After the completion of Vedic ritual all the kings and Sage Rishyasringa took leave of Dasharatha and went away to their countries. After some time Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna are born. Their virtues in childhood and rituals connected thereto are depicted here. Dasharatha then contemplates the marriages of the princes, since marrying sons after completion of education is customary. At that juncture Sage Vishvamitra arrives at the court of Dasharatha seeking help from the king. Dasharatha receives him adoring in high esteem.
nirvṛtte tu kratau tasmin hayamedhe mahātmanaḥ |
prati gṛhya amarā bhāgān pratijagmuḥ yathā āgatam || 1-18-1
1. mahaatmanaH tasmin haya medhe = of the high souled one Dasharatha's, that, horse ritual; kratau nirvR^itte sati = ritual, when completed, that is; amaraa bhaagaan pratigR^ihya = gods, their portion [of oblations,] on taking; yatha aagatam = as they came; pratijagmu = returned [to their heavens.]
On the competition of the horse ritual of high-souled Dasharatha, the golds having received their portion of sacrificial oblation returned to their abodes as they have come. [1-18-1]
samāpta dīkṣā niyamaḥ patnī gaṇa samanvitaḥ |
praviveśa purīm rājā sa bhṛtya bala vāhanaḥ || 1-18-2
2. patnii gaNa samanvitaH = wives', company, along with; raajaa = king Dasharatha; samaapta diikshaa niyamaH = on completing, vows, rules - consecration vowed for Vedic ritual; sa bhR^itya bala vaahana = along with, servants, guards, vehicles; pravivesha puriim = entered, city [Ayodhya,].
The king completing his consecratory vows held for horse ritual, entered Ayodhya city along with the company of his queens, servants, guards and vehicles. [1-18-2]
yathā arham pūjitāḥ tena rājñā ca pṛthivīśvarāḥ |
muditāḥ prayayuḥ deśān praṇaṃya muni puṃgavam || 1-18-3
3. pR^ithvi iishvaraaH = earthly, gods [other kings]; tena raaj~naa = by him, the king; yathaa arham puujitaaH = as, befitting, honoured; muditaaH = are gladdened; muni pungavam praNamya = sage, the eminent [Vashishta] on duly adoring; deshaan = to their countries; prayayuH = travelled - returned.
The other kings who arrived for the ritual are delighted when befittingly honoured by the king Dasharatha, and they too returned to their countries, after suitably adoring the eminent sage Vashishta. [1-18-3]
śrīmatām gacchatām teṣām svagṛhāṇi purāt tataḥ |
balāni rājñām śubhrāṇi prahṛṣṭāni cakāśire || 1-18-4
4. tataH puraat = from that, city; sva gR^ihaaNi = to their own, houses [own countries - homeward]; gacChataam = those who are going - set forth; shriimataam teSaam raajnaam = of those magnificent [kings,] those, kings'; shubhraaNi = clean [neat white uniforms, or in fine fettle]; pra hR^iSTaani = highly, gladdened; balani chakaashire = armies [entourages,] shone forth.
The entourages of those kings who set forth homeward from that city are highly gladdened and shone forth in fine fettle. [1-18-4]
Some commentaries said that the soldiers are given white and clean uniforms by Dasharatha by the word shubhraaNi and hence they are happy. But they may be said to be sprucely without those gifts from Dasharatha.
gateṣu pṛthivīśeṣu rājā daśarathaḥ punaḥ |
praviveśa purīm śrīmān puraskṛtya dvijottamān || 1-18-5
5. pR^idhvi iisheSu gateshu satsu = earthly, lords [kings,] when they have gone; tadaa shriimaan raajaa dasarathaH = then, fortunate, king, Dasharatha; dvijaH uttamaan puraskR^itya = Brahmans, eminent ones, keeping ahead; puriim pravivesha = city, entered.
On the departure of visiting kings, then that fortunate king Dasharatha entered the city Ayodhya, keeping eminent Brahman priests ahead of him in the procession. [1-18-5]
śāṃtayā prayayau sārdham ṛṣyaśṛṅgaḥ supūjitaḥ |
anugaṃyamāno rājñā ca sānuyātreṇa dhīmatā || 1-18-6
6. R^iSyashR^i~NgaH = Rishyasringa; su puujita = well, adored; sa anu yaatreNa = with, co-travellers [entourage of Romapada]; dhiimataa raajnaa = with virtuous one, king [Romapaada]; anugamyamaanaH cha = followed by, king also; shantayaa saartham prayayau = with Shanta, along with, travelled.
Well adored by king Dasharatha sage Rishyasringa also travelled along with his wife Shanta, followed by his father-in-law King Romapada, and along with other co-travellers, namely the entourage of Romapada. [1-18-6]
evam visṛjya tān sarvān rājā saṃpūrṇa mānasaḥ |
uvāsa sukhitaḥ tatra putra utpattim viciṃtayan || 1-18-7
7. raajaa = king Dasharatha; evam taan sarvaan visR^ijya = thus, them, all, on dispersing; sampuurNa maanasaH = with a satiated, heart; putra utpattim vichintayan = sons, birth, dwelling upon; tatra sukhitaH uvaasa = there, gratifyingly, dwelled.
