Divine sage Narada arrives at the hermitage of Sage Valmiki in order to enlighten him and keep him informed of his duty to author the epic poem Ramayana. In the dialogue between these two sages, Valmiki elicits from Narada about most virtuous person on earth, namely Rama. In this opening chapter, while eulogizing Rama Narada gives an outline of Ramayana, truly highlighting those aspects that are the keynotes in this epic, like virtuosity, generosity, morality, chastity and the like.
Valmiki Ramayana is said to have been composed basing on each of the twenty-four letters of Gayatri Hymn, and a thousand verses are arranged into one book under the caption of each letter. Though that classification, or dividing verses into thousand chapters is unavailable now, the twenty-four verses identified with the 24 letters of Gayatri hymn, called as Gayatri Ramayana, is available and it is given in the endnote of this page. In tune with the scheme of Gayatri, Ramayana starts the first verse with letter ta an auspicious letter.
तपःस्वाध्यायनिरतं तपस्वी वाग्विदां वरम् |
नारदं परिपप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर्मुनिपुङ्गवम् || १-१-१
1. tapasvii = The ascetic; vaalmiikiH = (Poet) Valmiki;paripapracCha = inquired; naaradam = Naarada; tapaH-svaadhyaaya-niratam = deeply engaged in austerity and study of Vedas; varam = (and) best; vaagvidaam = among enunciators; muni-pungavam = (and) eminent among sages (as follows:);
The ascetic Valmiki inquired Naarada who engaged deeply in austerity and study of Vedas, best among the eloquent and eminent among sages (as follows:). [1-1-1]
The epic starts with the word auspicious word ta as said in ta kaaro vighna naashakaH, ta kaaro saukhya daayakaH...
को न्वस्मिन् साम्प्रतं लोके गुणवान् कश्च वीर्यवान् |
धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च सत्यवाक्यो दृढव्रतः || १-१-२
2. asmin loke = in this, world; saampratam = presently; guNavaan = virtuous person; kaH nu = who is, really; viiryavaan ca = vigorous, also; kaH = who is; dharmaj~naH ca = conscientious, also; kR^itaj~naH ca = one who is mindful of good deeds done to him also ; satya-vaakyaH = speaker of truth; dR^iDha-vrataH = determined in his deed.
"Who really is that person in this present world, who is virtuous and vigorous, a conscientious one, one who is mindful of good deeds done to him, and also a speaker of truth and who is determined in his deed... [1-1-2]
चारित्रेण च को युक्तः सर्वभूतेषु को हितः |
विद्वान् कः कः समर्थश्च कश्चैकप्रियदर्शनः || १-१-३
3. kaH chaaritreNa ca yuktaH = appropriate in disposition; kaH sarva-bhuuteSu hitaH = who is interested in welfare of all beings; kaH vidvaan = who is an adept one; samarthaH ca = an able one also; kaH ca eka-priya-darshanaH = who is also uniquely pleasant to look at.
"Who is appropriate in disposition... who is interested in welfare of all beings... who is adept and also an able one... also uniquely pleasant to look at... [1-1-3]
The adeptness of that person is in his knowing all the knowable aspects in this world, and he must be able to retain that knowledge to translate into his deeds, not just to sit back with his bookish knowledge, but with utmost practicality. His conduct-wise character shall be acceptable i.e., by his lineage he shall be noble, by his education he must be well-read, by his actions they must be conducive to norms laid down in Veda-s, and thus given any area, he should conduct himself properly. And he must be benign not only to higher-ups but to lowly subjects, like Guha, Shabari et al., and he should deal with wrongdoers and right-doers conscientiously. Further, he in his mien he shall be pleasant, but not an unsightly one. The word eka also means 'unique' and thus his complexion, facial, physical structures etc., shall be unique and shall differ from ordinary beings. kShaNe kShaNe yat navataam upaiti tadeva ruupam ramaNiiyataayaaH 'which / what / who gets newness moment by moment, that alone is pleasant...'
आत्मवान् को जितक्रोधो द्द्युतिमान् कोऽनसूयकः |
कस्य बिभ्यति देवाश्च जातरोषस्य संयुगे || १-१-४
4. aatmavaan = self-composed; kaH = who is; jita-krodhaH = one with controlled ire; dyutimaan = brilliant one; anasuuyakaH = not jealous; kaH = who is; jaata-roSasya = with anger born; kasya = of whom; saMyuge = in war; devaaH ca = gods even; bibhyati = are afraid.
"Who is that self-composed one, who controlled his ire, who is brilliant, non-jealous and whom do even the gods fear, when provoked to war... [1-1-4]
एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं परं कौतूहलं हि मे |
महर्षे त्वं समर्थोऽसि ज्ञातुमेवंविधं नरम् || १-१-५
5. etat aham shrotum icChaami = all this I wish to listen; me kautuuhalam param hi = my inquisitiveness is immense indeed; maharShe= Oh! Great Sage - Narada; tvam = you; samarthaH asi = are competent; j~nnaatum = to know; evam vidham naram = [about] this kind of man.
"All this I wish to listen from you, oh! Great Sage, you are competent to know this kind of man, and indeed my inquisitiveness is immense..." Thus Valmiki enquired with Narada. [1-1-5]
Valmiki wanted to know about that man - a man with godly qualities. Valmiki is thinking aloud, about the qualities of his prospective hero of this epic and these are the very opening questions put to an Omniscient Sage Narada. Both the sages know of Rama and his deeds. Even then Valmiki asks Narada, "who is that man with godly qualities?' If Narada tells that Rama is Vishnu Himself, there is nothing left for Valmiki to compose his epic, because there are numerous mythologies, puraaNa-s, that have already adored God Vishnu. If Narada tells that Rama is so-and-so king, again Valmiki need not attempt to author about some king, however great that king might be.
The attributes of the hero of Ramayana, as required by Valmiki, are 16; sixteen in number.1 - guNavaan 2 - viryavaan 3 - dharmaj~naH 4 - kR^itaj~naH 5 - satya vaakyaH 6 - dhR^iDha vrataH 7 - caaritra vaan 8 - sarva bhuuteShu hitaH 9 - vidvaan 10 - samarthaH - 11 - priyadarshana 12 - aatmavaan 13 - jita krodhaH 14 - dyutimaan 15 - anasuuyakaH 16 - bibhyatidevaaH These sixteen attributes are attributed to the sixteen phases of the Full Moon, and Valmiki is about to picture Rama to be as pleasant as a full-moon.
श्रुत्वा चैतत्त्रिलोकज्ञो वाल्मीकेर्नारदो वचः |
श्रूयतामिति चामन्त्र्य प्रह्रुष्टो वाक्यमब्रवीत् || १-१-६
6. triloka-j~naH = familiar with the three worlds; naaradaH = Narada; etat vachaH shrutvaa = on listening to all those words; vaalmiikeH = of Valmiki; shruuyataam = let it be heard; iti = thus; aamantrya cha = beckoning [Valmiki,] also; prahR^iSTaH = being delighted; vaakyam abraviit = spoke (these) words.
On listening all those words of Valmiki, Narada, the knower of all the three worlds, said "let it be heard..." and beckoning at Sage Valmiki to listen attentively, he spoke these words very gladly. [1-1-6]
Narada is cognizant of three worlds, where the three worlds are bhuu loka, bhuvar loka, suvar loka this world, the intermediary heaven, the heavens themselves.
बहवो दुर्लभाश्चैव ये त्वया कीर्तिता गुणाः |
मुने वक्ष्याम्यहं बुद्ध्वा तैर्युत्तः श्रूयतां नरः || १-१-७
7. mune = oh, sage Valmiki; bahavaH = many; ca durlabhaaH = and unattainable; eva = indeed; ye guNaaH = whichever merits; tvayaa kiirtitaaH = extolled by you; naraH = man; taiH yuktaH = who has these merits; aham buddhvaa = I, after knowing; vakshyaami = I will speak; shruuyataam = Let it be heard.
"Oh! Sage Valmiki, the merits which you have extolled are many, and unattainable. I, after having known from Brahma of such a man with all these merits, will speak on...Let it be heard." Thus Narada started to say. [1-1-7]
Narada came hither to impart the legend of Rama, as Brahma already imparted the same to him, and wanted him to impart these very attributes to Valmiki to compose Ramayana. It is a coincidence of interests Valmiki and those of Narada and Brahma.
इक्ष्वाकुवंशप्रभवो रामो नाम जनैः श्रुतः |
नियतात्मा महावीर्यो द्युतिमान् धृतिमान् वशी || १-१-८
8. ikshvaaku-vamsha-prabhavaH = Born in Ikshvaku dynasty; raamaH naama = One named Rama; janaiH shrutaH = has been heard by people; niyataatmaa = with a controlled self; mahaa-viiryaH = highly valorous one; dyutimaan = resplendent one; dhR^ithimaan = steadfast; vashii = controller [of vice and vile [or,] senses.]
"One emerged from Ikshvaku dynasty, known to people as Rama by name. He is with a controlled self, highly valorous, resplendent, steadfast and a controller of (vice and vile... or) his own senses. [1-1-8]
For the attributes explained by Narada there are some Vedanta imports. From niya aatma to vashii these are the attributes of the Supreme Being, Absolute of Brahman. swaruupa nirupaka lakshNaaH . This niyata aatmaa is 'immutable Absolute, this is the postulate of any Upanishad: ya aatmaa apahata paapmaa virajo vimR^ityur vishoko... 8-7-1, Chaandoj~na Upanishad. mahaa viiryaH = acintya vividha vicitra shaktivataH Absolute is Omnicompetent paraa asya shaktiH vividhaa iva shruuyate svaabhaavikii j~naana bala kriyaa ca 6-8, Shwetaashvatara Upanishad. The word dyutimaan is for the attribute of Self-Resplendent Absolute, or, Resplendence of Consciousness. tam eva bhaantam anubhaati sarvam tasya bhaasaa sarvam idam bhaati 2-11, Mundaka Upanishad. And the dhR^ithimaan is Sublime Bliss, according to Vyjanti dhR^itiH tu tuSTiH santoSaH and as said in aanando brahama - aanandaat eva khalu imaani bhuutaani jaayante 6, Taittariiya Upanishad. Next, vashii Absolute is the Omnipotent on the entire Universe. eko vahii sarva bhuuta antaraatmaa 2-5-12, Katha Upanishad and sarvasya vashii sarvasya iishaanaH and the like. The rest of the attributes of Rama as said by Narada are identifiable with the causative factors of that Absolute in Creation, and the process of Creation is the self-expression of the Absolute.
बुद्धिमा न्नीतिमान्वाग्मी श्रीमान् शत्रुनिबर्हणः |
विपुलांसो महाबाहुः कम्बुग्रीवो महाहनुः || १-१-९
9. buddhimaan = wise; niitimaan = moralist; vaagmii = eloquent; shriimaan = glorious one; shatru nibharhaNaH = destroyer of enemies; vipula-amsaH = broad shouldered; mahaa-baahuH = with lengthy arms; kambugriivaH = with three lines in the neck [indicative of good fortune]; mahaa-hanuH = high cheek bones.
"He is a wise one, moralist, eloquent, glorious, and a destroyer of enemies. His arms are lengthy, with three lines in the neck [indicative of good fortune], and cheekbones high... [1-1-9]
The Absolute is an adept one in creating the Creation yat sarvaj~naH sarva vit. He is niitimaan one who maintains the rhythm of universe as said at eSa setuH vidharaNa eSaam loka naama sambhedaaya... He is propitious because shriiH kaanti saMpadoH lakshmyaam... gleaming, glistering richness of prosperity emanates from him. The following stanzas describe the physical qualities an Emperor should have by birth, as per saamudrika shaastra, the physiognomic treatise of astrology.
