by Valmiki, went away heaven-ward. [1-2-2]
स मुहूर्तं गते तस्मिन् देवलोकं मुनिस्तदा |
जगाम तमसातीरं जाह्नव्यास्त्वविदूरतः || १-२-३
3. tasmin gate = on his [Narada's] going; muhuurtam devalokam = to the world of gods in a trice; saH muniH = that sage [Valmiki]; tamasaa tiiram jagaama = went to the banks of Tamasa river; jaahnavyaaH tu aviduurataH = not far from Jahnavi river.
Then, on Narada's going to the world of gods in a trice, that sage Valmiki went to the banks of Tamasa river not far from Jahnavi river. [1-2-3]
स तु तीरं समासाद्य तमसाया महामुनिः |
शिष्यमाह स्थितं पार्श्वे दृष्ट्वा तीर्थमकर्दमम् || १-२-४
4. tadaa = Then; saH muniH = that sage; tiiram samaasaadya = on reaching the shore; tamasaayaa = of Tamasa; akardamam = which was not dirty; aaha = spoke; shiSyam = to disciple; paarshve sthitam = who was at his side; dR^iSTva = on beholding; tiirtham = a ford.
Then that sage Valmiki on reaching the shore of the clean Tamasa, and on beholding a ford of that river, spoke to his disciple who was at his side. [1-2-4]
अकर्दममिदं तीर्थं भरद्वाज निशामय |
रमणीयं प्रसन्नाम्बु सन्मनुष्यमनो यथा || १-२-५
5. bharadwaja = Oh! Bharadwaaja; nishaamaya = behold; idam tiirtham = this ford; akardamam = which is without dirt; prasannaambu = with clear waters; ramaNiiyam = (and) pleasant; sat manuShamanaH yathaa = like a virtuous man's mind.
"Oh! Bharadwaja, behold this ford which is without dirt, with clear waters and pleasant like a virtuous man's mind. [1-2-5]
न्यस्यतां कलशस्तात दीयतां वल्कलं मम |
इदमेवावगाहिष्ये तमसातीर्थमुत्तमम् || १-२-६
6. taata = my dear; nyasyataam kalashaH = let the hand-vessel [kamaNDalu] be kept [there]; mama valkalam diiyataam = let my bark-garment be given; avagaahiSye = I will enter; idam = this; uttamam = best; tamasaa tiirtham eva = Tamasa ford only.
"My dear! Let the hand-vessel [kamaNDalu] be kept [there]. Let my bark-garment be given to me. I will enter this best ford of Tamasa only... [1-2-6]
एवमुक्तो भरद्वाजो वाल्मीकेन महात्मना |
प्रायच्छत मुनेस्तस्य वल्कलं नियतो गुरोः || १-२-७
7. evam uktaH = Thus being said; mahaatmanaa vaalmiikena = by the great-souled Valmiki; guroH niyataH bharadwaajaH = Bharadwaaja who was obedient towards his Guru; valkalaM praayacChata = gave the bark-garment; tasya muneH = to that sage.
Thus being said by the great-souled Valmiki, Bharadwaaja who was obedient to his Guru, gave the bark-garment to the sage [1-2-7]
स शिष्यहस्तादादाय वल्कलं नियतेन्द्रियः |
विचचार ह पश्यंस्तत्सर्वतो विपुलं वनम् || १-२-८
8. saH = He [Valmiki]; niyatendriyaH = with controlled senses; aadaaya = on taking; shishyahastaat = from disciple's, hands; valkalam = the bark-garment; pashyan sarvataH = looking in all directions; vichachaara ha = indeed moved away from; tat vipulam vanam = that wide forest.
That self-controlled Sage Valmiki on taking bark-garment from his disciple's hands, and looking in all directions, indeed moved away from that wide expanse of forest. [1-2-8]
तस्याभ्याशे तु मिथुनं चरन्तमनपायिनम् |
ददर्श भगवांस्तत्र क्रौज्धयोश्चारुनिःस्वनम् || १-२-९
9. bhagavaan = holy [sage]; dadarsha = saw; krounchayoH mithunam = two curlews; anapaayinam = not leaving one another;chaarunisvanam = charmingly cooing; charantam = moving about; tatra = there; tasya aabhaashe = in its [in foreshore's] vicinity.
