Rama laments while searching for Seetha and reminiscing over his past, which was spent happily with Seetha. Rama and Lakshmana search for her at riversides of Godavari but she is unseen there. Though Lakshmana continuously encourages Rama for a thorough search without submitting to mere anguish, Rama sinks into his own anguish.
sa rāja putra priyā vihīnaḥ
śokena mohena ca pīḍyamānaḥ |
viṣādayan bhrātaram ārta rūpo
bhūyo viṣādampraviveśa tīvram || 3-63-1
1. priyaa vihiinaH = ladylove, without; saH raaja putra = he, king's, son, Rama; shokena = by agony; mohena ca = by anguish, even; piiDyamaanaH = being distressed; aarta ruupaH = anxious, in mien; bhraataram = brother Lakshmana; viSaadayan = despairing him; bhuuyaH = again; tiivram viSaadam pravivesha = dire, desperation, drifted into.
That prince Rama whom agony and anguish are distressing has become anxious in his mien, and he again drifted into a dire desperation while despairing his brother Lakshmana. [3-63-1]
sa lakṣmaṇam śoka vaśa abhipannam
śoke nimagno vipule tu rāmaḥ |
uvāca vākyam vyasanānurūpam
uṣṇam viniḥśvasya rudan sa śokam || 3-63-2
2. vipule shoke nimagnaH tu = in chasmal, sorrow, sunken, but; saH raamaH = he, Rama; sa shokam rudan = with, sorrow, wailing; shoka vasha abhipannam = sorrow, control, obtained - one who has gone under the control of sorrow; lakshmaNam = to Lakshmana; uSNam vi niHshvasya = scorchingly, severely, suspiring; vyasana anuruupam = to [Rama's] sensitivity, seemly; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, spoke.
Rama who is sunken in a chasmal sorrow spoke this sentence while wailing sorrowfully, suspiring severely and scorchingly, and which sentence is seemly to his sensitivity, to Lakshmana who is already under the sway of sorrow. [3-63-2]
na mat vidho duṣkṛta karma kārī
manye dvitīyo asti vasuṃdharāyām |
śoka anuśoko hi paraṃparāyā
mām eti bhindan hṛdayam manaḥ ca || 3-63-3
3. vasundharaayaam = on earth; mat vidhaH = my, kind of; duSkR^ita = wrong deed [blameworthy]; karma kaarii = deed, [wrong] doer; dvitiiyaH = second one [another one]; na asti manye = not, is there, I deem; shoka anu shokaH = woe, followed, by woe; paramparaayaa = in seriation; hR^idayam = heart; manaH ca = mind, even; bhindan maam eti = to burst, me, getting at; hi = indeed.
"I am second to none among the blameworthy wrongdoers on this earth, thus I deem, and indeed woe followed by woe are getting at me in seriation to burst my heart and mind... [3-63-3]
pūrvam mayā nūnam abhīpsitāni
pāpāni karmāṇi asatkṛt kṛtāni |
tatra ayam adya patito vipāko
duḥkhena duḥkham yad aham viśāmi || 3-63-4
4. maya = by me; puurvam = earlier [in previous births]; nuunam = definitely; abhiipsitaani = desirably; paapaani karmaaNi = damnable, deeds; asatkR^it = habitually; kR^itaani = [might be] done [committed]; tatra = in that [matter]; adya ayam = now, that [result of impious deeds]; vi paakaH = very much, ripened; patitaH = fallen; yat = by which; aham = I am; duHkhena duHkham = after misery, misery; vishaami = entering into.
"I might have definitely, habitually, and desirably committed damnable deeds in my previous births, and now the result of those impious deeds is very much ripened and has fallen on me, whereby I am entering misery after misery... [3-63-4]
As with the accrual of merit by good deeds, sin also accrues with impious or sinful acts anena janmaantara kR^ita paapa anuruupam phalam bhavati iti arthaH - strii parvaaNi - nuunam vyapakR^itam puurveShu janmaasu | yena maam duHkhabhaageShu dhaataa karmasu yuktkavaan - mahaa bhaarata - dk and this ripens and bechances at a later time in the shape of misfortune.
rājya praṇāśaḥ sva janaiḥ viyogaḥ
pitur vināśo jananī viyogaḥ |
sarvāni me lakṣmaṇa śoka vegam
āpūrayanti pravicintitāni || 3-63-5
5. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; raajya praNaashaH = kingdom, deprived; sva janaiH viyogaH = own, from people, departed; pituH vinaashaH = father, demised; jananii viyogaH = mother, detached from; sarvaani = all these; pra vi cintitaani = very, deeply, those that are thought over; me shoka vegam aapuurayanti = my; agony, haste of, [they are] replenishing.