महोरस्को महेष्वासो गूढजत्रुररिंदमः |
आजानुबाहुः सुशिराः सुललाटः सुविक्रमः || १-१-१०
10. mahoraskaH = broad chested; maheShvaasaH = [one who handles] long bow; guuDha-jatruH = with concealed collarbones [thick shouldered]; ariMdamaH = enemy subjugator; aajaanu-baahuH = with long arms; su-shiraaH = with a high [crowning] head; su-lalaaTaH = with ample forehead; su-vikramaH = with a good gait.
"He is lion-chested, with concealed collarbones, knee-length are his arms, and his is a long bow, an enemy-subjugator, and his emperor's countenance is with a crowning-head and an ample forehead, and his gait is majestic like that of a lion... [1-1-10]
When his physique is extolled, suddenly a weapon is said, in saying that 'his is longbow...' this is called prakrama bhanga doSa 'jump-cut in narration...' It is not so, his lengthy arms are said firstly and those arms can wield a great bow that can eliminate enemies, both physical and psychological ones like ariSaD varga shatru like desire, ire, avarice, conceit etc., as detailed in verse 4 above.
समः समविभक्ताङ्गः स्निग्धवर्णः प्रतापवान् |
पीनवक्षा विशालाक्षो लक्ष्मीवान् शुभलक्षणः || १-१-११
11. samaH = Built in right proportion (physically); sama-vibhakta-aN^gaH = with symmetrically divided limbs; snigdha-varNaH = charmingly coloured [complexioned]; prataapavaan = courageous one [or, resplendent one]; piina-vakshaaH = sinew chested; vishaalaakshaH = wide eyed; lakshmiivaan = prosperous one; shubha-lakshaNaH = with auspicious features.
"He is built proportionately physically, with limbs poised symmetrically, sinew-chested, wide-eyed, complexioned charmingly... he is a prosperous one with all the auspicious features ... [1-1-11]
Up to here the godly physical aspect bhagavad vigraha is explained that which is perceptible by the adherents as said in Chaandoj~na Upanishad: ya eSo antaraaditye hiraNmayaH puruSo dR^ishyate... 1-6-6. From now on, the features that are reliable for the adherers are said.
धर्मज्ञः सत्यसन्धश्च प्रजानां च हिते रतः |
यशस्वी ज्ञानसंपन्नः शुचिर्वश्यः समाधिमान् || १-१-१२
12. dharmaj~naH = rectitude knower; satya-sandhaH ca = truth-bidden also; prajaanaam ca hiterataH = also concerned in welfare of subjects; yashasvii = famed one; j~naana-saMpannaH = with proficient prudence; suchiH = clean [in conduct]; vashyaH = self-controlled; samaadhimaan = attentive one.
"He is the knower of rectitude, bidden by the truth, also his concern is in the welfare of subjects, proficient in prudence, clean in his conduct, self-controlled and an attentive one... [1-1-12]
प्रजापतिसमः श्रीमान् धाता रिपुनिषूदनः |
रक्षिता जीवलोकस्य धर्मस्य परिरक्षिता|| १-१-१३
13. prajaapatisamaH = equals the Lord of creatures; dhaataa = Sustainer (Lord Vishnu); shriimaan = (together) with Sri Lakshmi ; ripuniShuudanaH = Eliminator of enemies; jiivalokasya-rakshitaa = Protector of the world of living creatures; dharmasya parirakshitaa = complete Guardian of probity.
"He equals Lord Vishnu, the Lord of all creatures, Sustainer of the Universe, together with Sri Lakshmi (shriimaan = lakShmiivaan), Eliminator of enemies, Protector of the world of living creatures and complete Guardian of probity... [1-1-13]
The word रक्षिता is the Nominative Singular of रक्षितृ and means Protector. Please note that prajaapatiH can be applied to Vedic Gods as well as to Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Maheswara.
Here we consider Rama as equalling the Supreme God Lord Vishnu who is the One with Goddess Sri Lakshmi and also the sustainer. prajaapatiH is thus being translated as Lord Vishnu. Please note that we are
deviating from traditional translations of prajaapatiH as Lord Brahma here and this is intentional.
'These features show the aspects of Rama's incarnation...' Govindaraja. 'These features are available only in the Supreme Person, but unobtainable in any other...' Maheshvara Tiirtha. These two, Govindaraja and Maheshvara Tiirtha are reputed commentators on Ramayana among many others.
रक्षिता स्वस्य धर्मस्य स्वजनस्य च रक्षिता |
वेदवेदाङ्गतत्त्वज्ञो धनुर्वेदे च निष्ठितः || १-१-१४
14. svasya dharmasya rakshitaa = preserver of his own righteousness; sva-janasya ca rakshitaa = champion of his own people also; veda-vedaaN^ga-tatvaj~naH = scholar in essence (of) Veda-s and ancillaries; niSTitaH = an expert; dhanur vede ca = in the science of archery.
"He is the preserver of his own righteousness and also a champion for adherent's welfare in the same righteousness, and he is a scholar in the essence of Veda-s and their ancillaries, too. He is an expert in dhanur Veda, the Art of Archery... [1-1-14]
These are the ancillary subjects of Vedas called anga part and upa anga sub-part. The main parts of Veda-s are siksha ritual rigor vyakarana grammar chandas prosody jyotish astroloj~n nirukta recital rules kalpa procedure rules. This apart, the dhanur veda science of archery, itself is treated as 'an exclusive Veda taught to warriors...' The danur Veda is not to be construed as simple bow and arrow and 'shooting the target' education. It is a 'scripture on missiles' that existed in those ages.
Down the memory lane, O. A.Vijayan, the eminent Indian journalist has reflected in The Illustrated Weekly of India, that the Soviet scholar Dr. A. A. Gorbovsky said in his article with heading Ancient India may have had N-arms , in the Statesman, with dateline Moscow, Sept. 8, 1986. Among other things, the scientist observes by the stanzas that describe the disaster caused by such astra-s, now loosely termed as a well crafted bow and sky rocketing arrows, as below:
'A blazing shaft which possessed all the effulgence of smokeless fire was let off... all directions were enveloped by darkness... the very elements seemed to be perturbed... the sun seemed to turn... the universe, scorched with heat, seemed to be in fever... the survivors lost their hair and nails... for years the sun and sky remained shrouded with clouds...'
Thus the narration goes on. This is the account of Brahma astra, as in Maha Bharata, the other Epic of India. Thus the Dhanur Veda may be taken as the canon of missile sciences, which fortunately has not been handed over to the successive generations, lest everything would have been annihilated by now. In Ramayana too, which is much earlier to Mahabharata, there are elaborate accounts of such astra-s in the coming chapters. Sage Vishvamitra, who is well-versed in warfare, gives many such weapons to Rama. For now, these bow and arrow references may not be taken as those of Robin Hood.
सर्वशास्त्रार्थतत्त्वज्ञः स्मृतिमान् प्रतिभानवान् |
सर्वलोकप्रियः साधुरदीनात्मा विचक्षणः || १-१-१५
15. sarva-shaastra-artha-tattva-j~naH = cognizant of the essence and meaning of all the scriptures; smR^itimaan = one with excellent memory; pratibhaanavaan = a brilliant one;sarva-loka-priyaH = dear to all worlds; saadhuH = gentle; adiinaatmaa = undepressed in spirit [level-headed even in severe trouble]; vichakSaNaH = clear-headed [in discriminating and distinguishing.]
"He is the knower of the meaning and essence of all the scriptures, excellent at memory, a brilliant one, and dear to all the worlds, gentle, level-headed and clear-headed in discriminating and distinguishing... [1-1-15]
सर्वदाभिगतः सद्भिः समुद्र इव सिन्धुभिः |
आर्यः सर्वसमश्चैव सदैवप्रियदर्शनः || १-१-१६
16. samudra sindhubhiH iva = like an ocean by rivers; sarvadaa abhigataH = always accessible; sadbhiH = by clean-minded ones; aaryaH = noble one; sarva-samaH ca eva = and also treats all equally; sadaa eva priya-darshanaH = indeed ever a feast to the eye.
"Like an ocean that is reached by rivers, that reverential one too is always accessible and reachable by clean-minded ones, and he treats all equally, and ever a feast to eye... [1-1-16]
Here it is said 'he is reachable by all clean-minded ones...' satpravartana, sadbudhhi... and those that approach him with a sacrilegious intent, will meet their end at his hand. sarva samaH means, that he does not discriminate people by their caste, creed, or by that individual's philosophy etc., like tribal boatman Guha, low-birthed Shabari, and nihilist Sage Jaabaali et al. jaati guNa vR^itti aadi bheda a+bhaavaat And the word eva in saa eva priya darshanaH indicates 'always...' 'unvarying in his demeanour with anyone...' Govindaraja. And by the simile of ocean to Rama, for rivers there is no other course except an ocean; thus, the living beings, may it be humans or birds like Jataayu, have no other recourse than Rama.
स च सर्वगुणोपेतः कौसल्यानंदवर्धनः |
समुद्र इव गाम्भीर्ये धैर्येण हिमवानिव || १-१-१७
17. kausalyaa aananda-vardhanaH = One who betters Kausalya's [his mother's] happiness; saH ca = he (is) also; sarva guNopetaH = embodied with all [noble] merits; gaambhiirye samudraH iva = like an ocean in profundity - his inmost heart is unfathomable like an ocean; dhairyeNa himavaan iva = by fortitude Himavanta [Himalayan] mountain like.
"He who betters the happiness of his mother Kausalya is an embodiment of all noble merits, and in profundity he is like an unfathomable ocean, and by fortitude he is unalterable like the kingly Himalayan mountain... [1-1-17]
At times Rama is said to be 'the son of Kausalya...' than the son Dasharatha, because the word Kausalya does not signify his mother alone, the daughter of King of Kosala, but it has meanings like kshema, kushala, saamarthya, puNya, nipuNatva 'safeness, soundness, capability, merit, expertise...' and this also signifies Queen Kausalya's worshipping of Vishnu. When dynasty, valour, braveness etc., are said, Rama's name will be attached with Dasharatha. An ocean is not a bottomless one but an unfathomable one. So also Rama's heart has a reachable bottom, where pearls, gems, and other treasures of virtues are abounding, and it can be reached with a heartily approach. For a hard-hearted one, Rama's heart becomes an unfathomable abyss and he will get lost in it. girayoH varSha dhaaraabhir haryamaanaa na vivyadhuH | abhibhuuya maanaa vyasanaiH yathaa adhokShaja cetasaa || 'true devotees do not get hassled though subjected to many problems, for they place their faith in the Supreme. Equally, mountains are unshaken though battered by storms or lightings...' So, like a mountain he is unalterable and constant for a true devotee. An icy-mountain is meltable by scorching sun, thus Rama also melts down when his adherents are scorched with their problems.
विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शनः |
कालाग्निसदृशः क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसमः || १-१-१८
धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः |
18, 19a. viirye = in valour; vishNunaa sadR^ishaH = comparable to Vishnu; somavat priya-darshanaH = attractive in look like the moon; krodhe = in anger; kaala-agni-sadR^ishaH = matchable to the world ending fire; kShamayaa pR^ithvii samaH = equals to the Earth in forgiveness; tyage = in benevolence; dhanadena samaH = equal to Kubera [God of Wealth]; satye = in candour; aparaH = with no rival; dharmaH iva = like Truth personified.