On dispersing all of them king Dasharatha gratifyingly dwelled there in Ayodhya, with a satiated heart dwelling upon the birth of his sons. [1-18-7]
tato yajñe samāpte tu ṛtūnām ṣaṭ samatyayuḥ |
tataḥ ca dvādaśe māse caitre nāvamike tithau || 1-18-8
nakkṣatre aditi daivatye sva uccha saṃstheṣu paṃcasu |
graheṣu karkaṭe lagne vākpatā iṃdunā saha || 1-18-9
prodyamāne jagannātham sarva loka namaskṛtam |
kausalyā ajanayat rāmam sarva lakṣaṇa saṃyutam || 1-18-10
viṣṇoḥ ardham mahābhāgam putram aikṣvāku naṃdanam |
lohitākṣam mahābāhum rakta oṣṭam duṃdubhi svanam || 1-18-11
8, 9, 10, 11. tataH yaj~ne samaapte = then, ritual, on completion; R^ituuNaam SaT sam atyayuH = seasons, six, well, passed by; tataH = then; dvaadashe maase = in twelfth, month; chaitre naavamike tithau = chaitra month [April-May], ninth, day;
nakshatre aditi daivatye = star of the day [punarvasu,] whose presiding deity is aditi;
panchasu graheSu swa uccha samstheshu = of five, planets, in their own, highest, positions - in their own cCha sthAna-s, viz., intheir own ascendent positions - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s;
chandra yukta guru karkaTa lagne proudyamane;
karkaTe lagne = in Cancer [of Zodiac]; vaak patiH= when Speech's, Lord [Jupiter]; indunaa saha = Moon, along with; pra udyamane == when raising - when ascendent; [abhijit lagna= advancing daytime];
kausalyaa = Queen Kausalya; jagat naatham = worlds', lord [Vishnu]; sarva loka namaskR^itam = by all, worlds, adored; divya lakshana samyutam = divine, attributes, along with;
viSNoH = Vishnu's; artham = epitome of [not half of Vishnu];
mahaa bhaagam = greatly blessed one; ikshwaaku nandanam = Ikshvaaku dynasty, delight of; lohita aksham = lotus-red, eyes; mahaa baahum = lengthy, armed; rakta oSTam = roseate, lips; dundubhi svanam = drumbeat, voiced; raamam = Rama as; putram = the son; ajanayat = gave birth.
On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month, i.e., in chaitra mAsa, and on the ninth day of that chaitra month [April-May], when it is punarvasu nakshatra yukta navamI tithi, i.e., when the ruling star of that ninth day is punarvasu, for which Aditi is the presiding deity; and when five of the nine planets - sUrya, kuja, guru, shukra, shani are in ucCha sthAna-s, namely, when those planets are in ascension in their respective houses - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s; and when chandra yukta guru, karkaTa lagne - Jupiter in conjuction with Moon is ascendant in Cancer, and when day is advancing, Queen Kausalya gave birth to a son with all the divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, roseate lips, voice like drumbeat, and who took birth to delight the Ikshwaku dynasty and adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome of Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-8, 9, 10, 11]
Twice six months had rolled a way since the great sacrifice was over and, in the first month of the New Year, on the ninth day of the bright fortnight, the Lord of the worlds chose to take human form and sent down half of His essence as the son of Kausalya (thenceforth to be known as Rama), the world-honored One, the crowning glory ot the grand line of Ikshwku, and the sum of all perfections. The constellation Punarvasu, of which Aditi was the regent, was chosen to preside at his birth. The Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn were in ascension in their respective houses. Aries, Capricornus, Cancer, Pisces and the Libra, Jupiter and the Moon were in conjunction ; the rising sign was Cancer. And KausalyA, shone with unparalleled effulgence, even as Aditi when she gave birth to Indra, the lord of the Shining Ones, the Vajra-wielder. - C. R. Sreeniuasa Aiyangar, 1910.
By this configuration of stars the supreme merits of Rama are indicated. atra sa~Nvastara mukha uttaayaNa vasanta caitra maasa shukla pakSha deva nakShatra diva abhijit lagna puNya nakShatraad utkR^iShTa kaale karkaaTaka lagne uccasya graha pa~ncake guru candra yoge shrii raama utpattiH | tasya sarva utkR^iShTataam sakala kalyaaNa guNa abhiramataam sakala shiShTa aadraNiiya sampattim mahaa paraakramam ca suucitam |dharmaakuutam.
The phrase viSNoH artham half of Vishnu - is to be taken as half of the fruit of ritual where Vedic ritual itself is pervaded by Vishnu. The fruit of ritual is obtained in the shape of dessert, and Kausalya consumed half of it, but it is not half of Vishnu as he is illimitable. Even Sreeniuasa Aiyangar took it as half, in saying half of Vishnu's essence is Rama. This has become a perennial topic debating whether the incarnation of Rama is a pUrNa avtAra, artha avatAra or aMsha avatAra.
kausalyā śuśubhe tena putreṇa amita tejasā |
yathā vareṇa devānām aditiḥ vajra pāṇinā || 1-18-12
12. kausalya; a mita tejasaa = one with unlimited resplendence; tena putreNa = by that, son; devaanaam vareNa = among gods, the best one; vajra paaNinaa = by Thunderbolt, in hand [wielder - Indra]; adithiH yathaa shushubhe = Lady Aditi, as with, shone forth.
Kausalya shone forth with such a son whose resplendence is unlimited, as with lady Aditi who once stood out with her son Indra, the best one among gods. [1-18-12]
bharato nāma kaikeyyām jajñe satya parākramaḥ |
sākṣāt viṣṇoḥ caturtha bhāgaḥ sarvaiḥ samudito guṇaiḥ || 1-18-13
13. satya paraakramaH = truthfulness, as his valour; saakshaat viSNoH = manifest, Vishnu's; chatur bhaagaH = fourth, component; sarvaiH guNaiH samuditaH = with all, merits, embodied with ; bharata naama kaikeyyaam jaj~ne = Bharata, named [son], to Queen Kaikeyi, born to.
Queen Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, one embodied with all merits, and whose truthfulness itself is his valour and who is fourth component of manifest Vishnu, namely Rama. [1-18-13]
The fraction indicated here like 'one fourth of Vishnu' etc may be reckoned as the share of the dessert consumed by the queens, but not as a cleaved portion of Vishnu as he is an indivisible entity. Here it is half of one-fourth i.e., one-eighth of dessert given to Kaikeyi.
atha lakṣmaṇa śatrughnau sumitrā ajanayat sutau |
vīrau sarva astra kuśalau viṣṇoḥ ardha samanvitau | 1-18-14
14. atha = then; Queen Sumitra; viiraau = valiant ones; sarva astra kushalau = all, weaponry, experts; viSNoH = Vishnu's; artha = essence, epitome; samanvitau = those that are embodied with; Lakshmana; Shatrughna; sutau ajanayat = to sons, gave birth.