There holy sage Valmiki saw a couple of curlews, in the vicinity of that river's foreshore, flying there about in togetherness and cooing charmingly. [1-2-9]
तस्मात्तु मिथुनादेकं पुमांसं पापनिश्चयः |
जघान वैरनिलयो निषादस्तस्य पश्यतः || १-२-१०
10. niShaadaH = a tribal hunter; paapanishchayaH = evil in intent; vairanilayaH = a receptacle of enimity; jaghaana = killed; tasmaat midhunaat tu = among the couple; ekam = one; pumaamsam = male [bird]; tasya pasyataH = on his [Valmiki's] looking on; .
A tribal hunter with evil intent, and a receptacle of enimity, killed the male one among the couple of birds, while Valmiki was looking on. [1-2-10]
तं शोणितपरीताङ्गं वेष्टमानं महीतले |
भार्या तु निहतं दृष्ट्वा रुराव करुणां गिरम् || १-२-११
वियुक्ता पतिना तेन द्विजेन सहचारिणा |
ताम्रशीर्षेण मत्तेन पत्रिणा सहितेन वै | १-२-१२
11-12.bhaaryaa = wife; sahachaariNaa = [was] moving together; patinaa = with husband; taamrashiirSheNa = with a red crest; mattena = with joy; patriNaa = with good wings; sahitena = [always] united; tena dvijena = with that bird [male bird]; tam dR^iSTva = on seeing that male bird; nihitam = slain; mahiitale = on ground; veShTamaanam = reeling; shoNitapariitaangam = with blood covered wings [or body]; vai = really; ruraava = made wailing sounds; karuNaam giram = with piteous utterances; viyuktaa = on being separated [from her husband].
The wife was moving together with husband with a red crest and with joy, with good wings, always being united with that male bird. On seeing that bird slain on ground reeling with blood covered wings really made wailing sounds with piteous utterances on being separated from her husband. [1-2-11, 12]
तथा विधिं द्विजं दृष्ट्वा निषादेन निपातितम् |
ऋषेर्धर्मात्मनस्तस्य कारुण्यं समपद्यत || १-२-१३
13. dvijam dR^iSTvaa = On seeing [that] bird; niSadena nipaatitam = felled by the hunter; tathaa vidhim = in that way; tasya R^isheH = to that sage; dharmaatmanaH = to that saintly one; kaaruNyam samapadyata = compassion occasioned.
On seeing that bird felled that way by the tribal hunter, compassion occassioned in that saintly sage Valmiki. [1-2-13]
ततः करुणवेदित्वादधर्मोऽयमिति द्विजः |
निशाम्य रुदतीं क्रौञ्चीमिदं वचनमब्रवीत् || १-२-१४
14. tataH = then; dvijaH = sage Valmiki; rudatiim krounchiim nishaamya = on seeing the wailing Krauncha bird; karuNaveditvaat = out of state of compassion; ayam adharmaH iti = this is unjust - thus [thinking]; idam vacanam abraviit = uttered this sentence.
Then on seeing the wailing female krounchi bird, out of state of compassion and apperceiving the killing of male bird as unjust, the sage uttered this sentence... [1-2-14]
मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः |
यत् क्रौञ्चमिथुनादेकमवधीः काममोहितम् || १-२-१५
15. niShaada = oh, violent hunter; yat = by which reason; tvam avadhiiH = you killed; ekam = one; krau~Nchamithunaat = of Krouncha couple; kaamamohitam = infatuated by passion; maa agamaH = [for that reason you] will not get; pratiSThaam = state of rest; shaashvatiiH samaaH = [for] ever lasting years to come.
"Oh! violent Hunter, by which reason you have killed one bird of the couple, when it was infatuated by passion, for that reason you will never get a state of rest for everlasting years to come..." [1-2-15]
त्वमगमः has been split as tvam+gamaH.
'For endless years to come, O Hunter, never shall thy soul find peace /' Romesh C. Dutt.
This verse has many comports of which a few are given hereunder:
This verse is taken as ma~NgalaacaraNa to Ramayana, for any epic has to have ma~Ngalaadiini; ma~Ngalamadhyaani; ma~Ngalaantaani A good pious beginning, pious middle and pious ending.