"In valour Rama is comparable to Vishnu, and in his looks he is attractive like the moon, he equals the earth in his forgiveness, but he is matchable to world ending fire in his wrath... and in benevolence he is identical to Kubera, God of Wealth, and in his candour he is like Dharma itself, the Truth personified, with none to rival him... [1-1-18, 19a]
Here the 'valour' is to cause harm to enemy, while remaining himself unharmed... svasya a-vikaara eva parasya vikaara aapadanam Rama Tilaka. 'Though Rama is Vishnu, but by nature of his incarnation as human, he is different from Vishnu upaadhi bheda... Hence Vishnu has become another entity than Rama... Or, his valour is selfsame to Vishnu's valour because he is selfsame Vishnu...' Govindaraja. 'As there is none other in similitude, he is compared Vishnu, insofar as valour is concerned...' Maheshvara Tiirtha. Earth personally does not grieve when people tread on it, trample, dig, cut, or whatever is done to her. Likewise Rama personally gets unaffected, whatever harm is done to him, but he becomes wrathful, if that harm is committed to dharma.
Thitherto, the Bala Kanda is narrated by these narrations of sparkled in Ikshvaku dynasty 'Rama's incarnation...' highly valorous, enemy subjugator... 'elimination of demoness Tataka, subdual of the vanity of Parashu Rama...' propitious 'marriage with Seetha, knows Art of Archery 'receiving missiles from Vishvamitra...' From now poet tells the Ayodhya Kanda, and a gist of this magnum opus is given here itself. This narration is known as baala raamayana - saMskhepa raamyana meaning that it is aimed at youngsters as it has been told in an abridged version. In the endnote, details about this version and still abridged version, called Gayatri Ramayana, are given.
Readers may find an inordinate use of ellipses in translation of the epic. But they are 'a must.' Pt. Satya Vrat, the author of Ramayana - A Linguistic Study says: "Ellipsis is the peculiarity of the style of the older works like Ramayana... their writings, as they stood, yielded incomplete sense which has to be supplemented by adhyaadhaara, viz., supply of words, that would fit in the context... Indeed, in most cases the ellipsis could be readily understood and would suggest the word or words that would make it up...' We therefore request the readers to go by the meaning of the context, than by the order of words, for there is a saying... paaTha krame artha kramo baliiyaH... So, this adhyaadhaara, supply of words, may not be that faithful while rendering from Sanskrit to English.
तमेवंगुणसम्पन्नं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् || १-१-१९
ज्येष्ठं श्रेष्ठगुणैर्युक्तं प्रियं दशरथस्सुतम् |
प्रकृतीनां हितैर्युक्तं प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया || १-१-२०
यौवराज्येन संयोक्तुमैच्छत् प्रीत्या महीपतिः |
19b, 20, 21a. mahiipatiH dasharathaH = Lord of the land King Dasaratha; prakR^iti-priya-kaamyayaa = with an intent for doing good to the people; priityaa = affectionately; aicChhat = desired; saMyoktum = to endow with; yauva-raajyena = regent-hood; tam raamam = to that Rama; jyeSTham sutam = the eldest son; priyam = a dear one [to Dasaratha]; evaM guNa-saMpannam = [who was] possessor of such like merits; satya-paraakramam = with true valour; shreSTa-guNaiH-yuktam = together with best of qualities; prakR^itiinaam hitaiH yuktam = concerned for welfare of the people.
"Lord of the land King Dasaratha with an intent for doing good to the people, affectionately desired to endow with regent-hood to that Rama, the eldest and a dear son to Dasaratha and who possessed such merits with true valour, together with best of qualities, and concerned for welfare of the people....[1-1-29b, 20, 21a]
तस्याभिषेकसंभारान् दृष्ट्वा भार्याथ कैकयी || १-१-२१
पुर्वं दत्तवरा देवी वरमेनमयाचत |
विवासनं च रामस्य भरतस्याभिषेचनम् || १-१-२२
21b, 22. atha = then; dR^iShTvaa = seeing; tasya = his - Rama's; abhishheka-saMbhaaraan = anointment [as crown prince] arrangements; bhaarya devii kaikeyi = (Dasaratha's) [dear] wife queen Kaikeyi; puurvam datta-varaa = having been with previously given boons; ayaachata = solicited; raamasya vivaasanam = Rama's, exile; bharatasya abhiSechanam ca = and Bharata's, anointment; varam enam = (as) boons from him [Dasaratha].
"Then seeing the arrangements for the anointment of Rama as crown-prince, Kaikeyi, the dear wife and a queen of Dasaratha, solicited boons that were once accorded to her by Dasharatha, for the banishment of Rama and anointment of Bharata as boons. [1-1-21b 22]
स सत्यवचनाद् राजा धर्मपाशेन संयतः |
विवासयामास सुतं रामं दशरथः प्रियम् || १-१-२३
23. saH raajaa dasharathaH = That king Dasaratha; saMyataH = bound; dharma-paashena = by noose of virtuousness; satya-vacanaat = by his true (plighted) word; vivaasayaamaasa = exiled; priyam sutam raamam = dear son Rama; .
"Bound by his true plighted word and by the noose of righteousness that king Dasharatha exiled his dear son Rama to forests. [1-1-23]
स जगाम वनं वीरः प्रतिज्ञामनुपालयन् |
पितुर्वचनिर्देशात् कैकेय्याः प्रियकारणात् || १-१-२४
24. saH viiraH = that warrior [Rama]; kaikeyyaaH priya-kaaraNaat = by reason of pleasing Kaikeyi; anu paalayan = (and) to follow;pratij~naam = promise - his own pledge to adhere to his father's word, or, promise of his father to Kaikeyi; pituH vacana-nirdeshaat = by father's directive; vanam jagaama = went to forest.
"That warrior Rama went to forest for pleasing Kaikeyi, and as directed by his father, and to follow his father's word of honour. [1-1-24]
तं व्रजन्तं प्रियो भ्राता लक्षमणोऽनुजगाम ह |
स्नेहात् विनयसम्पन्नः सुमित्रानन्दवर्धनः || १-१-२५
भ्रातरं दयितो भ्रातुः सौभ्रात्रमनुदर्शयन् |
25, 26a. lakshmanaH = Lakshmana; vinaya-saMpannaH = endowed with humbleness; priyaH bhraataa = a loving brother; bhraatuH dayitaH = (and) dear to brother [to Rama]; sumitraa aananda-vardhanaH = augmentor [of his mother] Sumitra's joy; saubhraatram anudarshayan = showing [brotherly] fraternity; snehaat anujagaama ha = followed [Rama] out of affection;vrajantam tam bhraataram = while that brother [Rama] was going [to forest].
"While that Rama was going on exile, Lakshmana, endowed with humbleness, and augmentor of his mother Sumitra's joy, and an loving and a dear brother to Rama, followed him out of affection, showing brotherly fraternity.[1-1-25, 26a]
व्रजन्तम् is an accusative case of व्रजत् with व्रज् as its root.
रामस्य दयिता भार्या नित्यं प्राणसमा हिता || १-१-२६
जनकस्य कुले जाता देवमायेव निर्मिता |
सर्व सर्वलक्षणसम्पन्ना नारीणामुत्तमा वधूः || १-१-२७
सीताप्यनुगता रामं शशिनं रोहिणी यथा |
26b, 27, 28a. siitha api = Even Seetha; vadhuuH = daughter-in-law [of Dasharatha]; raamasya dayitaa bhaaryaa = (and) Rama' beloved wife; praaNa-samaa = equal to life (of Rama); nityam hitaa = ever well disposed one; jankasya kule jaataa = born in the family of Janaka; nirmitaa deva-maayaa iva = as though fashioned by divine marvel; sarva-lakshaNa-saMpannaa = possessor of all characteristics [befitting to an ideal lady]; nariiNaam uttamaa = the best one among women; raamam anugataa = followed Rama; rohiNii shashinam yathaa = like Rohini with Moon.
"Even Seetha, daughter-in-law of Dasaratha, and Rama's beloved wife equalling to Rama's life, ever well disposed, born in the family of Janaka and one as though fashioned by a Divine marvel, endowed with all good characteristics and the best among women, followed Rama to forest, like Rohini following the Moon... [1-1-26b, 27, 28a]
Here deva maaya refers to many concepts. Vaishnavaite tenets tell that the word deva is ascribable only to Vishnu, but not to other gods. Thus, this is Vishnu maya, when He assumed an extraordinary female form called Mohini, when distributing amR^ita, the divine elixir, to gods and demons. Next is the form of Tilottama, a divine beauty to hoodwink demons called Sunda and Upasunda. The other is Vishnu's liilaa shakti, which is divinely fascinating. Yet another is grammatical connotation, maa yaa where, maa= Goddess Lakshmi; yaa= who that is; meaning yaa siitaa saa maa= 'who is Goddess Lakshmi... She is Seetha...' and this results in the saying: ati ruupavatii siitaa... ati muurkhaH cha raavaNa 'While Seetha is extraordinarily beautiful, Ravana is exceedingly stupid...
The deities have their wives always with them. Chandra, the Moon has Rohini, a conspicuous star, while Surya, Sun has Prabha, Sunshine. Minus these wives, their glow and glitter is void. So also, Rama has an inseparable wife. Though Seetha and Lakshmana were not exiled, they followed Rama out of concept of 'togetherness...'
पौरैरनुगतो दूरं पित्रा दशरथेन च || १-१-२८
शृङ्गिबेरपुरे सूतं गंगाकूले व्यसर्जयत् |
गुहमासाद्य धर्मात्मा निषादाधिपतिं प्रियम् || १-१-२९
गुहेन सहितो रामो लक्ष्मणेन च सीतया |
28b, 29, 30a. anugataH = followed; pauraiH = by citizens; pitraa dasharathena ca = and by father Dasaratha; duuram = for a long distance; dharma-aatmaa raamaH = virtuous Rama; aasaadya = reached;nishhaada-adhipatim = tribal chief; guham = Guha; priyam = who liked him; gangaa-kuule = on River Ganga's bank; sR^iN^giberapure = in [a town called] Sringaberapura; guhena lakshmaNena siitayaa ca sahitaH = together with Guha, Lakshmana and Seetha; vyasarjayat = (he) left off; suutam = the charioteer.
"The citizens of Ayodhya and his father Dasaratha followed virtuous Rama for a distance when he started on his exile. Later Rama reached the tribal chief named Guha, who liked Rama, on the bank of River Ganga in a town called Sringaberapura. Together with Guha, Lakshmana and Seetha, he left off the charioteer. [1-1-28b, 29, 30a]
ते वनेन वनं गत्वा नदीस्तीर्त्वा बहूदकाः || १-१-३०
चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात् |
रम्यमावसथं कृत्वा रममाणा वने त्रयः || १-१-३१
देवगन्धर्वसंकाशास्तत्र ते न्यवसन् सुखम् |
30b, 31, 32a. te = they; vanena vanam gatvaa = going from forest to forest; bahu-udakaan nadiiH tiirtva = crossed rivers with much waters; bharadvaajasya shaasanaat = by ordainment of sage Bharadwaja; chitrakuuTam anupraapya = arriving at Chitrakuta; ramyam avasatham kR^itvaa = building (lit. manufacturing) a handsome habitation; te trayaH = they the trio; sukham nyavasan = happily lived; tatra = there [at Chitrakuta]; vane ramamaaNaa = in the woods delightfully; deva-gandharva-saMkaashaaH = like gods and gandharvas.
"That trio of Seetha, Rama and Lakshmana after going from forest to forest and crossing many a river with much waters, by the ordainment of Bharadwaja, arrived at Chitrakuta, and building a handsome cottage there, they lived happily and delightfully in the woods there, like gods and gandharvas... [1-1-30b, 31, 32a]
In another way the meaning is: te avane 'they, protecting each other...' te ramamaaNaaH ' those two Rama and Seetha, frolicsomely delighted, enjoyed the essence of forest dwelling...' saMkaashaa similar to Vishnu or Narayana's enjoyment of kriiDaa rasa 'the essence of His playful acts...' and Lakshmana enjoyed the essence of his servitude sevaa rasa and where deva = devii ca devaH ca devau 'either goddess or god... it but the Almighty...' gandharva = gaanam dhaarayati iti gandharva - jiivan muktaH attaining liberation while living, thus Lakshmana rejoiced with his singing of saama gaana of Sama Veda....' And they rejoiced without feeling any difference between city dwelling and forest dwelling... as every part of Universe is theirs.