Queen Sumitra then gave birth to two sons who are the embodied epitomes of Vishnu, namely Lakshmana, and Shatrughna, who are valiant ones and experts in all kinds of weaponry. [1-18-14]
puṣye jātaḥ tu bharato mīna lagne prasanna dhīḥ |
sārpe jātau tu saumitrī kuldīre abhyudite ravau || 1-18-15
15. prasanna dhiiH = level, headed one - guileless, fair-minded; Bharata; pushye miina lagne jaataH = under Pushyami star, in Pisces [of Zodiac,] born; saumitrii = sons of Sumitra [Lakshmana, Shatrughna]; saarpe kuliire = under star presided by serpent [aaSreSa,] in Cancer [of Zodiac]; ravau abhyudite = while Sun, is rising - i.e., on next day of Rama's birth - nth of Chaitra; jaatau = they are born.
With the dawn of sun on the next day, fair-minded Bharata is born under Pisces where puSyami is the star of day, later the sons of Sumitra, namely Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born under Cancer, where aaSreSa is the star of the day, i.e., the tenth of chaitra month, [1-18-15]
Rama is born on the ninth day of Chaitra month, and Bharata is born in the earlier part of next day the tenth of Chaitra, earlier to his younger brothers, and then Lakshmana and Shatrughna are born on the later part of that tenth day.
'Pushya is the name of a month; but here it means the eighth mansion. The ninth is called Aslesh, or the snake. It is evident from this that Bharata, though his birth is mentioned before that of the twins, was the youngest of the four brothers and Rama's junior by eleven months' -- Schlegel.
The eleven-month gap between Rama and Bharata is unapparent in the words of verse. This may be from some other version of Ramayana.
rājñaḥ putrā mahātmānaḥ catvāro jajñire pṛthak |
guṇavaṃtaḥ anurūpāḥ ca rucyā proṣṭha padopamāḥ || 1-18-16
16. guNavantaH anuruupaaH cha = virtuous ones, charming, also; ruchyaa = by brilliance; proSTapada upamaaH = [like puurva bhaadra, uttara bhaadra] stars, in simile; mahaatmaanaH = great souls; such; raajnaH putraa = kings', sons; chatvaaraH = four of them; jaj~nire pR^ithak = born, separately.
Thus there are four great-souled sons of Dasharatha, born on separate instances, who are virtuous, charming, and by brilliance they are in similitude with two stars of each of the asterisms called puurva bhadra and uttara bhaadra. [1-18-16]
The word proSTa is cow; pada feet; the feet of a cow. It is also the name for the asterisms puurvaa bhaadra, uttara baadra , containing stars in the wing of Pegasus, each of which will have two stars, and all the four stars make a perfect square. Like the pairs of stars the brother also move in pairs - Rama, Lakshmana; Bharata, Shatrughna.
The epithet mahaa aatmanaH high-souled ones is though negligible for peripheral reading, it is explained as: Rama is one such, as he undertakes sva dharma anuSThaana ; Lakshmana by his sheSatva j~naana ; Bharata by his bhagavat paara tantrya ; and Shatrughna by his bhaagavata paaratantrya.
Like this, each of the epithets used in Ramayana has something or the other meaning which is not generally recorded in English translations. All the English translations are story-oriented, as though there is some unknown story in Ramayana for retelling afresh. In the spate of telling story again and again these niceties are lost. The same is the position with the numerous epithets given to Seetha in Aranya Kanda. Readers may please note that each epithet conveys some meaning and if we could not incorporate them, it is our misfortune in getting a book containing their meanings. We request the readers to kindly inform us if they have come across the meanings of these seemingly useless and metre-filling-like epithets in any book, so that, that book will be brought to the notice of readers who are mistaking them as 'redundant stanza fillers'.
jaguḥ kalam ca gaṃdharvā nanṛtuḥ ca apsaro gaṇāḥ |
deva duṃdubhayo neduḥ puṣpa vṛṣṭiḥ ca khāt patat || 1-18-17
utsavaḥ ca mahān āsīt ayodhyāyām janākulaḥ |
17, 18a. gandharvaa kalam jaguH = celestial singers, melodiously, sang; apsaraa gaNAH nanR^ituH = divine dancers, groups of - dancing parties, danced; deva dundubhayaH neduH = divine, drums, sounded; khaat pushpa vR^iSTi cha patat = from heavens, flowery, rain, also, fallen; ayodhyaayaam jana akulaH = in Ayodhya, with people, thronging; utsavaH cha mahaan asiit = festivity, also, great, is there.
The celestial singers sang melodiously, paradisiacal dancing parties danced, divine drums drummed and heavens rained flowers, with all this there is a great festivity in Ayodhya with thronging people. [1-18-17, 18a]
rathyāḥ ca jana saṃbādhā naṭa nartaka saṃkulāḥ || 1-18-18
gāyanaiḥ ca virāviṇyo vādanaiḥ ca tatha aparaiḥ |
virejur vipulāḥ tatra sarva ratna samanvitāḥ || 1-18-19
18b, 19. rathyaaH = streets; jana sambaadhaa = with people, pressurised - stampeded; nata nartaka samkulaaH = with actors, dancers, flurried by; gaayanaiH cha = singers, too; vaadanaiH cha eva = with players of musical instruments, also, thus; tathaa aparaiH = like that, by others - onlookers; viraavaNyaH= well sounding - hilarity, jubilation; tatra = there - on streets; vipulaaH virejuH = widely, strewn; sarva ratna samanvitaaH = all, gems, along with.