Because this verse has the letter maa at its start and maa is lakShmii vaacaka in Sanskrit. It is aadivarNaH The first letter lokamaataa maa ramaa ma~Ngaladevataa thus amarakosha says for Goddess Lakshmi.
maa= Goddess Lakshmi; niShaada= Oh! Vishnu [ for Goddess Lakshmi resides in the heart of Vishnu - niShadiiti asmin iti niShaada ]; yat = by which act; krouncamithunaat = the couple of demons, namely Ravana and Mandodari; kaamamohitam= that impassioned one and stole Seetha; ekam= that one, Ravana; avadhiiH= you killed; by that act of yours; shashvatiisamaa= everlasting for ages; pratiShTaam= divine sanctity; tvam agama= you, get.
"Oh, the abode of Goddess Lakshmi, namely oh, Vishnu, by which act of your killing one male demon named Ravana, who in his passion abducted Seetha, and thus you eradicated the vice from the earth, for that you get an everlasting divine sanctity, as Rama, for ages to come."
2] Next niSaada is attributable to Ravana, because he is the one who tortures others for his benefit. itaraam saadayati piiDayati iti niSaada thus: Oh! Ravana; krounchmithunaat= from the couple, say Rama and Seetha, who are flying from forest to forest like nest-less birds; ekam= one is, Seetha is; avadhiiH =you almost killed her by your torture of abducting her; pratiSTaam= your glory in Lanka, at its zenith, as per the kindness of Brahma; maa agama= never get, hereafter. But this declination is not held right, for it is like a curse, shaapa, and no epic starts with a curse.
3] Next, this verse is said holding Rama in the perspective. Sage Narada gave the details of the legend to Sage Valmiki because Brahma ordered that the legend of Rama is to be recorded. But Ramayana is full of pathos, karuNa shoka rasa prathaana. If it is to be penned the writer too shall have heart that can outpour that mood. So when Valmiki is at the river banks, Rama, say Vishnu, came in the guise of a tribal, as with other mythological episodes like kiraataarjuniiya etc., to test the capability of Valmiki in narrating pathos, and killed one bird. Valmiki reacted immediately and Vishnu's test is complete. But in exciting the mood of such holy sage, Vishnu / Rama gets a curse like separation from wife, as below.
nishaada= oh, tribal: Rama to Valmiki / Vishnu to mythology; for your killing one bird of the couple, to the misery of the female one; shaashvatiiH = as long as you live on this earth; samaaH pratiSTaam= togetherness, with your wife; ma agama= do not get.
Oh! Rama, as long as you are on earth, you do not get the love of being together with your wife, because you killed one from the bird couple... and you have to live with your wife departed [to Lanka,] come again, and then departed [to forests.]
But this is differed statement, since Vishnu does not require any personal testing of the capabilities of the writer of Ramayana. Brahma will look after such literary things.
4] The generally accepted meaning of this verse is this. Any epic's gist is to be said at the start or, at its commencement --- kaavyaarthasuucanam aadaaveva niruupyate--- Thus, the above verse included the meaning of whole of the epic, Ramayana.
i] maa niSaada= Goddess Lakshmi and Vishnu. Their marriage in their incarnations as Rama and Seetha, and Ramayana depicts this in Bala Kanda.
ii] pratiSTaam tvam agamaH= renown, you get, by following your father's orders you have repaired to forests, without any political upheaval, thus get an everlasting renown as an obliging son Ayodhya Kanda.
iii] shaashvatiissamaa= by dwelling in forest and eradicating demons and helping the saints and sages thus, you achieve an everlasting praise Aranaya Kanda.
iv] krounchayoH= from the [atrocious] couple; k-- krunca gati kauTilyaa alpiibhaavayoH; the atrocious Vali, and Tara couple; ekam kaamamohitam = passion filled one, i.e., Vali; avadhiiH= you killed, you killed Vali Kishkindha Kanda.
v] krounchamithunaat= from the couple of lovely passionate birds here Rama and Seetha; niShaada that ruffian Ravana, kaamamohitam lustfully, ekam one [i.e., Seetha]; avadhiiH = almost killed, i.e., her residing in Lanka is as good as death Sundara Kanda.
vi] krounchamithunaat = from the atrocious, couple Ravana and Mandodari; ekam avadhiiH you killed one [Ravana] Yuddha Kanda.
vii] kaamamohitam= fascinated by desire, [ kama also means a longing, desire, let alone lusting]; Seetha is fascinated by her desire to see sage's wives in uttara Ramayana and thus she is sent to forests through Lakshmana. Hence seventh canto, uttara Ramayana is also suggested.