In another way tevane vanam gatvaa 'playfully, to forests, they went...' It is a play for them to enter the forest to resolve the purpose of Ramayana and their incarnations.
चित्रकूटं गते रामे पुत्रशोकातुरस्तदा || १-१-३२
राजा दशरथः स्वर्गं जगाम विलपन् सुतम् |
32b, 33a. gate raame = On gone Rama; chitrakuuTam = to Chitrakuta; tathaa = thus [tadaa = then]; raajaa dasharathaH = King Dasaratha;svargam jagaama = went to heavens [died]; putra-shokaaturaH = tormented by grief for his son; sutam vilapam = while weeping for his son;
"On Rama going to Chitrakuta thus, King Dasharatha tormented by the grief for son, went to heavens weeping for son... [1-1-32b, 33a]
The word 'thus' in the Sloka, is according to the text of Govindaraja. Maheshvara Tiirtha's text will have 'then'.
मृते तु तस्मिन् भरतो वशिष्ठप्रमुखैर्द्विजैः || १-१-३३
नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद् राज्यम् महाबलः |
स जगाम वनम् वीरो रामपादप्रसादकः || १-१-३४
33b, 34. tasmin mR^ite = On his (Dasaratha's) dying; bharataH tu = though Bharata; raajyaaya niyujyamaanaH = had been appointed for kingship; vasiSTha-pramukhaiH dvijaiH = by Sage Vasishta and other prominent Brahmanas; mahaa-balaH = (that) highly mighty one; raajyam na icChat = did not desire kingdom; saH viiraH = that warrior; vanam jagaama = went to forest; raama-paada-prasaadakaH = (to) propitiate the venerable Rama.
"On Dasaratha's dying, though Bharata had been appointed for kingship by Sage Vashishta and other Brahmanas, that highly mighty one did not desire kingdom. That warrior Bharata went to forest to propitiate the venerable Rama... [1-1-33b. 34]
गत्वा तु स महात्मानम् रामम् सत्य पराक्रमम् |
अयाचद् भ्रातरं राममार्यभावपुरस्कृतः || १-१-३५
त्वमेव राजा धर्मज्ञ इति रामं वचोऽब्रवीत् |
35, 36a. saH = That Bharata; aarya-bhaava-puraskR^itaH = possessed of a worthy way of thinking [to get Rama installed as king]; gatvaa = on going;raamam = to Rama; bhraataram raamam ayaachat = begged [his] brother Rama;mahaatmaanam = to the great souled one; satya-paraakramam = to truly courageous one; raamam = To [such] Rama; vachaH abraviit iti = [Bharata] spoke words in this manner; tvam eva = you alone; dharma-j~naH = the knower of probity; raajaa = [be the] king;
"That Bharata, possessed of a worthy way of thinking [to get Rama installed as king], on going to Rama, begged his brother Rama, a great souled one and a truly courageous one. Bharata spoke words in this manner to Rama - "You alone, the knower of probity, be the king." ... ' [1-1-35, 36a]
tu is omitted in the translation since it is there for the purpose of paada puuraNa.
रामोऽपि परमोदारः सुमुखः सुमहायशाः || १-१-३६
न चैच्छत् पितुरादेशाद् राज्यं रामो महाबलः |
36b, 37a. api = even though; raamaH = Rama; parama udaaraH = (was) very benevolent; sumukhaH api = gracious also; su-mahaa-yashaH = highly famed; mahaa-balaH ca = and with great prowess; raamaH = Rama; pituH aadeshaat = due to father's injunction; na icChat = did not desire; raajyam = kingdom.
"Even though Rama was very benevolent, gracious also, highly famed and with great prowess, Rama did not desire kingdom due to father's injunction... [1-1-36b, 37a]
पादुके चास्य राज्याय न्यासं दत्त्वा पुनः पुनः || १-१-३७
निवर्तयामास ततो भरतं भरताग्रजः |
37b, 38a. tataH = Thereafter; punaH punaH = repeatedly; bharatam nivartayaamaasa = turning Bharata back; bharataagrajaH = [Rama] the elder brother of Bharata; paaduke dattvaa= giving (the two) wooden shoes; asya = to him [to Bharata]; cha nyaasam = and entrusting [them]; raajyaaya = for (the sake of) kingdom.
"Thereafter, repeatedly turning Bharata back, the elder brother, Rama, gave his wooden shoes to Bharata and entrusting them to represent him for the sake of kingdom. [1-1-37b, 38a]
स काममनवाप्यैव रामपादावुपस्पृशन् || १-१-३८
नन्दिग्रामेऽकरोद राज्यं रामागमनकांक्षया |
38b, 39a. saH = That Bharata; kaamam anavaapya eva = (with a) desire not fulfilled thus; raama-paadau upaspR^ishan = touching Rama's sandals (representing Rama's feet); raama-aagamana-kaankshayaa = with an expectation of Rama's arrival; nandigraame akarot raajyam = ruled the kingdom in Nandigraama.
"That Bharata, thus with a desire unfulfilled, ruled the kingdom from Nandigrama, touching Rama's sandals representing feet of Rama, with an expectation of Rama's arrival... [1-1-38b, 39a]
गते तु भरते श्रीमान् सत्यसन्धो जितेन्द्रियः || १-१-३९
रामस्तु पुनरालक्ष्य नागरस्य जनस्य च |
तत्रागमनमेकाग्रो दण्डकान् प्रविवेश ह |१-१-४०
39b, 40. bharate gate tu = However, after Bharata left; raamaH = Rama; shriimaan = the splendid one;satya-sandhaH = truth-bound one; jitendriyaH = one with conquered senses; aalakshya = on anticipating; punaH tatra aagamanam = re-arrival there [Chitrakoota]; naagarasya janasya ca = of citizens and (other) people; ekaagraH = (to be) undisturbed; pravivesha ha = [he] then entered; daNDakaan = Dandaka forests.
"On the departure of Bharata, that splendid Rama, truth-bound, and self-controlled, anticipated the repeated visits of citizens and other people. To be undisturbed, Rama then entered Dandaka forests... [1-1-39b, 40]
The translation of ekaagraH as "undisturbed" is done according to the context of Rama's anticipation that there might be repeated visits from various people to Chitrakuta and entreaties from them for Rama to return to Ayodhya. Normally ekaagraH is translated as "single-pointed attention". Govindaraja explains ekaagraH with respect to following father's injunction or being alert to increased presence of Rakshasas.
प्रविश्य तु महारण्यं रामो राजीवलोचनः |
विराधं राक्षसं हत्वा शरभङ्गं ददर्श ह || १-१-४१
सुतीक्ष्णं चाप्यगस्त्यं च अगस्त्यभ्रातरं तथा |
41, 42a. raajiiva-lochanaH raamaH = Rama the lotus-eyed one; mahaaaranNyam pravishya = on entering the vast forest; viraadham raakshasam hatvaa = and on killing the demon Viradha; dadarsha ha = indeed beheldsharabhaN^gam sutiikshNam ca api = Sage Sharabhanga and also Sage Suteekshna; agastyam ca = and Sage Agastya; tathaa = likewise; agastya-bhraataram = Agastya's brother.
"That lotus-eyed Rama, on his entering the vast Dandaka forest, killed the demon Viraadha, and indeed beheld Sage Sharabhanga and also Sage Suteekhsna, Sage Agastya and likewise Sage Agastya's brother... [1-1-41, 42a]
The name of Agastya's brother is Sudarshana, and he will never be called by his own name, but will be called as agatsya bhraata, brother of Agastya.
tu is omitted in the translation since it is there for the purpose of paada puuraNa.
अगस्त्यवचनाच्चैव जग्राहैन्न्द्रं शरासनम् || १-१-४२
खड्गं च परमप्रीतस्तूणी चाक्षयसायकौ |
42b, 43a. agastya-vachanaat ca eva = And according to Sage Agastya's word alone; jagraaha = [Rama] received parama-priitaH = greatly delighted; sharaasanam = a bow; khadgam ca = also a sword; tuuNii ca = (and) also two quivers; akshaya-saayakau = with ever replenishing arrows; aindram = of Indra.
"On Sage Agastya's word, Rama, with great delight, received from Agastya, Indra's bow along with the sword and two quivers with ever replenishing arrows... [1-1-42b, 43a]
वसतस्तस्य रामस्य वने वनचरैः सह || १-१-४३
ऋषयोऽभ्यागमन् सर्वे वधायासुररक्षसाम् |
43b, 44a. vasataH = (During) the stay; tasya raamasya = of that Rama; vane = in the forest; sarve R^ishayaH = all sages; vanacharai saha = together with [other] forest dwellers; abhyaagaman = approached [Rama]; asura-rakshasaam vadhaaya = for the killing of ogres and demons; .
"During Rama's stay in the forest, all the sages together with other forest dwellers, approached him for the elimination of ogres and demons... [1-1-43b, 44a]
स तेषां प्रतिशुश्राव राक्षसानां तथा वने || १-१-४४
प्रतिज्ञातश्च रामेण वधः संयति रक्षसाम् |
ऋषीणामग्निकल्पानां दण्डकारण्यवासिनाम् || १-१-४५
44b, 45. saH = he [that Rama]; pratishushraava = listened [or agreed]; tathaa = [to] that supplication; teSaam = of those [sages]; raakshasaanaam vane = in the forest of demons; pratij~naataH ca = A promise also [was made]; raameNa = by Rama; R^iShiiNaam = to the sages; agni-kalpaanaam = who equalled the fire; daNDakaaraNya-vaasinaam [ca] = [and] living in the Dandaka forest; vadhaH ca = [about] killing also; rakShasaam = of the demons; saMyati = in combat.
"He [Rama] agreed to that supplication of those sages dwelling in the forest of demons. A promise was also made by Rama to the sages who equalled the fire and who were living in that Dandaka forest about killing of the demons in combat... [1-1-44b, 45]
The word asura is as from asuuna raati iti asura: asu = life; ra= taker; i.e., life takers - demons, while the word sura is nectar consuming one, the divine. In later chapters of this canto, accounts are given as how these were created and named.
तेन तत्रैव वसता जनस्थाननिवासिनी |
विरूपिता शूर्पणखा राक्षसी कामरूपिणी || १-१-४६
46. vasataa = while living by Rama; tatra eva = there [in that Dandaka forest] only; shuurpaNakhaa = Shuurpanakha; raakshasii = a demoness; kaama-ruupiNi = [who can] assume desired form; janasthaana-nivaasinii = a resident of Janasthana [a portion of Dandaka forest]; viruupitaa = was disfigured; tena = by him [Rama].
"While Rama was living there in the Dandaka forest, a guise-changing demoness named Shuurpanakha, who was a resident of Janasthana, a portion of Dandaka forest, was disfigured by him... [1-1-46]
Readers are referred to the verse 3-18-20 where Rama asks Lakshmana to deface Shuurpanakha who carries out the act of cutting the nose and ears of this demoness, which is the turning point of the story. From this verse it is clear that Rama is instrumental in the disfiguring of Shuurpanakha.
Shuurpanakha is so named because her fingernails are like winnowing fans, shuurpa tulya nakhaa iti shuurpanakha; shuurpa= winnowing fan; tulya = like; nakhaa = fingernails. She is the sister of Ravana the main antogonist of the epic, and she is the actual trouble creator in the epic.