Hilarity filled the streets with people stampeding them and with the flurry of actors, dancers, singers and instrumentalists, as well by other onlookers, and there on the streets widely strewn are all kinds of gems appreciating the artists. [1-18-18b, 19]
pradeyāṃśca dadau rājā sūta māgadha vaṃdinām |
brāhmaṇebhyo dadau vittam go dhanāni sahasraśaḥ || 1-18-20
20. raajaa = king; suuta maagadha vandinaam = to eulogisers, bard singers, panegyrists; pradeyaan cha = giveable donation, also; dadou = gave; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmans; vittam = funds; go dhanaani sahasrashaH = cow, wealth, in thousands; dadau = gave.
The king gave worthy gifts to eulogisers, bard singers, and panegyrists, and to Brahmans he gave funds and wealth in the form of thousands of cows. [1-18-20]
atītya ekādaśa āham tu nāma karma tathā akarot |
jyeṣṭham rāmam mahātmānam bharatam kaikayī sutam || 1-18-21
saumitrim lakṣmaṇam iti śatrughnam aparam tathā |
vasiṣṭhaḥ parama prīto nāmāni kurute tadā || 1-18-22
21, 22. tataH = then; eka dasha aaham atiitya = one, ten, days, [eleven days,] when elapsed; naama karma akarot = naming, ceremony, performed; mahaa aatmaanaam jyeSTam raamam = high souled, elder one, as Rama; kaikeyi sutam bharatam = Kaikeyi's, son, as Bharata; soumitrim = Sumitra's [to one son]; lakshmanam iti = as Lakshmana, thus; aparam = other [son]; shatrughnam = as Shatrughna; parama priitaH vashishta tadaa = highly, gladdened, Vashishta, then; naamaani kurute = names, [made] gave.
Elapsed are eleven days and the naming ceremony is performed, then Vashishta, the chief priest, named the high-souled elder one as Rama, Kaikeyi's son as Bharata, and one son of Sumitra as Lakshmana and the other as Shatrughna [1-18-21, 22]
The word 'Rama' is defined as ramante sarve janaaH guNaiH asmin iti raamaH 'in whom all the people take delight for his virtuousness, thus he is Rama.' The name Rama is very old, so says padma puraaNa : shriyaH kamala vaasinyaa raameNa aham mahaaprabhuH | tasmaat shrii raama iti asya naama siddhi puraatanam || padma puraaNa
Bharata is defined as: bharata raajya bharanaat - bibharti iti bharata Bharata is because he bears the burden of the kingdom of Rama during Rama's exile.
Lakshmana is lkShmano laksmi sampannoH or lakShmi asya astiiti lakShmaNa Lakshmana is the favoured flourisher. The wealth of selfless dedication is in him, hence Lakshmana. One who is endowed with favoured dedication, kainkarya lakshana lakshita Lakshmana is a hearty dedication to Rama and he always wishes to reside by the side of his brother.
Shatrughna is shatruun hanta iti shatrughnaH. Or shatrughno nitya shatru-ghnaHShatrughna is always an enemy destroyer.
The naming ceremony acquires a particular significance, because Vashishta, the purohita = puraa future; hitaH well-wisher of; well wishing advisor about the future of the kingdom, named these princes with a vision into the future.
brāhmaṇān bhojayāmāsa paurān jānapadān api |
udadad brāhmaṇānām ca ratnaugham amalam bahu || 1-18-23
teṣām janma kriya ādīni sarva karmāṇi akārayat |
23, 24a. brahmaNaan pauraan jaanapadaan api = Brahmans, urbanites, villagers, also; bhojayaamaasa = are fed well by king; brahaahmaNaanaam bahu ratna ogham udadat = to Brahmans, many, valuable gems, he gave - gifted; a mitam = un, limited; teSaam janma kriya aadiini = them - the princes, birth, rites, ceremonies sequel to it; sarva karmaaNi akaarayat = all, rituals, performed.
The king feasted Brahmans, urbanites and villagers and he gifted many valuable gems to Brahmans in an unlimited way, and all the rituals of birth and ceremonies sequel to it like naming ceremony, first-food-feeding ceremony, first-hair-removal ceremony, and sacred thread ceremony are performed in respect of the princes. [1-18-23, 24a]
teṣām ketuḥ iva jyeṣṭho rāmo ratikaraḥ pituḥ |1-18-24
babhūva bhūyo bhūtānām svayam bhūḥ iva sammataḥ |
24b, 25a. tesSam jyeSThaH raamaH = among them the princes, eldest one, Rama is; ketuH iva = flagstaff like; pituH bhuyaH rati kara = to his father, very much, delightful one; svayam bhuu iva bhuutaanaam sammata babhuuva = self-emerged [god, Brahma,] like, to all beings, acceptable, he became.
Among those princes the eldest one Rama is like a flagstaff and a delight of his father Dasharatha, and he became acceptable to all beings like the self-created Brahma. [1-18-24b, 25a]
sarve veda vidaḥ śūrāḥ sarve lokahite ratāḥ || 1-18-25
sarve jñānopasaṃpannāḥ sarve samuditā guṇaiḥ |
25b, 26a. sarve veda vidaH = all princes are, in Veda-s, scholars; shuuraaH = valiant ones; sarve loka hite rataaH = all are, in worlds', welfare, interested; sarve j~naana upa sampannaH = all are, intellectual ones; sarve samuditaa guNaiH = all are, possessors of, with merits - air of probity.
All the princes are scholars in Veda-s, valiant ones, all are interested in the welfare of the world, all are intellectuals and all of them possess an air of probity. [1-18-25b, 26a]
teṣām api mahātejā rāmaḥ satya parākramaḥ || 1-18-26
iṣṭaḥ sarvasya lokasya śaśāṃka iva nirmalaḥ |
26b, 27a. teSaam api mahaa tejaa = among them, also, great, resplendent; raaamaH satya paraakramaH = Rama, truthfulness, as his valorous one; nirmala shashaanka iva = tranquil, moon, like; sarvasya lokasya iSTaH = to all, of world, dear one.