"I am deprived of the kingdom, departed from my own people, mainly Seetha, my father departed and I am detached from my mother, and Lakshmana, when all these setbacks are very deeply thought over they are replenishing the haste of my agony... [3-63-5]
sarvam tu duḥkham mama lakṣmaṇa idam
śāntam śarīre vanam etya kleśam |
sītā viyogāt punar api udīrṇam
kāṣṭaiḥ iva agniḥ sahasā pradīptaḥ || 3-63-6
6. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; idam sarvam duHkham = this, all, sadness; [shuunyam] vanam etya = [uninhibited,] to forest, on coming; shariire shaantam = physically, [there is some] peace; siitaa viyogaat = by Seetha's, dissociation; kaaSTaiH sahasaa pradiiptaH agniH iva = by firewood [fuel,] in a flash, flaring up, fire, as with; puna api klesham udiirNam = again, even, misery, is upshot.
"All this sadness of mine has silenced physically and there is some peace on coming to these desolate forests, in association of Seetha, but with the dissociation of Seetha misery is again upshot, as with fire which flares up in a flash when fuel is added... [3-63-6]
sā nūnam āryā mama rākṣasena hi
abhyāhṛtā kham samupetya bhīruḥ |
apasvaram su svara vipralāpā
bhayena vikranditavati abhīkṣṇam || 3-63-7
7. mama = my; bhiiruH = meek lady; saa aaryaa = she that, noblewoman; raakshasena abhi aahR^itaa = by demon, [might be] abducted; hi = indeed; kham samupetya = sky, on reaching; su svara vi pralaapaa = with a good, voice, she who chit-chats - converses; bhayena = by fear; abhiikshNam = with a higly; apa svaram = with bad, with tune [untunefully]; vikranditavati = she [must have] shouted; nuunam = it is definite.
"My noblewoman might be abducted by a demon, and on reaching the sky that lady who converses with a sweet voice might have wept a lot fearfully, and it is definite that she must have shouted a lot, untunefully... [3-63-7]
tau lohitasya priya darśanasya
sadā ucitau uttama caṃdanasya |
vṛttau stanau śoṇita paṃka digdhau
nūnam priyāyā mama na abhibhāta || 3-63-8
8. lohitasya = reddish [sandal-paste]; priya darshanasya = pleasant, for a look [sandal-paste]; uttama candanasya = for best, [red] sandalwood paste; sadaa ucitau = always, deserve [to bedaub]; vR^ittau = roundish; mama priyaayaaH = my, ladylove's; tau = those two; stanau = breasts; nuunam = definitely; shoNita panka digdhau = blood, mud of, bedaubed; na abhibhaata = not, shining forth.
"Those two roundish bosoms of my ladylove which always deserved the application of pleasantly looking red-sandalwood's paste might definitely be unshiny, as they might be bedaubed with muddy blood when they are extricated from her body for devouring. [3-63-8]
tat ślakṣṇa su vyakta mṛdu pralāpam
tasyā mukham kuṃcita keśa bhāram |
rakṣo vaśam nūnam upagatāyā
na bhrājate rāhu mukhe yathā iṃduḥ || 3-63-9
9. rakshaH vasham upagataayaa = demon's, repression, went into; tasyaa [mukham] = her, [face]; shlakshNa = sweet; su vyakta = very, clear; mR^idu = softish; pralaapam = talkative; kuncita kesha bhaaram = plaited, hair, lumped together; tat mukham = the same, visage; raahu mukhe induH yathaa = in Raahu [eclipsing planet,] in the mouth of [Rahu,] moon, as with; na bhraajate nuunam = not, shiny, definitely.
"She has a sweet, softish, and very clear talkativeness on her lips. That visage with such lips is crowned with a hairdo with hair lumped together and plaited, such as her visage is, it must have become unshiny on her going into the repression of demon, as with an unshiny moon when repressed in the mouth of eclipsing planet Raahu, it is definite... [3-63-9]
tām hāra pāśasya sadā ucita aṃtam
grīvām priyāyā mama su vratāyā |
rakṣāṃsi nūnam paripītavanti
śūnye hi bhitvā rudhira aśanāni || 3-63-10
10. sadaa = always; haara paashasya = necklaces, chains [wears]; ucita = worthy; antam = at contours; su vrataayaa = of strait, laced one; mama priyaayaa = my, ladylove's; taam griivaam = that, neck; rudhira ashanaani rakshaamsi = blood, eaters [thirsty,] demons; shuunye = in a secluded [place]; bhitvaa = on mangling; nuunam = definitely; pari piitavanti = completely, drank up [her blood.]
"The contours of the neck of that strait-laced ladylove of mine are always worthy for necklaces and chain-wears. The bloodthirsty demons would have indeed mangled that neck in a secluded place and they might have drunk her blood, it is definite... [3-63-10]
mayā vihīnā vijane vane yā
rakṣobhiḥ āhṛtya vikṛṣyamāṇā |
nūnam vinādam kurari iva dīnā
sā muktavatī āyata kānta netrā || 3-63-11
11. yaa = who [Seetha]; vi jane vane = without, people [uninhabited,] in forest; mayaa vihiinaa = me, without [when I was away]; saa = she [such as she is]; aayata kaanta netraa = broad, bright, eyed one; rakshobhiH aahR^itya = by demons, abducted; vi kR^iSyamaaNaa = while forcibly, hauled; diinaa kurari iva = piteous, she-dove, like; vi naadam = rough, sound [discordantly]; muktavatii = released [shrieked out]; nuunam = definitely.