ततः शूर्पणखावाक्यादुद्युक्तान् सर्वराक्षसान् |
खरं त्रिशिरसं चैव दूषणं चैव राक्षसम् || १-१-४७
निजघान रणे रामस्तेषां चैव पदानुगान् |
47, 48a. tataH raamaH raNe nijaghaana = Then Rama in a battle killed; udyuktaan sarva-raakshasaan = all zealously active demons; shuurpanakhaa-vaakyaat = [incited] by Shuurpanakha's words; kharam = [including] Khara; trishirasam ca eva = and Trishira; duuSaNam raakshasam ca eva = and the demon Duushana; teSaam pada-anugaan ca eva = and their foot followers.
"Then in a battle, Rama killed all demons who became zealously active incited by Suurphanakha's words, including the demons Khara, Trishira, Duushana together with all of their foot-followers... [1-1-47, 48a]
We are ignoring in translation the एव part of चैव and translating the word चैव as "and".
वने तस्मिन्निवसता जनस्थाननिवासिनाम् || १-१-४८
रक्षसां निहतान्यासन् सहस्राणि चतुर्दश |
48b, 49a. tasmin vane nivasataa = During his stay in that forest; caturdashasahasraaNi = fourteen thousand; janasthaana-nivaasinaam rakshasaam = inhabitant demons of Janasthana; nihataanyaasan = became slain.
"During Rama's stay in that forest, fourteen thousand demon inhabitants of Janasthana became slain... [1-1-48b, 49a]
ततो ज्ञातिवधं श्रुत्वा रावणः क्रोधमूर्छितः || १-१-४९
सहायं वरयामास मारीचं नाम राक्षसम् |
49b, 50a tataH = Thereafter; raavaNaH = Ravana; j~naati-vadham shrutvaa = on hearing the slaughter of [his] kinsmen; krodha-muurChitaH = convulsed in anger; sahaayam varayaamaasa = [and] sought to get the help; maariicham naama raakshasam = [of] a demon named Maareecha.
"Then, on hearing the slaughter of his kinsmen, Ravana convulsed in anger and sought to get the help of a demon named Maareecha... [1-1-49b, 50a]
Ravana is the supremo of demons and the main antagonist in this epic. His name is Dashagriiva, meaning that he has ten heads. This name 'Ravana' obtains from the root ru - shabde raavayati iti raavaNaH 'one who makes people cry by his violent actions...' and it also means vishravasaH apatyam pumaan raavaNaH, vishravaso vishravaNa ravaNau 'the son of one named Vishravasa...' Govindaraja.
वरयामास is the लिट् लकार of of the root वर (see आत्मनेपदी form)
वार्यमाणः सुबहुशो मारीचेन स रावणः || १-१-५०
न विरोधो बलवता क्षमो रावण तेन ते |
50b, 51a. saH raavaNaH = he that Ravana; vaaryamaaNaH = [was] restrained; su-bahushaH= very many times;mariichena = by Maareecha [thus:]; raavaNa = Oh! Ravana; virodhaH = rivalry; balavataa tena = with that formidable Rama; te na kshamaH = [is] not appropriate of you;
"But Maareecha restrained Ravana telling him many times, 'Oh, Ravana! Rivarly with that formidable Rama is not appropriate of you...' [1-1-50b, 51a]
अनादृत्य तु तद्वाक्यं रावणः कालचोदितः || १-१-५१
जगाम सहमारीच स्तस्याश्रमपदं तदा |
51b, 52a. anaadR^itya tu = but regardless; tat vaakyam = [of] that speech; raavaNaH kaala-chodita = Ravana impelled by [his own] fate; tadaa = then; jagaama = went;tasya aashrama-padam = [to] the place of Rama's hermitage; saha-maariichaH = along with Maareecha;
"Then disregarding Maareecha's words and impelled by his own fate, Ravana advanced to the place of Rama's hermitage along with Maareecha... [1-1-51b, 52a]
तेन मायाविना दूरमपवाह्य नृपात्मजौ || १-१-५२
जहार भार्यां रामस्य गृध्रं हत्वा जटायुषम् |
52b, 53a. apavaahya = after taking away; nR^ipa-aatmajau = the sons of king; duuram = to a distance; tena mayaavinaa = by that trickster; raamasya bhaaryaam jahaara = [Ravana] stole Rama's, wifejaTaayuSam gR^idhram hatvaa = after killing Jatayu; .
"After taking away of Rama and Lakshmana to a distance by the trickster Maareecha, Ravana stole Rama's wife after killing Jatayu... [1-1-52b, 53a]
गृध्रं च निहतं दृष्ट्वा हृतां श्रुत्वा च मैथिलीम् || १-१-५३
राघवः शोकसन्तप्तो विललापाकुलेन्द्रियः |
53b, 54a. raaghavaH = Raghava; nihatam gR^idhram dR^iSThvaa = on seeing the smitten vulture Jatayu; maithiliim hR^itaam shR^itvaa ca = and also on hearing about Mythili's [Seetha's] abduction; vilalaapa = wailed; akulendriyaH = with disturbed senses; shoka-santaptaH = seething with angish.
"Raghava on seeing the smitten Jatayu and also on hearing about Seetha's abduction, wailed with disturbed senses, seething with anguish ... [1-1-53b, 54a]
ततस्तेनैव शोकेन गृध्रं दग्ध्वा जटायुषम् || १-१-५४
मार्गमाणो वने सीतां राक्षसं संददर्श ह |
कबन्धं नाम रूपेण विकृतं घोरदर्शनम् || १-१-५५
54b, 55. tataH = then; tena shokena eva = with that state of anguish; gR^idhram jaTaayushham dagdhvaa = after cremating the vulture Jatayu; vane siitaam maargamaaNaH = while searching [for] Seetha in that forest; saMdadarsha ha = indeed saw; kabandham naama raakshasam = a demon named Kabandha; ruupeNa vikR^itam = deformed in looks; ghora-darshanam = with a terrible appearance .
"Rama then cremated that vulture Jataayu with that state of anguish, and while searching for Seetha in forest, he indeed saw a demon named Kabandha, deformed in his looks and with a terrible appearance... [1-1-54b, 55]
तं निहत्य महाबाहुर्ददाह स्वर्गतश्च सः |
स चास्य कथयामास शबरीं धर्मचारिणीम् || १-१-५६
श्रमणीं धर्मनिपुणामभिगच्छेति राघव |
56, 57a. mahaa-baahuH = [Rama with] great arms; tam nihatya = after slaying Kabandha; dadaaH = cremated [Kabandha]; saH svargataH ca = and he [Kabandha] obtained the heaven; sa ca kathayaamaasa iti = he spoke thus;asya = to him [to Rama]; raaghava = Oh, Raghava!; abhigachchha = you proceed; shabariim = to Shabari; dharma-caariNiim = a lady with righteous conduct; dharma-nipuNaam = she who is an expert in probity; shramanaam = a devotee.
"That Rama with great arms after slaying Kabandha, cremated him and Kabandha obtanined heaven. Before going to heaven, he spoke thus to Rama: 'Oh Raghava! You proceed to Sabari, a lady with righteous conduct, an expert in probity and a devotee.'... [1-1-56, 57a]
सोऽभ्यगच्छन्महातेजाः शबरीं शत्रुसूदनः || १-१-५७
शबर्या पूजिताः सम्यग्रामो दशरथात्मजः |
57b, 58a. saH mahaa-tejaaH = That great resplendent; dasharatha-aatmajaH raamaH = Rama the son of Dasaratha; shatru-suudanaH = an anhillator of enemies; shabariim abhyaagachchhat = approached Sabari; shabaryaaH samyak puujitaH = [and] was thorughly honoured by Sabari.
"That great resplendent Rama, the son of Dasaratha, an anhillator of enemies, approached Sabari and was thoroughly honoured by her... [1-1-57b, 58a]
Next verse onwards the episodes in Kishkindha are introduced. Now Rama meets Hanuma, the Vaanara. vanena= in forests, charati= moves about, iti= thus; therefore vaanara = 'forest-ranger' is the declination of the term Vaanara. Traditionally Hanuma is worshipped as a god.
पम्पातीरे हनुमता सङ्गतो वानरेण ह || १-१-५८
हनुमद्वचनाच्चैव सुग्रीवेण समागतः |
58b, 59a. pampaa-tiire = On the banks of Pampa; hanumataa vaanareNa sangataH ha = [Rama was] indeed united with the Vanara Hanuma; hanumat vachanaat ca eva = and upon Hanuma's word; samaagataH = met; sugriiveNa = with Sugreeva.
"Rama was united indeed with the Vanara Hanuma on the banks of Lake Pampa, and upon the word of Hanuma, Rama met with Sugreeva... [1-1-58b, 59b]
सुग्रीवाय च तत्सर्वं शंसद्रामो महाबलः || १-१-५९
आदितस्तद्यथावृत्तं सीतायाश्च विशेषतः |
59b, 60a. mahaaa-balaH raamaH = The highly powerful Rama; shamshat = detailed; aaditaH = from the beginning; tat sarvam = all that; yathaa-vR^ittam = as had happened; visheshhataH siithaayaaH ca = and in particular [the abduction] of Seetha; sugriivaaya ca = to Sugreeva [and to Hanuma] also.
"The highly powerful Rama detailed from the beginning all that happened, and in particular the abduction of Seetha, to Sugriva and to Hanuma also... [1-1-59b, 60a]
Here the use of 'highly powerful...' for Rama is to indicate that though he himself was capable enough to eliminate Ravana, but as a human, he needed some agency, since humans in such difficulties are usually in need of a helping hand. As such, Rama had to befriend Sugreeva and it was necessary to narrate all sad episodes to his friend.
सुग्रीवश्चापि तत्सर्वम् श्रुत्वा रामस्य वानरः || १-१-६०
चकार सख्यम् रामेण प्रीतश्चैवाग्निसाक्षिकम् |
60b, 61a. vaanaraH sugriivaH ca api = The Vanara Sugreeva also; tat sarvam shrutvaa = after listening to all that [talk]; raamasya = of Rama; sakhyam chakaara = made friendship [with Rama]; priitaH = delighted; agni-saakshikam ca eva = with fire [flaring auspicious fire] as witness also thus.
"The Vanara Sugreeva after listening to all that talk of Rama made friendship with Rama delightedly with sacred fire as witness... [1-1-60b, 61a]
ततो वानरराजेन वैरानुकथनं प्रति || १-१-६१
रामायावेदितं सर्वं प्रणयाद्दुःखितेन च |
61b, 62a. tataH = then; praNayaat = out of affection; aaveditam = [the incident] was related; vaira-anukathanam prati = with regard to [Sugreeva's] enemity [with Vali]; sarvam = [in its] entirety; duHkhitena vaanara-raajena = by the Vanara King with grief; raamaaya = to Rama.
"Then out of affection, the incident was related with regard to Sugreeva's enemity with Vali in its entirety by the Vanara King with grief to Rama ... [1-1-61b, 62a]
प्रतिज्ञातं च रामेण तदा वालिवधं प्रति || १-१-६२
वालिनश्च बलं तत्र कथयामास वानरः |
62b, 63a. tadaa = then; pratij~naatam = a solemn promise; raameNa = [was made] by Rama; vaali-vadham prati = with regards to killing of Vali; tatra = in that regard; vaanaraH = Vanara Sugreeva; kathayaamaasa = described; vaalinaH balam ca = Vali's strength also.
"Then a solemn promise was made by Rama with regards to killing of Vali. In that regard Vanara Sugreeva also described Vali's strength... [1-1-62b, 63a]
Vali, the elder brother of Sugreeva, is another principle character of Ramayana. He is capable of rendering oblations to gods in the wee hours of a single day in four oceans on four sides of the globe, by his flying from one ocean to the other. He is mightier than Ravana, the chief villain of the epic, and Ravana iwas subdued by Vali's strength. As a preamble to the incident of eliminating mighty Ravana in the last book of the epic, this episode of eliminating a still mightier monkey is the stepping-stone for the climactic victory.