Among them the great resplendent Rama, whose valour itself is his truthfulness, is the dear one to all the world like the tranquil moon. [1-18-26b, 27a]
gaja skandhe aśva pṛṣṭe ca ratha caryāsu sammataḥ || 1-18-27
dhanurvede ca nirataḥ pituḥ śuśṝṣaṇe rataḥ |
27b, 28a. [saH raamaH = he that Rama is]; gaja skandhe = on [riding] elephant's, shoulders; ashva pR^iSTte = on [riding] horse's, on back; cha = also; ratha charyaasu = in chariots', manoeuvring of [tactical charioting]; sammataH = admitted to be [the champion]; dhanuH vede cha nirataH = in archery, Veda, also, rejoices in; pituH shushruushaNe rataH = father's, in service, absorbed in.
Rama is admittedly a champion of riding elephants and horses, also in tactical charioting, and he rejoices in the art of archery, and absorbed in the obedient service of his father. [1-18-27b, 28a]
bālyāt prabhṛti susnigdho lakṣmaṇo lakṣmi vardhanaḥ || 1-18-28
rāmasya lokarāmasya bhrātuḥ jyeṣṭhasya nityaśaḥ |
28b, 29a. lakshmi vardhana lakshmana = prosperity, enhancer of, Lakshmana; baalyaat prabhR^iti = childhood, since; loka raamasya = for world, charming Rama; jyeSTasya bhraatuH = towards elder, brother; raamasya = in respect of Rama; nityasaH su snigdhaH = always, he is very amiable.
Right from childhood Lakshmana, the enhancer of prosperity, is always amiable towards his world-charming elder brother Rama. [1-18-28b, 29a]
sarva priya karaḥ tasya rāmasya api śarīrataḥ || 1-18-29
lakṣmaṇo lakṣmi saṃpanno bahiḥ prāṇa iva aparaḥ |
29b, 30a. lakshmi sampannaH lakshmanaH = wealth [of dedication], one endowed with, Lakshmana s, even; shariirataH api = bodily, even [dedicated to Rama]; sarva priya karaH = all, agreeable deeds, while peforming; tasya raamasya = to that, Rama; bahiH praana iva = external, entity, like; a paraH = bahiH praaNa = outer, life - alter ego, [he behaved like alter ego,].
Lakshmana who is endowed with the wealth of dedication dedicated himself to Rama with bodily service, and while performing all agreeable deeds in respect of Rama, he behaved like Rama's alter ego. [1-18-29b, 30a]
na ca tena vinā nidrām labhate puruṣottamaḥ || 1-18-30
mṛṣṭam annam upānītam aśnāti na hi tam vinā |
30b, 31a. puruSa uttamaH = of men, best Rama; tena vinaaa = him - Lakshmana, without; nidraam na labhate = sleep, he does not, get; upaaniitam mR^iSTam annam ca = brought [for him,] delicious, food, also; tam vinaa = him [Lakshmana,] without; na ashnaati = will not, eat.
That best one among the men Rama does not get his sleep without Lakshmana and he would not eat food brought for him, however delicious it may be, without Lakshmana. [1-18-30b, 31a]
yadā hi hayam ārūḍho mṛgayām yāti rāghavaḥ || 1-18-31
atha enam pṛṣṭhataḥ abhyeti sa dhanuḥ paripālayan |
31b, 32a. raaghava = Raghava; hayam aruuDhaH = horse, on mounting; yadaa mR^igayaam yaati = when, for a hunting game, goes; tataH = then; saH = he, Lakshmana; dhanuH paripaalayan = bow, wielding [as a squire]; enam priSTataH abhyeti = him [Rama,] behind [Rama,] rushes after.
Whenever Raghava mounts a horse and goes on a hunting game Lakshmana rushes after him wielding his bow as a squire. [1-18-31b, 32a]
bharatasya api śatrughno lakṣmaṇa avarajo hi saḥ || 1-18-32
prāṇaiḥ priyataro nityam tasya ca āsīt tathā priyaḥ |
32b, 33a. lakshamaNaa varajaH = Lakshmana's, born along with - younger brother; saH shatrughnaH = he that, Shatrughna; bharatasya api = to Bharata, even; nityam praanaiH priyataraH = always, by lives, dear one; [Bharata also]; tasya cha = to him [to Shatrughna,] even; tathaa aasiit priyaH = like that, he is, a dear one.
Lakshmana's younger brother Shatrughna is a dear one to Bharata, like that Bharata too held Shatrughna dearer than his own lives. [1-18-32b, 33a]
sa caturbhiḥ mahābhāgaiḥ putraiḥ daśarathaḥ priyaiḥ || 1-18-33
babhūva parama prīto devaiḥ iva pitāmahaḥ |
33. saH = he, Dasharatha, mahaa bhaagaiH chaturbhi priyaiH putraiH = with highly fortunate, four, dearest, sons; pitaamaha devaiH iva = Forefather, Brahma, with gods, as with; parama priitaH babhuuva = highly, glad, he became.
King Dasharatha is highly gladdened with four of his highly fortunate sons like the Forefather Brahma with gods in heaven. [1-18-33]
te yadā jñāna saṃpannāḥ sarvaiḥ samuditā guṇaiḥ || 1-18-34
hrīmantaḥ kīrtimantaḥ ca sarvajñā dīrgha darśinaḥ |
teṣām evam prabhāvāṇām sarveṣām dīpta tejasām || 1-18-35
pitā daśaratho hṛṣṭo brahmā lokādhipo yathā |
34b, 35, 36a. te sarvaiH guNaiH samuditaa = with all, merits, having - gifted with; yadaa j~naana sampannaaH = they [four princes,] when, practical wisdom - prudence, prospering with; hriimantaH = bashful ones - self-conscious [to do wrong deeds]; kiirtimantaH cha = well-know ones [for their gentility,] also; sarva j~naa = all, knowing ones [knowers of pros and cons]; diirgha darshinaH = foresighted - conscientious; [when they have become thus, then]; evam prabhaavaaNaam = with this kind of, potentiality having; diipta tejasaam = radiantly, brilliant ones; teSaam sarveSaam = all, in respect of; pitaa = father - Dasharatha; loka adhipaH yathaa = world, presiding deity - Brahma, as with; hR^iSTaH = is contented.