तस्तमैवं ब्रुवतश्चिन्ता बभूव हृदि वीक्षितः |
शोकार्तेनास्य शकुनेः किमिदं व्याहृतं मया || १-२-१६
16. evam bruvataH = thus speaking; viikshataH = pondering; tasya hR^idi = in his heart; chintaa babhuva = [he] became thoughtful; kim = what; idam = [is] this; vyaahR^itam = utterance; mayaa = by me; shokaartena = in grief and anguish;asya shakuneH = for this bird.
Thus speaking and pondering in his heart, he became thoughtful: "What is this utterance by me in grief and anguish for this bird?". [1-2-16]
चिन्तयन्स महाप्रञश्चकार मतिमात्नतिम् |
शिष्यञ्चैवाब्रवीद्वायमिदं स मुनिषुङ्गवः || १-२-१७
17.saH munipu.ngavaH = That best among sages; matimaan = [who was] an intellectual; mahaapraaj~naH = [and] a great wise one; chintayan = on cogitating; matim chakaara = made up [his] mind; idam vaakyam abraviit cha eva = and also spoke these words; shishyam = to the disciple.
That great wise one who was an intellectual and the best among sages, on cogitating, made up his mind and also spoke these words to the disciple... [1-2-17]
शोकार्तस्य प्रवृत्तो मे श्लोको भवतु नान्यथा || १-२-१८
18. me shokaartasya = while I was tormented by grief; pravR^ittaH = [there] arose; paadabaddhaH = [a sentence] consisting of verses; akSharasamaH = metrically posited letters; tantriilayasamanvitaH = possessing [suitable for] union of song and string music; shlokaH bhavatu = [that] will be [called] Shloka; na anyathaa = not otherwise.
"While I was tormented by grief, there arose a sentence consisting of four verses possessing metrically posited letters suitable to be played as song and string music and that will be called Shloka, not otherwise..." [1-2-18]
This verse he uttered is in four quarters, each quarter with equally posited eight syllables. This is called anuSTubh metre in Sanskrit poetry. The eight syllables are, -- maa ni Shaa da pra ti ShTaa~N tvam | a ga maH shaa shva tiiH sa maaH -- Each quarter is paada in Sanskrit, pede in Latin; with two quarters in first stanza, and two stanzas one verse. This apart there are other rules like caesura yati ; alliteration praasa ; and other compositional rules. It has come out of shloka sorrow, so the format is named as shloka. And, shloka also means yashas, kiirti renown.
शिष्यस्तु तस्य ब्रुवतो मुनेर्वाक्यमनुत्तमम् |
प्रतिजग्राह संतुष्टः तस्य तुष्टोअःऽभवत् मुनिः || १-२-१९
19. shishyaH tu = even the disciple; bruvataH = what is articulated; tasya muneH = by that [Valmiki's,] saint; santuSTaH pratijagraaH = haappily received; vaakyam anuttamam = word [verse] which is unique; tasya = by that; tuSTaH abhavat muniH = saint was delighted.
Even the disciple happily received what that is articulated by the saint, a unique articulation, by which the saint too, was delighted. [1-2-19]
सोऽभिषेकं ततः कृत्वा तीर्थे तस्मिन् यथाविधि |
तमेव चिन्तयन्नर्थमुपावर्तत वै मुनिः || १-२-२०
20. tataH = then; saH muniH = that, saint; tasmin tiirthe = in that, ford; yathaavidhi = as per custom; abhishekam kR^itva = on performing bathing ; tam artham eva chintayan = thinking on its purport only; upaavartata vai = he came back
Then that saint on performing his bathing in that ford according to custom, and still thinking on the purport of his utterance, he returned towards his hermitage. [1-2-20]
This is mid day bath for these hermits. tato madhyaahnasnaanaartham mR^idam aaharet | - - prekShya sa omkaaram aadityam triH nimajje jalaashaye - - vyaasa smR^iti The word abhisheka refers to ceremonial showering of waters on deities or on kings in his coronation. At the beginning Valmiki arrives at the river for a daily bath, which he would do by usual dipping in river waters. But here it appears that waters are showered on him, abhishekam kR^itva meaning that waters showered on him are on the analogy of poetic verses of Ramayana.
भरद्वाजस्ततः शिष्यो विनीतः श्रुतवान् गुरोः |
कलशं पूर्णमादाय पृष्ठतोऽनृजगाम ह || १-२-२१
21. tataH viniitaH= then, obedient one; shrutavaan = one who listened many scriptures, [erudite scholar]; shishyaH = disciple; Bharadwaja; puurNam kalasham = filled, handy-vessel; aadaya = on taking; guroH = mentor's; pR^iSTataH anujagaama = followed at behind.