सुग्रीवः शङ्कितश्चासीन्नित्यं वीर्येण राघवे || १-१-६३
राघवप्रत्ययार्थं तु दुन्दुभेः कायमुत्तमम् |
दर्शयामास सुग्रीवो महापर्वतसन्निभम् || १-१-६४
63b, 64. tu = But; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; nityam shankitaH aasiit = remained ever doubtful; raaghave = with respect to Raghava; viiryeNa = about [Rama's] prowess; sugriivaH = Sugreeva; darshayaamaasa = showed; dundubheH = Dundubhi's; uttamam = big ; mahaa parvata sannibham = great mountain like; kaayam = body; raaghava-pratyaartham = to gain confidence in Raghava.
"But Sugreeva remained ever doubtful with respect to Raghava, about Raghava's prowess. Sugreeva showed Dundubhi's big and great mountain-like dead body to gain confidence in Raghava... [1-1-63b, 64]
Vali had at one time killed Dundubhi and kicked his body over a long distance.
उत्स्मयित्वा महाबाहुः प्रेक्ष्य चास्थि महाबलः |
पादाङ्गुष्ठेन चिक्षेप सम्पूर्णं दशयोजनम् || १-१-६५
65. mahaa-baahuH = Great armed; mahaa-balaH = [and] very powerful [Rama]; prekshya = after seeing; asti = the bone; utsmayitvaa = smiling ; ca paadaa-anguSThena [anguSTa agreNa] = and by the big toe of his foot; chikshepa = threw [it];sampuurNam dasha-yojanam = wholly for ten yojana-s length.
Great armed and very powerful Rama after seeing the bones of Dundubhi smiled and by the big toe of his foot threw it wholly for ten yojana-s length. [1-1-65]
Vali was able to throw that body, with whole of his foot, only up to two hundred bow-lengths, where the length of bow is said as six to seven feet. But Rama could kick that heap to ten yojana lengths, roughly ninety miles, only with a flip of his foot-toe's tip. But Sugreeva continued his grumbling, 'in those days this skeleton was with flesh and blood, now it became weight-less, thus show me more of your show of strength...' One Yojana is an ancient measure for distance, where that distance is covered in one yoking. Chambers dictionary puts it as five miles, and it is not agreeable for it was British-Indian revenue measure. Traditionally it is four krosha-s and thus each yojana is nine to ten miles.
Govindaraja cleaves the compound utsmayitvaa to ut smayitvaa and takes ut 'to up...' and fixes it to cikshepa to mean ut cikshepa 'up-heaved and hurled...' and smayitva comes to mean 'smiling self-assuredly, or smiling self-composedly...' And Maheshvara Tiirtha says that 'when all-wise-knowers are not able to know what I am, there is no surprise if a monkey in a remote forest doubts my capability... let him see a speck of it...' thus Rama smiled in aplomb...'
And the often repeated epithet to Rama mahaa baahuH means not just 'yards and yards of lengthy arms...dangling up to knees..' but 'one who does unimaginable deeds...' and his arms are the unusual instruments to perform such unusual tasks, hence ambidextrous, or omni-dextrous...
बिभेद च पुनः सालान् सप्तैकेन महेषुणा |
गिरिं रसातलं चैव जनयन् प्रत्ययं तदा || १-१-६६
66. tadaa = Then; punaH = again; ekena maheshuNaa = with one great arrow; bibheda = [Rama] ripped [through]; sapta saalaan = seven sala trees; girim ca = and a mountain; rasaatalam ca eva = and subterranean earth; pratyayam janayan = to create faith [in the mind of Sugreeva]
"Then again Rama ripped through seven massive Sala trees with only one great arrow, which not only went through the trees but also rent through a mountain, and to the nethermost subterranean of earth, in order to create faith in the mind of Sugreeva... [1-1-66]
The rasaatala is deepest subterranean plane, and it forms the base of other planes of earth called, atala, vitala, sutala, talaatala, mahaatala, rasaatala underneath the surface of earth up to its core.
ततः प्रीतमनाश्चैव विश्वस्तश्च महाकपिः |
किष्किन्धां रामसहितो जगाम च गुहां तदा || १-१-६७
67. tataH = Thereafter; mahaa-kapiH = great monkey [Sugreeva]; priita-manaaH = [with a] gladdened heart; tena = by it [that act of Rama]; guhaam kishhkindhaam jagaama ca = proceeded to cave-like Kishkindha; tadaa = then; raama-sahitaH = along with Rama; vishvataH ca = and with confidence [in Rama's strength].
"Thereafter great monkey Sugreeva with a gladdened heart by that act of Rama, proceeded to cave-like Kishkindha then along with Rama and with confidence in Rama's strength... [1-1-67]
ततोऽगर्जद्धरिवरः सुग्रीवो हेमपिङ्गळः |
तेन नादेन महता निर्जगाम हरीश्वरः || १-१-६८
68. tataH = then; hari-varaH sugriivaH = [that] best among monkeys Sugreeva; hema-piN^galaH = with a golden hue; agarjat = roared; tena mahataa naadena = By that loud sound; hariishwara = king of monkeys[Vali]; nirjagaama = emerged out.
"Then that best monkey Sugreeva, with a golden hue, made a roaring sound. By that loud sound, the king of monkeys, Vali, emerged out... [1-1-68]
अनुमान्य तदा तारां सुग्रीवेण समागतः |
ननिजघान च तत्रैनं शरेणैकेन राघवः || १-१-६९
69. tadaa = then; taaraam anumaanya = after Tara permitting; sugriiveNa samaagataH = [Vali] met with Sugreeva [in a combat]; raaghavaH ca = and Rama; ekena shareNa nijaghaana = with one arrow only killed;enam = this Vali; tatra = there.
"Then after Tara [wife of Vali] permitting, Vali met with Sugreeva in a combat. And Rama killed this Vali with a single arrow there... [1-1-69]
ततः सुग्रीववचनाद्धत्वा वालिन माहवे |
सुग्रीवमेव तद्राज्ये राघवः प्रत्यपादयत् || १-१-७०
70. tataH = then; raaghavaH = Raghava; sugriiva-vachanaat = from Sugreeva's plea; aahave vaalinam hatvaa = after killing Vali in a combat; tat raajye = in that kingdom; pratyapaadayat = [Rama] installed; sugriivam eva = Sugreeva alone [as king].
"Then Raghava after killing Vali in a combat as per Sugreeva's plea, installed Sugreeva alone as the king of Vanaras.. [1-1-70]
स च सर्वान् समानीय वानरान् वानरर्षभः |
दिशः प्रस्थापयामास दिदृक्षुर्जनकात्मजाम् || १-१-७१
71. saH vaanararShabhaH = That best among monkeys; sarvaan vaanaraan samaaniiya = after summoning all Vanaras; dishaH prasthaapayaamaasa = dispatched [them] in different directions; didR^ikshuH = to behold; janaka-aatmajaam = Janaka's daughter.
"That best among monkeys, Sugreeva, after summoning all Vanaras, dispatched them in different directions to behold the daughter of Janaka... [1-1-71]
Sugreeva was acclaimed to be a strict disciplinarian, and his orders were inviolable by anyone. Even now the proverbial saying exists that a "command by elders is to be followed like sugreeva aaj~na 'Sugreeva's order'.
ततो गृध्रस्य वचनात्संपातेर्हनुमान् बली |
शतयोजनविस्तीर्णं पुप्लुवे लवणार्णवम् || १-१-७२
72. tataH = after that; balii hanumaan = the strong Hanuma; saMpaateH gR^idhrasya vachanaat = upon the word of the vulture Sampati; pupluve = flew [across]; lavaNaarNavam = the salty ocean; shata-yojana-vistiirNam = one hundred yojanas in breadth.
"After that, the strong Hanuma, upon the word of the vulture Sampati who was elder brother of Jatayu, flew across the salty ocean one hundred yojanas in breadth... [1-1-72]
तत्र लङ्कां समासाद्य पुरीं रावणपालिताम् |
ददर्श सीतां ध्यायन्तीमशोकवनिकां गताम् || १-१-७३
73. lankaam puriim samaasaadya = After reaching the city Lanka; raavaNa-paalitam = ruled by Ravana; dadarsha = [Hanuma] saw; siithaam = Seetha; gataam = situated; tatra = there; dhyaayantiim = meditating [on Rama alone]; ashoka-vanikaam = in Ashoka gardens.
"On reaching the city of Lanka ruled by Ravana, Hanuma saw Seetha situated in Ashoka gardens there and meditating on Rama alone... [1-1-73]
निवेदयित्वाभिज्ञानम् प्रवृत्तिम् च निवेद्य च |
समाश्वास्य च वैदेहीम् मर्दयामास तोरणम् || १-१-७४
74. nivedayitvaa = After delivering [to Seetha]; abhij~naanam = mark of identification [ring of Rama]; pravR^ittim ca nivedya ca = and also communicating [Rama's] disposition; vaidehiim samaashvaasya ca = and consoling Vaidehi; mardayaamaasa = [Hanuma] destroyed; thoraNam = the welcome-arch [of Ashoka gardens];.
"After delivering to Seetha the mark of identification in the form of a ring from Rama and also communicating Rama's disposition and consoling Vaidehi, Hanuma destroyed the welcome-arch of Ashoka gardens... [1-1-74]
पञ्च सेनाग्रगान् हत्वा सप्त मन्त्रिसुतानपि |
शूरमक्षम् च निष्पिष्य ग्रहणं समुपागमत् || १-१-७५
75. hatvaa = After killing; pa~nca sena-agragaan = five army chiefs; sapta mantri-sutaan api = and seven minister's, sons; shuuram aksham ca niSpiSya = and crushing valiant Aksha; grahaNam samupaagamat = Hanuma got into state of captivity.
"After killing five army chiefs and seven minister's sons and crushing the valiant Aksha, Hanuma got into state of captivity... [1-1-75]
अस्त्रेणोन्मुक्तमात्मानं ज्ञात्वा पैतामहाद्वरात् |
मर्षयन्राक्षसान्वीरो यन्त्रिणस्तान्यदृच्छया || १-१-७६
ततो दग्ध्वा पुरीं लङ्कामृते सीतां च मैथिलीम् |
रामाय प्रियमाख्यातुं पुनरायान्महाकपिः || १-१-७७
76,77. j~natvaa = Knowing; aatmaanam = himself; astreNonmuktam = to be free from the [captivity of] weapon; paitaamahaat varaat = from Brahma's, boon; viiraH = the valiant; mahaa-kapiH = great monkey [Hanuma]; taan raakshasaan marSayan = enduring those demons; yadR^ichchhayaa = with self-will; yantriNaH = who tied [ his tail with ropes]; tataH = there-after; lankaam puriim dagdhvaa = burning the city of Lanka; R^ite ca = and leaving; maithiliim siithaam = the Seetha of Mithila; punaH aayaat = got back again; raamaaya priyam-aakhyaatum = to convey the pleasant [news] to Rama.
"Knowing himself to be free from the captivity of the weapon according to Brahma's boon, the valiant great monkey Hanuma enduring those demons with self-will who tied his tail with ropes with the intention of burning it, there after burning the city of Lanka while leaving from fire the Seetha of Mithila, got back again to convey the pleasant news to Rama ... [1-1-76, 77]
This is in sundara kaanDa. Hanuma sees Ravana and others in the court, and as a show of his strength burns down Lanka except the place where Seetha is stationed, only to prove that the riches and wealth enjoyed at the cost others will burn down to ashes some day, besides Vibheeshana's place, for Vibheeshana is the adherer of Dharma. This episode is to relegate the false pride of Ravana, and as a symbolic suggestion that pomp and effluence without virtue are short lived.