When all of the four sons are thus prospering with prudence, gifted with all the merits, self-conscious to do wrong deeds, well-known for their gentility, knowers of pros and cons and even the conscientious princes, then their father Dasharatha is contented in respect of all of them who are such radiantly brilliant and potential princes, like Brahma. [1-18-34b, 35, 36a]
te ca api manuja vyāghrā vaidika adhyayane ratāḥ || 1-18-36
pitṛ śuśrūṣaṇa ratā dhanur vede ca niṣṭitāḥ |
36. te manuja vyaaghraaH api = they, manly, tigers, even; vaidika adhyayane rataaH = Veda, studies, engrossed in; pitR^iu shushruuSaNe rataaH = in father's, service, delighted in; dhanurvede cha niSTitaaH = in art of archery, also, experts.
Even those tigerly-men, namely the princes, are engrossed in the studies of Veda-s, delighted to render service to their father and they are also the experts in art of archery. [1-18-36b, 37a]
atha rājā daśarathaḥ teṣām dāra kriyām prati || 1-18-37
ciṃtayāmāsa dharmātmā saha upādhyāyaḥ sa bāndhavaḥ |
37b, 38a. tataH = then; dharmaatmaa raajaa = noble souled, king Dasharatha; saH upaadhyaayaH sa baandhavaa = along with, teachers, with, relatives; teSaam daara kriyaam prati = of their, matrimonial, works [alliances,] about; chintayaamaasa = contemplated.
Then the noble souled Dasharatha contemplated along with his priestly teachers and relatives about the matrimonial alliances of his sons. [1-18-37b, 38a]
tasya ciṃtayamānasya maṃtri madhye mahātmanaḥ || 1-18-38
abhyāgacchat mahātejā viśvāmitro mahāmuniḥ |
38b, 39a. maha aatmanaH tasya = great, souled one, his Dasharatha; chintayaa maanasya = while he is thinking so [discussing so]; mantri madhye = ministers, among, mahaa tejaa = great resplendent one - highly powerful; visvaamitraH mahaa muniH = Vishvamitra great sage; abhyaagacChat [abhi aa gacChat] = arrived.
While the great souled Dasharatha is discussing the marriages of princes among his ministers, the highly powerful sage Vishvamitra arrived. [1-18-38b, 39a]
sa rājño darśana ākāṃkṣī dvāra adhyakṣān uvāca ha || 1-18-39
śīghram ākhyāta mām prāptam kauśikam gādhinaḥ sutam |
39b, 40a. saH = he, Vishvamitra; raaj~naH darshana aakaankshii = king, to see, desirous to; dvaara adhyakshaan uvaacha ha = to the door, keeper, said to; gaadhinaH sutaH = Gadhi's son; kaushikam = belonging to Kushi's dynasty; maam praaptam = me, as arrived; shiighram aakhyaata = quickly, inform [to king.]
Desirous to have an audience with king Vishvamitra said to the doorkeeper, "Let the king be informed quickly that I, the son of Gadhi from the dynasty of Kushi, have come" [1-18-39b, 40a]
tat śrutvā vacanam tasya rājño veśma pradudruvuḥ || 1-18-40
saṃbhrānta manasaḥ sarve tena vākyena coditāḥ |
40b, 41a. tat vachanam shrutvaa = that, words, on listening; sarve sambhraanta manasaH = all, dumbfounded, at hearts; tena vaakyena choditaa = by those, words, ushered by; raajnaH veshma pra dudruvuH = to that, king's [Dasharatha's,] palace, quickly, rushed to.
On listening those words all the doorkeepers are dumbfounded, and ushered by those words they quickly rushed to the place of Dasharatha. [1-18-40b, 41a]
te gatvā rāja bhavanam viśvāmitram ṛṣim tadā || 1-18-41
prāptam āvedayāmāsuḥ nṛpāyaiḥ ikṣvākave tadā |
41b, 42a. tataH = then; te raaja bhavanam gatvaa = they, to king's, palace, having gone; tataH = then; vishwamitram R^iSim praaptam = Vishvamitra, sage, as has come; ikshwaakave nR^ipaayaiH = of Ikshwaku dynasty, to king; aavedayaamaasu = announced.
Then on their arriving at the king's palace the doorkeepers have announced to the king of Ikshvaku-s, namely Dasharatha, about the arrival of sage Vishvamitra. [1-18-41b, 42a]
teṣām tat vacanam śrutvā sapurodhāḥ samāhitaḥ || 1-18-42
prati ujjagāma saṃhṛṣṭo brahmāṇam iva vāsavaḥ |
42b, 43a. teSaam tat vachanam shrutvaa = their [doorkeepers,] that word [that message,]on hearing; samhR^iSTaH = highly pleased, Dasharatha; sa purodhaaH = with, priests; [and] samaahitaH = collecting himself, in self-possessed manner; [tam = him, Vishvamitra]; prati ujjagaama = towards, gone - gone towards welcomingly; vaasavaH brahmaaNam iva = Indra, like, towards Brahma [in a ceremonial manner.]
On hearing that message from doorkeepers Dasharatha is highly pleased and he has gone towards Vishvamitra in a self-possessed manner along with royal priests, as Indra would ceremoniously go towards Brahma. [1-18-42b, 43a]
tam dṛṣṭvā jvalitam dīptyā tapasam saṃśita vratam || 1-18-43
prahṛṣṭa vadano rājā tataḥ arghyam upahārayat |
43b, 44a. tataH = then; raajaa = king Dasharatha; jwalitam = who is resplendent - Vishvamitra; diiptyaa tapasam = one who is radiant, by ascesis; samshita vratam = one who severe, self-discipline; tam dR^iSTva = him [Vishvamitra,] on seeing; pra hR^iSTa vadanaH = well, gladsome, face [expression, aspect]; arghyam upahaarayat = water, offered.