Then Bharadwaja, the obedient disciple and an erudite scholar, for he heard and learnt many scriptures by listening, on taking handy-vessel full with water followed at the behind of his mentor. [1-2-21]
स प्रविश्याश्रमपदं शिष्येण सह धर्मवित् |
उपविष्टः कथाश्चान्याश्चकार ध्यानमास्थितः || १-२-२२
22. dharmavit saH = he [Valmiki] knower of dharma; shishyeNa saha = along with disciples; pravisya aashramapadam = on entering, hermitage's, threshold; upaviSTaH = having seated; anyaaH kathaaH ca chakaara = made-spoke about other topics also; dhyaanamaasthitaH = preoccupied in cogitation [but in].
He that knower of dharma, Valmiki, having entered the threshold of hermitage along with disciples, and having seated spoke about the day-to-day teachings and also other things, but he himself is preoccupied in cogitation on the verse. [1-2-22]
आजगाम ततो ब्रह्मा लोककर्ता स्वयं प्रभुः |
चतुर्मुखो महातेजा द्रष्टुं तं मुनिपुङ्गवम् || १-२-२३
23. tataH = then; lokakartaa = maker of worlds [creator of 14 worlds]; prabhuH = almighty; chaturmukhaH = four-faced one; mahaatejaH = great resplendent one; brahma = Brahma; draSTum = to see; tam munipungavam = hime who was an eminent sage[star amog sages]; svayam = on his own; aajagaama = arrived.
Then, the great resplendent Four-faced creator of fourteen worlds, almighty Brahma, arrived there on his own, to see that eminent saint Valmiki. [1-2-23]
Comment; The deities do not usually arrive on their own, but reveal themselves after a great penance, or on raising hue and cry as is done by demon devotees. Here Brahma, one among the Trinity of Hindu mythology, arrives on his own, to execute a divine deed through Valmiki, i.e. authoring the epic, Ramayana.
वाल्मीकिरथ तं दृष्ट्वा सहसोत्थाय वाग्यतः |
प्राञ्जलिः प्रयतो भूत्वा तस्थौ परमविस्मितः || १-२-२४
24. atha = then; prayataH = pious one; Valmiki; tam dR^iSTva = on seeing Him [ Brahma,]; paramavismitaH = highly, surprised; sahasaa uthaaya = quickly, on getting up; praanjaliH bhuutvaa = humbly adjoining palms; vaagyataH = spellbound; tasthau = stood aside.
Then that pious saint Valmiki is highly surprised on seeing Brahma, and on quickly getting up from his seat with his palms adjoined humbly, he stood aside, as he is spellbind. [1-2-24]
पूजयामास तं देवं पाद्यार्घ्यासनवन्दनैः |
प्रणम्य विधिवच्चैनं पृष्ट्वानामयमव्ययम् || १-२-२५
25. tam enam devam = him, such a one, at that god; praNamya vidhivat = on making obeisance, customarily; pR^ishhTvaa ca anaamayam = also on inquiring well-being; paadya = water for washing the feet; arghya = water for drenching the thirst; aasana = seating on a high seat; vandanaiH = with adorations; puujayaamaasa avyayam = started to venerate uninterupted.
Valmiki uninterruptedly venerated Brahma, on inquiring into his well-being, washed his feet, drenched his thirst, seated him to rest, and adored at best with customarily obeisance. [1-2-25]
Comment: Brahma is one in the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is pictured to have four faces, each representing one Veda, where Vedas are four in number. He is the creator of worlds, while Vishnu maintains them, and Shiva dissolute them. The concert of Brahma is Saraswati, the presiding deity of speech, who was earlier requested by Brahma to be on the tongue of Valmiki to utter the poem, [as at 1-2-15] as an intuition to Valmiki. Thus Brahma now arrives to ordain Valmiki to author Ramayana.
अथोपाविशय भगवानासने परमार्थिते |
वाल्मीकये च ऋषये सन्दिदेशासनं ततः || १-२-२६
26. atha upavishya bhagavaan aasane = then god seated on [high] seat;paramaarchite = very, highly, worshipped [by Valmiki];vaalmiikaye ca R^iSaye = at Valmiki, also, Sage;sandidesha aasanam tataH = beckoned, to a seat, then.