सोऽभिगम्य महात्मानं कृत्वा रामं प्रदक्षिणम् |
न्यवेदयदमेयात्मा दृष्टा सीतेति तत्त्वतः || १-१-७८
78. abhigamya = Approaching; mahaa-aatmaanam raamam = the great Rama; pradakshiNam kR^itvaa = performing circumambulation [around Rama]; saH = he [Hanuma]; ameyaatmaa = having an inestimable intelligence; nyavedayat = submitted; tattvataH = in essence; iti = thus; siithaa dR^iShTaa = seen Seetha.
"Approaching the great Rama and peforming circumambulation around Rama, Hanuma having an inestimable intelligence, submitted in essence thus: 'Seen Seetha...' [1-1-78]
ततः सुग्रीवसहितो गत्वा तीरं महोदधेः |
समुद्रं क्षोभयामास शरैरादित्यसन्निभैः || १-१-७९
79. mahodadheH tiiram gatvaa = On going to the Ocean's shore; tataH sugriiva-sahitaH = there-after together with Sugreeva; samudram kshobhayaamaasa = [Rama] put the Ocean-god to turmoil; aaditya-sannibhaiH sharaiH = with arrows comparable to the Sun.
"There-after, Rama along with Sugreeva and other monkeys went to the shore of Great Ocean, and put the Ocean-god to turmoil with his arrows comparable to the Sun... [1-1-79]
Rama became angry at the ocean for not yielding way to Lanka. In order to make way through the Ocean, Rama starts depleting its waters with arrows.
दर्शयामास चात्मानं समुद्रः सरितां पतिः |
समुद्रवचनाच्चैव नलं सेतुमकारयत् || १-१-८०
80. saritaam patiH samudraH = Ocean-god the lord of the rivers; aatmaanam darshayaamaasa = revealed himself; samudra-vachanaat ca eva = and upon the words of the Ocean-God; nalam setum akaarayat = Nala built the bridge [across the ocean].
"The Ocean-god revealed himself and upon his word, Nala built the bridge across the ocean... [1-1-80]
Nala, a Vanara engineer, had a boon from his mother. In his childhood he used to throw playthings into water wanting them to float. But they were all submerged. His mother then gave a boon to him saying that whatever article he throws in waters will float, may they be toys or stones or boulders. Here that boon is taken advantage of, and a boulder bridge is built on ocean waters.
तेन गत्वा पुरीं लङ्कां हत्वा रावणमाहवे |
रामः सीता मनुप्राप्य परां व्रीडामुपागमत् || १-१-८१
81. raamaH = Rama; lankaam puriim gatvaa = having gone to the city of Lanka;tena = by that [bridge]; aahave raavaNam hatvaa = killing Ravana in a battle; siitaam anupraapya = on getting Seetha back; paraam vriiDaam upaagamat = experienced great shame.
"Rama, having gone to the city of Lanka by that bridge, killing Ravana in a battle, experienced great shame on getting Seetha back... [1-1-81]
तामुवाच ततो रामः परुषं जनसंसदि |
अमृष्यमाणा सा सीता विवेश ज्वलनं सती || १-१-८२
82. tataH = there-after; raamaH = Rama; jana-saMsadi = in the assembly of the people; paruSam uvaaca = spoke harshly; taam = to her; saa siitaa = that Seetha; satii = [being] devoted to her husband; amR^ishhyamaaNaa = intolerant [of the harsh words of Rama]; jvalanam vivesha = entered into burning fire.
"There-after, Rama spoke harshly to Seetha in the assembly of the people. Being devoted to her husband, that Seetha, intolerant of the harsh words of Rama, entered into burning fire... [1-1-82]
ततोऽग्निवचनात्सीतां ज्ञात्वा विगतकल्मषाम् |
कर्मणा तेन महता त्रैलोक्यं सचराचरम् || १-१-८३
सदेवर्षिगणं तुष्टं राघवस्य महात्मनः ||
बभौ रामः संप्रहृष्टः पूजितः सर्व दैवतैः || १-१-८४
83. tataH agni-vachanaat = Then upon the word of the Fire-god; j~natva = having known; siitaam = Seetha; vigata-kalmaSaam = to be sinless; raamaH = Rama; samprahR^isTaH = became extremely glad; puujitaH = worshipped;sarva devataiH = by all gods; babhau = became resplendent; mahataa tena karmaNaa = by that great accomplishment - of eliminating Ravana; mahaatmanaH raaghavasya = of the great Raghava; trailokyam = the three worlds; sacharaacharam = together with all beings; sa-devarShi-gaNam = with groups of gods and sages; tuSTham = [became] exultant.
"Then, upon the word of Fire-god, having known Seetha to be sinless, Rama became extremely glad. Worshipped by all gods he became resplendent. By that accomplishment of the great Raghava the three worlds together with mobile and immobile beings, and with groups of gods and sages became exultant... [1-1-83, 84]
अभिषिच्य च लङ्कायां राक्षसेन्द्रं विभीषणम् |
कृतकृत्यस्ततो रामो विज्वरः प्रमुमोद ह || १-१-८५
85. raamaH = Rama; la~Nkaayaam abhishhichya = anointing in Lanka; vibhiishhaNam = Vibheeshana; raakshasendram = as demons' chieftain; tadaa = then; kR^ita-kR^ityaH = [Rama] with a done deed; pramumoda = [became] highly rejoiced; vijvaraH= free from distress; ha = indeed.
"Enthroning Vibheeshana as the chieftain of demons in Lanka, and with a done deed, Rama then rejoiced highly indeed free from distress... [1-1-85]
देवताभ्यो वरं प्राप्य समुत्थाप्य च वानरान् |
अयोध्यां प्रस्थितो रामः पुष्पकेण सुहृद्-वृतः || १-१-८६
86. devataabhyaH varam praapya = after obtaining a boon from the gods;raamaH = Rama; samutthaapya ca = raised [up from death]; vaanaraan = monkeys; ayodhyaam prasthitaH = [he] travelled to Ayodhya; pushhpakeNa = by Pushpaka aircraft; suhR^it-vR^itaH = surrounded by good hearted ones.
"After obtaining a boon from the gods, Rama raised up monkeys from death. He then travelled to Ayodhya by Pushpaka aircraft surrounded by good hearted ones... [1-1-86]
भरद्वाजाश्रमं गत्वा रामः सत्यपराक्रमः |
भरतस्यान्तिकं रामो हनूमन्तं व्यसर्जयत् || १-१-८७
87. raamaH = Rama; satya-paraakramaH = with true valour; bharadvaaja-aashramam gatvaa = on going to Sage Bharadwaja's hermitage; hanuumantam vyasarjayat = sent Hanuma; bharatasya antikam = to the presence of Bharata.
"Rama, with true valour, on going to sage Bharadwaja's hermitage, sent Hanuma to the presence of Bharata... [1-1-87]
पुनराख्यायिकां जल्पन् सुग्रीवसहितश्च सः |
पुष्पकं तत्समारुह्य नन्दिग्रामं ययौ तदा || १-१-८८
88. sugriiva-sahitaH = Together with Sugreeva; saH = He [Rama]; aakhyaayikaam jalpan = narrating past history; punaH = again;tat pushhpakam samaaruuhya = having boarded that Pushpaka aircraft; nandigraamam yayau = went to Nandigrama; tadaa = then.
"Then, having boarded Pushpaka aircraft again after leaving the hermitage of Bharadwaja, and narrating past history to Sugreeva and others about the events in the days of his exile in forests, while flying overhead of the very same places, Rama went to Nandigrama... [1-1-88]
नन्दिग्रामे जटां हित्वा भ्रातृभिः सहितोऽनघः |
रामः सीतामनुप्राप्य राज्यं पुनरवाप्तवान् || १-१-८९
89. anaghaH raamaH = sinless Rama; bhraatR^ibhiH sahitaH = together with brothers; nandigrame = in Nandigrama; jaTaam hitvaa = removing matted-hair; siitaam anupraapya = after getting back Seetha; punaH raajyam avaaptavaan = regained the kingdom again.
"That sinless Rama rejoining with all of his brothers in the village Nandigrama removed his matted hair. Thus he, on regaining Seetha and on discarding hermit's role again became a householder, and he regained his kingdom also... [1-1-89]
प्रह्नष्टमुदितो लोकस्तुष्टः पुष्टः सुधार्मिकः |
निरामयो ह्यरोगश्च दुर्भिक्षभयवर्जितः || १-१-९०
90. [tataH = then, when Rama is enthroned]; lokaH = world will be; prahR^isTa-muditaH = highly rejoiced and happy; tuSThaH = satisfied; puSThaH = abundant; su-dhaarmikaH = very righteous; niraamayaH = wholesome; arogaH = without diseases; durbhiksha-bhaya-varjitaH = free from fear of famine.
"When Rama is ruling the world will be highly rejoiced and happy, satisfied and abundant, also very righteous, wholesome, disease-free, and free from fear of famine..." Thus Narada is foreseeing the future and telling Valmiki. [1-1-90]
न पुत्रमरणं किंचिद्द्रक्ष्यन्ति पुरुषाः क्वचित् |
नार्यश्चाविधवा नित्यं भविष्यन्ति पतिव्रताः || १-१-९१
91. puruShaaH = men; na drakshkyanti = will not see; putra-maraNam = son's, death; kvachit = anywhere; kimchit = in the least; naaryaH ca = ladies also; a-vidhavaaH = without being widowed; nityam bhavishhyanti = [will] always become; pativrataaH = devoted to husband.
"While Rama is on the throne men will not see the deaths of their children anywhere in their lifetime, and the ladies will remain husband-devouted and unwidowed during their lifetime... [1-1-91]
न चाग्निजं भयं किंचिन्नाप्सु मज्जन्ति जन्तवः |
न वातजं भयं किंचिन्नापि ज्वरकृतं तथा || १-१-९२
न चापि क्षुद्भयं तत्र न तस्करभयं तथा |
92, 93a. tatra = there - in his kingdom; agnijam bhayam = fear caused by fire; na = will not be there; kimchit = in the least; jantavaH apsu na majjanti = cattle will not drown in water; na vaatajam bhayam = no fear caused by wind; kiMchit = in the least; tathaa = likewise; jvara-kR^itam api = even [fear] caused by fever; na = will not be there; na kshudbhayam api = not even fear caused by hunger; tathaa = likewise; taskara-bhayam = fear from thieves; na = will not be there.
"In the kingdom of Rama, there will be no fear for his subjects from wildfires, gale-storms or from diseases, and there will be no fear from hunger or thieves, nor the cattle will be drowned in floodwaters as well... [1-1-92, 93a]
नगराणि च राष्ट्राणि धनधान्ययुतानि च || १-१-९३
नित्यं प्रमुदिताः सर्वे यथा कृतयुगे तथा |
93b, 94a. nagaraaNi raasTraNi ca = cities and states as well; dhana-dhaanya-yutaani = [will be replete with] wealth and grains; tathaa = likewise; nityaM pramuditaaH = [all his subjects will be] highly glad always sarve kR^itayuge yathaa = like in Krita yuga .
"Cities and states as well will be replete with wealth and grains likewise. All his subjects will be highly glad always, like in Krita yuga... [1-1-93b, 94a]
अश्वमेधशतैरिष्ट्वा तथा बहुसुवर्णकैः || १-१-९४
गवां कोट्ययुतम् दत्त्वा विद्वद्भ्यो विधिपूर्वकम् | |
असंख्येयं धनं दत्त्वा ब्राह्मणेभ्यो महायशाः || १-१-९५
94b, 95a. tathaa = like-wise; mahaa-yashaaH = highly illustrious one [Rama]; iSThvaa = having performed; ashvamedha-shataiH = hundreds of Horse Rituals; dattvaa = [and] having donated; bahu-suvarNakaiH = plentiful gold; gavaam koTyayutam = [and] crores of cows; dhanam = [and] wealth; asankhyeyam = [that] cannot be counted; braahmaNebhyaH = to Brahmanas; vidvabhyaH = [and] to scholars; vidhi puurvakam = according to custom.