Then on seeing the resplendent sage Vishvamitra, whose radiance is by his own ascesis and who has severe self-discipline, the king offered water with a gladsome aspect, as first customary hospitality in receiving unexpected guest. [1-18-43b, 44a]
sa rājñaḥ pratigṛhya arghyam śāstra dṛṣṭena karmaṇā || 1-18-44
kuśalam ca avyayam ca eva parya pṛcchat narādhipam |
44b, 45a. saH = he, Vishvamitra; shaastra dR^iSTena karmaNaa = scriptural, point of view - scripturally, [also] by practice - customarily; raajnaH arghyam prati gR^ihya = rom king, water, on receiving; naraadhipam = with king; kushalam cha avyayam cha eva = well-being, also, welfare, also, thus; parya apR^icChat = enquired after.
On receiving water from the king scripturally and customarily Vishvamitra enquired after the well-being and welfare of king Dasharatha. [1-18-44b, 45a]
pure kośe janapade bāndhaveṣu suhṛtsu ca || 1-18-45
kuśalam kauśiko rājñaḥ paryapṛcchat sudhārmikaḥ |
45b, 46a. su dhaarmikaH kaushikaH = highly righteous, Kushi's son - Vishvamitra; raajnaH = of king; pure koshe janapade baandhaveSu = in city, in exchequer, in rural areas, among relatives; su hR^itsu = among good, hearted-ones - friends; kushalam = well-being; paryapR^icChat= asked after.
That highly righteous sage Vishvamitra asked the king after the well-being of city, exchequer, rural areas, friends and relatives. [1-18-45b, 46a]
api te saṃnatāḥ sarve sāmaṃta ripavo jitāḥ || 1-18-46
daivam ca mānuṣam ca eva karma te sādhu anuṣṭitam |
46b, 47a. saamantaaH sarve te api sannata = provincial kings, all, to you, acquiescent; ripavaH jitaaH = enemies, conquered; te = your; daivatam karma = for propitiating gods, deeds; maanusham cha eva = humanly, also, thus - to administer humans; saadhu anuSTitham = properly, performed.
Sage Vishvamitra asked Dasharatha, "Are all of the provincial kings acquiescent to you, and all your enemies conquered? Are you properly performing the devotional and social works?" [1-18-46b, 47a]
vasiṣṭham ca samāgaṃya kuśalam munipuṃgavaḥ || 1-18-47
ṛṣīm ca tān yathā nyāyam mahābhāga uvāca ha |
47b, 48a. munipungavaH vasiSTham cha = sage, the eminent, Vashishta, also; taan = them; mahaa bhaagaa R^iSiim cha = most, exalted, sages, also; yathaa nyaayam = as per, custom; samaagamya = on meeting with; kushalam uvaacha ha = well-being, spoke [asked after,] indeed.
And on meeting the eminent sage Vashishta and with them the other exalted sages according to custom Vishvamitra asked after their well-being. [1-18-47b, 48a]
te sarve hṛṣṭa manasaḥ tasya rājño niveśanam || 1-18-48
viviśuḥ pūjitāḥ tena niṣeduḥ ca yathā arhataḥ |
48b, 49a. te sarve hR^iSTta manasaH = all of them, gladdened, at heart; tasya raaj~naH niveshanam = that, king's, palace; vivishuH = entered; tathaa yathaa arhataH = then, according to, eligibility - protocol; tena puujitaaH by him, the king, adored - invited; niSeduH = took seats.
Then adoringly invited by the king Dasharatha all of them gladly entered the palace and they took their seats according to protocol. [1-18-48b, 49a]
atha hṛṣṭa manā rājā viśvāmitram mahāmunim || 1-18-49
uvāca parama udāro hṛṣṭaḥ tam abhipūjayan |
49b, 50a. atha = then; parama udaaraH = very, generous one; raajaa = king Dasharatha; hR^iSTta manaa = gladdened, at heart; tam mahaamuniH vishvamitram = him, the great sage, Vishvamitra; abhipuujayan hR^iSTaH = while adoring, feeling happy; uvaacha [idam] = spoke, [this way.]
Then the very generous king Dasharatha is gladdened at heart at the arrival of Vishvamitra, and he spoke this way feeling happy to adore that sage. [1-18-49b, 50a]
yathā amṛtasya saṃprāptiḥ yathā varṣam anūdake || 1-18-50
yathā sadṛśa dāreṣu putra janma aprajasya vai |
praṇaṣṭasya yathā lābho yathā harṣo mahodaye || 1-18-51
tathā eva āgamanam manye svāgatam te mahāmune |
50b, 51, 52b. mahaa mune = oh, great saint Vishvamitra; amR^itasya sampraapti yathaa = ambrosia, attaining, as with; an udake = without, water [in droughty land]; varSam yathaa = rain, as with a prajasya = without, progeny [for childless ones]; sadR^isha daareSu = in deserving, wife; putra janma yathaa = son's, birth, as with; pra naSTasya laabhaH yathaa = long lost [treasures,] regaining, as with; mahaa udaye harSaH yathaa = at great happening, rejoice, as with; te aagamanam thaa eva = your, arrival, like that, only; manye = is deemed; swaagatam [te] = welcome, to you.