Then god Brahma, who is seated on a high seat, very highly worshipped by Valmiki, also beckoned at Valmiki to take a seat. [1-2-26]
ब्रह्मणा समनुज्ञातः सोऽप्युपाविशदासने |
उपविष्टे तदा तस्मिन् साक्षाल्लोकपितामहे | १-२-२७
तद्गतेनैव मनसा वाल्मीकिर्ध्यानमास्थितः ||
27-28a. saH api = he [Valmiki,] even; brahmaNaa sam anuj~naataH = by Brahma, duly, permitted; aasane upaavishat = on seat, entered [sat]; tadaa = then; tasmin lokapitaamahe = that Grandparent of worlds; saakshaat = manifestly; upaviSTe [sati] = seated [before him, though]; Valmiki; tat gatena eva = those, happenings, only; manasaa dhyaanam aasthitaH = mentally, brooding, recurred.
Even though Valmiki sat on his seat when duly permitted by Brahma, and though the Grandparent of the worlds is manifestly sitting before him, but the same broodings on those happenings occurred on that day have recurred on his mind. [1-2-27-28a]
पापात्मना कृतं कष्टं वैरग्रहणबुद्धिना || १-२-२८
यस्तादृशं चारुरवं क्रौञ्चं हन्यादकारणात् |
28b-29a. yaH = he who, tribal hunter; taadR^isham = that sort of; chaaruravam krauncham = cutely, calling, krouncha bird; akaaraNaat hanyaat = without, reason, kills [killed]; vairagrahaNabuddhinaa = intending to capture enemy [kill]; paapaatmanaa = by evil, souled one; kaSTam kR^itam = hardship, is caused.
"He that tribal hunter, who killed a cutely calling krounch bird for no good reason than intending to capture the kill, is an evil souled one that caused hardship..." [1-2-28b-29a]
शोचन्नेव मुहुः क्रौञ्चीमुपश्लोकमिमं पुनः | १-२-२९
जगावन्तर्गतमना भूत्वा शोकपरायणः ||
29b-30a. shokaparaayaNaH = melancholic mood, one in [Valmiki]; antargatamanaa bhuutvaa = on turning in depths of mind; punaH = again; kraunchiim shochan eva = only on thinking about Krouncha bird; shlokam imam jagau =[involuntarily]sung this verse .
Remaining in melancholic mood Valmiki turned his mind to the depth of thinking, and again thinking only on the krouncha bird he sung the same verse, involuntarily. [1-2-29b-30a]
The word jaguH is singing; gai= shabde; liT; prathama bahu; jagau - jagatuH - jaguH; variant of gaay; c.f. Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa, verse 20, in fourth sarga; aakumaarakathodghaatam shaaligopyo jaguryashaH
तमुवाच ततो ब्रह्मा प्रहसन्मनिपुङ्गवम् |
श्लोक एव त्वया बद्धो नात्र कार्या विचारणा ||१-२-३०
30b-31a. tataH = then; brahmaa prahasan = Brahma, smilingly; tam munipungavam uvaacha = spoke to that eminent saint; shloka eva tu = verse, only, but; ayam baddaH = that one, composed; na atra kaaryaa vichaaraNaa = there not need to think through.
Then, Brahma smilingly spoke to that eminent saint Valmiki, "But, what that is composed is a verse only... and there is no need to think through... [1-2-30b-31a]
मच्छन्दादेव ते ब्रह्मन् प्रवृत्तेयं सरस्वती |
रामस्य चरितं सर्वं कुरु त्वमृषिसत्तम || १-२-३१
31b-32a. hè brahman = oh, Brahman; te ayam sarasvatii = your, that, speech; mat cChandaat eva = at my, wish, alone; pravR^itte = sprang forth; hè R^iSisattama = oh the eminent sage; raamasya charitam kR^itsnam = Rama's, legend, in entirety; tvam kuru = you, render.
"Oh, Brahman, that speech of yours sprang forth at my wish alone, hence oh, eminent sage, you shall render the legend of Rama, in its entirety... [1-2-31b-32a]
धर्मात्मनो गुणवतो लोके रामस्य धीमतः |
वृत्तं कथय धीरस्य यथा ते नारदाच्छ्रुतम् || १-२-३२
32b-33a. dharmaatmanaH = virtue-souled one; loke bhagavataH = in world, godlike; dhiimataH = an intellectual; dhiirasya = intrepid one; raamasya vR^ittam = Rama's, legend; tè yatha srutam naaradaat = by you, as heard, from Narada; kathaya = narrate.