"Like-wise the highly illustrious Rama having performed hundreds of horse rituals and having donated plentiful gold and crores of cows and wealth that cannot be counted to Brahmanas and to scholars according to custom... [1-1-94b, 95a]
राजवंशान् शतगुणान् स्थापयिष्यति राघवः |
चातुर्वर्ण्यं च लोकेऽस्मिन् स्वे स्वे धर्मे नियोक्ष्यति || १-१-९६
96. raaghavaH = Raghava; chaaturvarNyam niyokshyati = will direct the four caste-system; sve sve dharme = to their respective duties; sthaapayiShyati ca = and will establish; raaja-vamshaan = royal dynasties; asmin loke = in this world; shata-guNaan = in hundred folds.
"In this world Raghava will establish kingly dynasties in hundredfold and he will be maintaining the four-caste system positing each in his own duty, may it be caste-bound or provincial-kingdom-bound duty, in order to achieve a perfect social harmony... [1-1-96]
दशवर्षसहस्राणि दशवर्षशतानि च |
रामो राज्यमुपासित्वा ब्रह्मलोकं गमिष्यति || १-१-९७
97. raamaH = Rama; raajyam upaasitvaa = having served the kingdom dasha-varSa-sahasraaNi = for ten thousand years; dasha-varsha-shataani ca = and also for thousand years; brahma lokam gamishhyati = will go to the abode of Brahma.
"Having served the kingdom for ten thousand years and another one thousand years, i.e. for a total of eleven thousand years, Rama will go to the abode of Brahma... [1-1-97]
In rama raajyam upaasitvaa... the word used is upaasana is not ruling by sceptre but it is 'reverentially serving the kingdom...' as one would regard or treat his personal god with reverence. Rama thus served his kingdom as a devotee of his subjects and this is the concept of raama raajya. The brahma loka is not the abode of four-faced Brahma, but still higher abode, rather VaikunTha itself.
इदं पवित्रं पापघ्नं पुण्यं वेदैश्च सम्मितम् |
यः पठेद्रामचरितं सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते || १-१-९८
98. idam = this; raama-charitam = Rama's, legend; pavitram = is holy; paapaghnam = sin-eradicating; puNyam = merit-endowing; vedaiH sammitam ca = and consisting of [teachings of] Vedas; yaH = whoever; paThet = studies [this Ramayana]; sarva-paapaiH pramucchyate = is truly liberated of all sins.
"This Ramayana is holy, sin-eradicating, merit-endowing, and conformable with the teachings of Vedas. Whoever reads this Legend of Rama, will be verily liberated of all sins... [1-1-98]
एतदाख्यानमायुष्यं पठन्रामायणं नरः |
सपुत्रपौत्रः सगणः प्रेत्य स्वर्गे महीयते || १-१-९९
99. etat = this; raamaayaNam = Rama's, peregrination; aayuSyam = is long-life giving; aakhyaanam = a narrative; paThan = [by] reading [which]; naraH = a human; saputra-pautraH = [will be] with sons and grandsons; on enjoying worldly comforts; sa-gaNaH = with attendants; pretya = [and] after demise; svarge mahiiyate = will be adored in heaven.
"This Ramayana is long-life giving. A narrative by reading which a human will be blessed with sons and grandsons, and after enjoying worldly comforts with attendants, will be adored in heaven after demise... [1-1-99]
पठन् द्विजो वागृषभत्वमीयात् |
स्यात् क्षत्रियो भूमिपतित्वमीयात् ||
वणिग्जनः पण्यफलत्वमीयात् |
जनश्च शूद्रोऽपि महत्त्वमीयात् || १-१-१००
100. paThan = By reading [this Ramayana]; janaH = [that] person; dvijaH syaat = if a Brahmana; vaagR^ishhabhatvam iiyaat = obtains excellency in speech; kshatriyaH [syaat] = if Kshatriya; bhuumi-patitvam iiyaat = obtains land-lordship; vaNigjanaH = if Vysya; paNya-phalatvam iiyaat = attains profit in trade; shuudraH api ca = if even a Sudra; mahatvam iiyaat = attains excellence.
"By reading this Ramayana, that person if a Brahmana obtains excellency in speech, if a Kshatriya obtains land-lordship, if Vaisya attains profit in trade and even if a Sudra attains excellence." Thus Sage Narada gave a gist of Ramayana to Sage-poet Valmiki. [1-1-100]
In the first chapter of Bala Kanda the gist of Ramayana is imbibed and it is called saMkshepa raamaayaNa, or also called baala raamaayaNa . The youngsters are asked to recite these stanzas daily for longevity and a perfect personality like that of Rama. The summarised stanzas reflected here are from the main epic. The canto-wise summarisation is as below:
1. Bala Kanda [Book I] verses I-1-8 to 18
2. Ayodhya Kanda [Book II ] verses I-1-18 to 28
3. Aranya Kanda [Book III] verses I-1-29 to 57
4. Kishkindha Kanda [Book IV] I-1-58 to 71
5. Sundar Kanda [Book V] I-1-72 to 78
6. Yuddha Kanda [Book VI] I-1-79 to 90
7. Uttara Ramayana [Book VII] I-1-91 to 97
8. Phala Shruti [Results of Recitation] I-1-98 to 100
Valmiki composed Ramayana according to the letters of Gayatri Hymn and they are identified with the following verses in all cantos:
श्लोकेन प्रति साहस्रं प्रथमे क्रमात् |
गायत्रि अक्षरम् एकैकम् स्थापयामास वै मुनिः ||
१. त -
तपः स्वाध्याय निरताम् तपस्वी वाग्विदाम् वरम् |
नारदम् परि पप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर् मुनि पुंगवम् || १-१-१
२. स -
स हत्वा राक्षसान् सर्वान् यज्ञ घ्नान् रघुनंदनः |
ऋषिभिः पूजितः तत्र यथा इन्द्रो विजये पुरा || १-३०-२४
३. वि -
विश्वामित्रः स रामास्तु श्रुत्वा जनक भाषितम् |
वत्स राम धनुः पश्य इति राघवम् अब्रवीत् || १-६७-१२ - बालकाण्डम्
४. तु -
तुष्टाव अस्य तदा वंशम् प्रविश्य स विशाम् पतेः |
शयनीयम् नरेन्द्रस्य तत् आसाद्य व्यतिष्टत || २-१५-१९
५. व -
वनवासम् हि संख्याय वासांसि आभरणानि च |
भर्तारम् अनुगच्छंत्यै सीतायै श्वशुरो ददौ || २-४०-१४
६. रा -
राजा सत्यम् च धर्मः च राजा कुलवताम् कुलम् |
राजा माता पित चैव राजा हितकरो नृणाम् || २-६७-३४
७. नि -
निरीक्ष्य स मुहूर्तम् तु ददर्श भरतो गुरुम् |
उटजे रामम् आसीनम् जटा मण्दल धारिणम् || २-९९-२५ - अयोध्याकाण्डम्
८. य -
यदि बुद्धिः कृता द्रष्टुम् अगस्त्यम् तम् महामुनिम् |
अद्य एव गमने रोचयस्व महायशः || ३-११-४४
९. भ -
भरतस्य आर्य पुत्रस्य श्वश्रूणाम् मम च प्रभो |
मृग रुपम् इदम् व्यक्तम् विस्मयम् जनयिष्यति || ३-४३-१८
१०. ग -
गच्छ शीघ्रम् इतो राम सुग्रीवम् तम् महाबलम् |
वयस्यम् तम् कुरु क्षिप्रम् इतो गत्वा अद्य राघव || ३-७२-१७ - अरण्यकाण्डम्
११. दे -
देश कालौ प्रतीक्षस्व क्षममाणः प्रिय अप्रिये |
सुख दुःख सहः कले सुग्रीव वशगो भव || ४-२२-२०
१२. व -
वंद्याः ते तु तपः सिद्ध सप्तसा वीत कल्मषाः |
प्रष्टव्याः ते अपि सीतायाः प्रवृत्तिम् विनय अन्वितैः || ४-४३-३३ - किष्किन्धाकाण्डम्
१३. स -
स निर्जित्य पुरिम् श्रेष्टाम् लंकाम् ताम् काम रूपिणीम् |
विक्रमेण महतेजा हनुमान् मारुत आत्मज || ५-४-१
१४. ध -
धन्या देवाः स गन्धर्वा सिद्धाः च परम ऋषयः |
मम पश्यन्ति ये नाथम् रामम् राजीव लोचनम् || ५-२६-४१
१५. म -
मंगलाभिमुखी तस्य सा तदा आसित् महाकपेः |
उपतस्थे विशालाक्षी प्रयता हव्यवाहनम् || ५-५३-२८ - सुन्दरकाण्डम्
१६. हि -
हितम् महार्थम् मृदु हेतु संहितम्
व्यतीत कालायति संप्रति क्षमम् |
निशंय तद् वाक्यम् उपस्थित ज्वरः
प्रसंगवान् उत्तरम् एतत् अब्रवीत् || ६-१०-२७
१७. ध -
धर्मात्मा रक्षसाम् श्रेष्टः संप्राप्तो अयम् विभीषणः |
लंकैश्वर्यम् ध्रुवम् श्रीमान् अयम् प्राप्नोति अकण्टकम् || ६-४१-६७
१८. यो -
यो वज्र पाता अशनि सन्निपातान्
न चुक्षुभे वा अपि चचाल राजा |
स राम बाणा अभिहतो भृश आर्तः
चचाल चापम् च मुमोच वीरः || ६-५९-१४१
१९. य -
यस्य विक्रमम् आसाद्य राक्षस निधनम् गताः |
तम् मन्ये राघवम् वीरम् नारायणम् अनामयम् || ६-७२-११
२०. न -
न ते ददृशिरे रामम् दहंतम् अरि वाहिनीम् |
मोहिताः परम अस्त्रेण गान्धर्वेण महात्मना || ६-९३-२६
२१. प्र -
प्रणंय देवताभ्यः च ब्राह्मणेभ्यः च मैथिली |
बद्ध अंजली पुटा च इदम् उवाच अग्नि समीपतः || ६-११६-२४ - युद्धकाण्डम्
२२. च -
चलनात् पर्वत इन्द्रस्य गणा देवाः च कंपिताः |
चचाल पार्वती च अपि तदा आश्लिष्टा महेश्वरम् || ७-१६-२६
२३. द -
दाराः पुत्रा पुरम् राष्ट्रम् भोग आच्छादन भाजनम् |
सर्वम् एव अविभक्तम् नो भविष्यति हरि ईश्वरः || ७-३४-४१
२४. य -
याम् एव रात्रिम् शत्रुघ्नः पर्ण शालाम् समाविशत् |
ताम् एव रात्रिम् सीता अपि प्रसूता दाकर द्वयम् || ७-६६-१ - उत्तरकाण्डम्
इदम् रामायणम् कृत्स्नम् गायत्री बीज संयुतम् |
त्रि संध्यम् यः पठेत् नित्यम् सर्व पापैः प्रमुच्यते ||
यावत् आवर्तते चक्रम् यावति च वसुंधरा |
तावत् वर्ष सहस्राणि स्वामित्वम् अवधारय ||
मंगलम् कोसलेन्द्राय महनीय गुणात्मने |
चक्रवर्ति तनूजाय सार्वभौमाय मंगलम् ||
इति गायत्री रामायणम् संपूर्णम्
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये बाल काण्डे प्रथमः सर्गः ||
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© 1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: July, 2005]