"I deem your arrival is in the vein of mortals attaining ambrosia, rainfall in a droughty land, a barren father begetting a son through his deserving wife, a regain of long lost treasures, and the gladness at a great happening, oh, great saint, welcome to you." [1-18-50b, 51, 52a]
kam ca te paramam kāmam karomi kimu harṣitaḥ || 1-18-52
pātra bhūto.asi me brahman diṣṭyā prāpto.asi mānada |
adya me saphalam janma jīvitam ca su jīvitam || 1-18-53
yasmād viprendram adrākṣam suprabhātā niśā mama |
52b, 53, 54a. brahman = Oh, Brahman; harSitaH = [I, who am, at our arrival] delighted; te paramam kam kaamam = your, choicest, what, objective; kimu = in which way; karomi = I can fulfil; me paatra bhuutaH asi = to me, recipient, eligible, you are; maana daa = oh, respect, endower of; diSTyaa praaptaH asi = fortunately, arrived, you are; adya me janma saphalam = today, my, birth, is fructified; jiivitam cha su jiivitam = life, also, best life - flourishing; yasmaat vipra indram adraaksham = for what reason, Brahman, the great, is seen by me [at my own house]; suprabhaataa nishaa mama = sun dawn, night, of mine.
"Oh, Brahman, as I am the one who is delighted for your arrival, and as you are the most eligible recipient from me, what is that choicest object of yours to be fulfilled by me, and in which way. Oh, endower of respect, for me your arrival is fortunate whereby my birth is fructified and my life flourished today, and wherefore I could see a great Brahman like you visiting my home, therefore the sun appears to have dawned in my night. [1-18-52b, 53, 54a]
pūrvam rājarṣi śabdena tapasā dyotita prabhaḥ || 1-18-54
brahmarṣitvam anuprāptaḥ pūjyoasi bahudhā mayā |
54b, 55a. puurvam raaja R^ishi shabdena= earlier - originally, kingly-saint, by title; dyotitaH prabhaH= indicated - explicit, is your glory – such as you are; anu = subsequently; apasaa= by ascesis; brahma R^iSitwam praaptaH= Absolute, sainthood, you attained; mayaa bahudhaa puujyaH asi= by me, in many ways, venerable, you are.
"Originally your glory was explicit by your title kingly-sage, and subsequently you attained the Absolute-sainthood by your ascesis, and you are venerable to me, in many ways." [1-18-54b, 55a]
tat adbhutam abhūt vipra pavitram paramam mama || 1-18-55
śubha kṣetra gataḥ ca aham tava saṃdarśanāt prabho |
55b, 56a. vipra = oh, Brahman; tat = thereby; [idam = this arrival of yours]; adbhutam = surprising; mama = to me; pavitram paramam = sacred, ideally; prabho = oh, adept one; tava samdarshanaat = by your, very appearance; aham = I have [become one who]; shubha kshetra gataH = to sacred, place, one who has gone - on pilgrimage; abhuut = I have become.
"Oh, Brahman, thereby your arrival at my place is surprising and ideally sacred to me, and by your very appearance I have become one who has gone on a quiet pilgrimage. [1-18-55b, 56a]
Dasharatha deems that city itself is sanctified with the arrival of Vishvamitra and thinks that he is like the one who secured the merit of pilgrimage without actually going over a sacred place.
brūhi yat prārthitam tubhyam kāryam āgamanam prati || 1-18-56
icchām anugṛhīto aham tvadartham parivṛddhaye |
56b, 57a. aagaamanam prati = arrival, regarding [the work that made you to come]; tubhyam praarthitam = by you, entreated; yat kaaryam = which, work is there [deed]; [that] bruuhi = you tell; aham anugR^ihiitaH [vai] = I am, blessed [indeed]; tvat artha = for its, result [of your deed]; pari vR^iddhaye icChaami = to its flourish [ to make happen, for fulfilling it,] I wish to.
"You may tell me, entreating which work your arrival chanced here and I feel that I am indeed blessed and wish to make it happen to achieve results. [1-18-56b, 57a]
kāryasya na vimarśam ca gaṃtum arhasi suvrata || 1-18-57
kartā ca aham aśeṣeṇa daivatam hi bhavān mama |
57b, 58a. su vrata = [sage with] blest, vows; kaaryasya vimarshanam gantum na arhasi = about work, deliberation, to go into, not, apt of you; aham a shesheNa kartaa cha = I am, without, remainder [of work - thoroughly,] the doer; bhavaan mama daivatam hi = you are, for me, god, indeed.
"It is unapt of you to deliberate about the feasibility of the work, oh, sage with blest vows, while I am the fulfiller of it without any reminder, since you are god to me, indeed. [1-18-57b, 58a]
mama ca ayam anuprāpto mahān abhyudayo dvija |
tava āgamana jaḥ kṛtsno dharmaḥ ca anuttamo dvija || 1-18-58
58b, c. dwija = oh, Brahman; mama ayam mahaan abhyudayaH anupraaptaH = for me, this is, great, prosperity, that bechanced; [mama = to me]; tava aagamana jaH = your, arrival, caused; kR^itsnaH dharmaH anuttamaH = entire, propriety, is the unexcelled one.
"Oh, Brahman, this is the great prosperity that bechanced on me, and this is propriety in its entirety that bechanced on me, as a result of your arrival. [1-18-58b, c]
iti hṛdaya sukham niśaṃya vākyam
śruti sukham ātmavatā vinītam uktam |
prathita guṇa yaśā guṇaiḥ viśiṣṭaḥ
parama ṛṣiḥ paramam jagāma harṣam || 1-18-59
59. aatmavataa = by high-minded Dasharatha; iti = this way; viniitam uktam = humbly, when said; hR^idaya sukham shruti sukham = for heart, pleasing, for ears, pleasing; vaakyam nishamya = words, on hearing; prathita guna yashaa = one who is renowned, [for his personal] attributes, and reputation; guNaiH vishiSTaH = by his qualities, exceptional one; parama R^iSiH = the sublime, sage [Vishvamitra]; paramam harSam jagaama = high, rejoice, he obtained.
On hearing the words of high-minded Dasharatha, said that way in all his humbleness, and those that are pleasant to ears as well to heart, he who is a renowned for his personal attributes and a reputed one by his exceptional qualities, that sublime sage Vishvamitra obtained high rejoice. [1-18-59]
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādikāvye bāla kāṇḍe aṣṭādaśaḥ sargaḥ
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