"You shall narrate the legend of Rama, the virtuous, intellectual and an intrepid one, and a godlike person in this world as well, as you have heard it from sage Narada. [1-2-32b-33a]
रहस्यं च प्रकाशं च यद् वृत्तं तस्य धीमतः |
रामस्य सहसौमित्रे राक्षसानां च सर्वशः || १-२-३३
वैदेह्याश्चापि यद् वृत्तं प्रकाशं यदि वा रहः |
तच्चाप्यविदितं सर्वं विदितं ते भविष्यति || १-२-३४
33b-35a. dhiimataH = of valorous one; sahaSoumitreH = with Sumitra's son, [Lakshmana]; tasya ramasya = of his, Rama's; [vR^ittam = adventures]; raakshasaanam ca = of the demons, also; [vR^ittam = misadventures]; rahasyam ca prakaasam ca = unknown, or, known, or; sarvasaH = in every detail; yat vR^ittam vaidehyaa ca eva = which is, the plight, of Vaidehi, also, even; prakaasam yadi va = revealed, either, or; rahaH vaa = unrevealed, or; yat vR^ittam = whatever, legend happened; tat ca = that, also; aviditamapi = even unkonwn; sarvam te viditam bhaviSyati = all it will be known to you.
"The adventures of valorous Rama along with Lakshmana, and the misadventures of demons, known or unknown in every detail, and even the plight of Vaidehi which is either revealed or un-revealed so far, and whatever legend that has happened, all that will also be known to you, even if it were to be unknown, as yet... [1-2-33b-35a]
न ते वागनृता काव्ये काचिदत्र भविष्यति |
कुरु रामकथां पुण्यां श्लोकबद्दां मनोरमाम् || १-२-३५
35b-36a. atra kaavye = in this, epic; te vaak = your, word; kaachit = any one [word]; anR^itaa = not false; na bhavishyati = not, it results in; punyam = merit-yielding; manoramaam = heart pleasing; raamakathaam = Rama's, legend; shlokabaddhaam kuru = make versified.
"You shall versify the heart pleasing and merit-yielding legend of Rama, and not a single word of yours will not be false in this epic... [1-2-35b-36a]
यावत् स्थास्यन्नि गिरयः सरितश्च महीतले |
तावद्रामायणकथा लोकेषु प्रचरिष्यति || १-२-३६
36b-37a. girayaH = mountains; saritaH ca = rivers, even; mahiitale = on earth's, surface; yaavat = as long as; sthasyanti = there will be; taavat = so long; raamayaNakathaa = Rama's, legend - Ramayana; lokeSu = in the world; prachariSyati = will flourish.
"As long as the mountains and even rivers flourish on the surface of the earth, so long the legend of Ramayana will flourish in this world... [1-2-36b-37a]
यावद्रामायणकथा त्वत्कृता प्रचरिष्यति | १-२-३७
तावदूर्ध्वमधश्च त्वं मल्लोकेषु निवत्स्यसि |
37b-38a. tvat = by you; kR^itaa = authored; yaavat = as long as; raamaasyaNakatha = Rama's legend; pracharishyati = flourishes; taavat = till then; tvam = you; uurdhvam = heavenward; adhaH ca = in netherworlds, even; mat lokeSu = in my abode [Brahma loka]; nivatyasi = you will be dwelling, [flourishing].
"And as long as Rama's legend authored by you flourishes...till then you will flourish in heavenly, in netherworlds, and even in my abode, namely Abode of Brahma... [1-2-37]
इत्युक्त्वा भगवान् ब्रह्मा तत्रैवान्तरधीयत |
ततः सशिष्ये भगवान्मुनिर्विस्मयमाययौ || १-२-३८
38b-c. bhagavaan = The Divinity; Brahma; iti uktvaa = thus, saying; tatra eva = there only; antaradhiiyata = vanished; tataH = then; sashishyaH = along with disciples; bhagavaan muniH = godly, sage; vismayam aayayau = astonishment, came upon [wondered.]
On saying thus that Divinity Brahma vanished then and there only, and then that godly sage Valmiki came by astonishment, along with his disciples. [1-2-38b-c]
तस्य शिष्यस्ततः सर्वे जगुः श्लोकमिमं पुनः |
मुहुर्महुः प्रीयमाणाः प्राहुश्च भृशविस्मिताः || १-२-३९
39. tatha = then; tasya = his; shishyaaH = disciples; sarve = all of them; muhuH muhuH = again, again [time and again]; priiyamaaNaaH = very delightedly; punaH = again; slokam imam = verse, this one; jaguH = sang; bhR^isha vismitaaH = much astonished; praahuH cha = reciprocally recited, also.
Then all of the disciples of Valmiki sang this verse time and again very delightedly, and much stonished they also recited this verse, reciprocally. [1-2-39]
समाक्षरैश्चतुर्भिरयः पादैर्गीतो महर्षिणा |
शोऽनुव्याहुरणाद्भ्य श्लोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः || १-२-४०
40. yaH = that which is; samaaksharaiH = equally lettered; chaturbhiH = four; paadaiH = footed; maharSiNaa = by great sage; giitaH = articulated; saH shlokaH = that, verse; anuvyaharaNaat = by recitation; bhuuya = again, further; shlokatvam = prominence of verse proper; aagaataH = attained.
Equally lettered, four-footed is that verse when great Sage Valmiki articulated it, and when repetitively recited by one and all, it attained prominence as verse proper. [1-2-40]
Comment: A poet never says poetry to satisfy his own instincts, but to imbue an involuntary imagination or passion in others when read or heard by the so called others. It is the empathy of that poetry. For Kalidasa it is shR^ingara, passion, for Bhavabhuti it is pity 'eko rasaH karuNa...' for Valmiki it is pathos, shoka. For this Kavi Kalidas says: niShaadaviddhaaNDajadarshanotthaH shlokatvam aapadyata yasya shokaH -- raghu va~Nsha 14-60 There are two texts for this one is, shlokaH shlokatam aagataH... meaning that the verse originally structured metrically can now can be sung. Second is shokaH shlokatvam aagataH... the pathos of the poet attained the status of verse that is now being sung by the disciples, thus anyone can recite it.
तस्य बुद्धिरियं जाता महर्षेर्भावितात्मनः |
कृत्स्नं रामायणं काव्येमीदृशैः करवाण्यहम् || १-२-४१
41. (aham) kR^itsnam raamaayaNam kaavyam = entire, Ramayana, epic; iidR^ishaiH = this sort of [in suchlike verses]; karavaaNi = I will compose; iyam buddhiH = this kind of, intuition; bhaavitaatmanaH = for that contemplated soul; tasya maharSeH jaataa = to that, great sage, born.
Born is an intuition in that great sage and contemplated soul asserting that "I will compose entire Ramayana, the epic, in suchlike verses...' [1-2-41]
स्तदास्य रामस्य चकार कीर्तिमान् |
यशस्करं काव्यमुदारधीर्मुनिः || १-२-४२
42. kiirtimaanudaaradarshanaH = celebrated, magnanimous, seer; tadaa = then; yashasvinaH = of that highly renowned one, Rama; asya raamasya = of that, Rama; yashaskaram kaavyam = renown, furthering [extolling,] epic; udaaravR^ittaarthapadaiH = free-flowing prosody semantically yielding meanings; manoramaiH = heart-pleasing one; samaaksharaiH shlokashataiH = with symmetrical letters verses in hundreds; chakaara = authored.
That celebrated sage and magnanimous seer Valmiki then authored the highly renowned Rama's legend extolling Rama's renown, with symmetrically worded verses, and words versified to yield meanings semantically, prosody free-flowing, and with hundreds of such verses. [1-2-42]
दशशिरसश्च वधं निशामाध्वम् || १-२-४३
43. upagatasamaasasandhiyogam = included compound conjunctions conjugations; samamadhuraupanataarthavaakyabaddham = evenly sweetly led well lenit expressive sentences well-knit; munipraNiitam = sage, said; tat raghuvaracharitam = that, Raghu's, best [one from,] legend; dashashirasaH vadham ca = ten, headed one's, extermination, also; nishaamaya adhvam = behold, this way.
That epic contains uncomplicated compounds, conjunctions and conjugations, and has expressive sentences that are well knit and led evenly and sweetly, and that legend pertains to the best one from Raghu's dynasty, namely Rama, which also includes the extermination of the Ten headed evil named Ravana, and further, it is said by the sage, hence this may now be listened… [1-2-43]
This is balladeers bidding to the audience. The word muni praNiitam reminds that a non-saint cannot tell an epic; na anR^ishi kurute kaavyam and hence it is to be listened attentively.
इति वाल्मिकिरामायणे आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे द्वितीयः सर्गः
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