"While I was away from her in this uninhibited forest demons would have forcibly hauled her up when they are abducting that lady with broad-bright eyes, and she would have discordantly shrieked out like a piteous she-dove, it is definite... [3-63-11]
asmin mayā sārtham udāra śīlā
śilā tale pūrvam upopaviṣṭā |
kānta smitā lakṣmaṇa jāta hāsā
tvām āha sītā bahu vākya jātam || 3-63-12
12. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; udaara shiilaa = well, mannered one - Seetha; kaanta smitaa = with a bright, smile; siitaa = Seetha; asmin = in here; shilaa tale = stone, on surface; mayaa saartham = with me, along with; puurvam = once; upopaviSTaa [upa upa viSTaa] = sat very closely; jaata haasaa = birthed, smiles [with all smiles]; tvaam = you; bahu vaakya jaatam = many, words, set of [verbosely]; aaha = spoke.
"Sitting very close to me on this stone's surface, oh, Lakshmana, she that well-mannered Seetha with bright smiles was speaking to you verbosely with all smiles... [3-63-12]
He is recollecting his romantic dalliances with Seetha at the riverside of Godavari. asmin 'in here, hereabouts which now is devoid of Seetha, she used to playfully tease me in our swimming sports in this River Godavari...' maya saartham where maya sa artham 'I thought I was winning... but, she who is used to have an upper hand... hence, then I became secondary...' udaara shiilaa 'well-mannered' Seetha... for she did not bother me for such a frolicking when we were in Ayodhya, and she with all her mannerliness maintained a distance from me, as there were her father-in-law, mother-in-laws in Ayodhya, but here only two of us who are with ourselves, and we rejoiced freely...' shilaa tale upa upa viSTaa 'on the surface of any stone wherever I wanted to gain a foothold after straining myself in swim-games, she used to reach and sit on each and every acclivitous stone, prior to my reaching it, and she used to spatter water on my face, to continue more swimming... but, I was really fatigued...' then she is one jaata haasaa 'in whom laughter took birth...she used to burst out peals of laughter... that declare me as a defeated one...' And then tvaam bahu vaakya jaata aaha 'she used talk to you a lot, with lots of words, as you are in the habit of always extolling me, and she was saying to you... 'you two are mightier than the mighty, but I am a woman, you two are males and can hunt the cruellest animals, but I am woman, a rabbit in the kitchen... but, see how I defeated your almighty brother...' and the like...'
'A very interesting and linguistically important case of a prepositional verb is provided by the verses [that contain] upopaviSTa... upa vish... originally must have meant 'to sit near'. In course of time, the idea of closeness or proximity was lost and it came to be used in the sense of sitting only. Now when the idea of nearness or proximity had to be expressed one more upa was prefixed to it. Thus, we see how tautological tendencies were influencing Sanskrit in the very hoary past. The Ramayana upopaviSTa has its parallel n Hindi paas baiThnaa [where] baiThnaa is upa veshana which itself means to sit near upa= paas. But still paas is used with baiThnaa...' The Ramayana, A Linguistic Study, Pt. Satya Vrat. And to supplement Panditji's above saying, even in English this is evident and Oxford in saying meaning for proximity, says 'sat in close proximity to them' where 'proximity' itself is one upa and 'close' is another upa... Thus tautology is same everywhere.
godāvarī iyām saritām variṣṭā
priyā priyāyā mama nitya kālam |
api atra gacchet iti ciṃtayāmi
na ekākinī yāti hi sā kadācit || 3-63-13
13. saritaam variSTaa = among rivers, best; iyaam godaavari = this, Godavari is; mama priyaayaaH = to my, ladylove; nitya kaalam = all, time; priyaa = cherished [river]; atra gacChet api = thereunto, gone, she would have; iti cintayaami = thus, I think; saa ekaakinii = she, lonely; kadaacit na yaati hi = anytime, not, goes, indeed.
"Among rivers this Godavari is the best and it is an all the time cherished river to my ladylove, and I think she would have gone thereunto. But, at anytime she did not go there, singly... [3-63-13]
padma ānanā padma palāśa netrā
padmāni vā ānetum abhiprayātā |
tat api ayuktam na hi sā kaddacit
mayā vinā gacchati paṃkajāni || 3-63-14
14. padma aananaa = lotus, faced; padma palaasha netraa = lotus, petal, eyed Seetha; padmaani aanetum = lotuses, to bring; abhi pra yaataa = towards, well [straightly,] gone; vaa = or; tat api = that, even [thought, idea itself]; a yuktam = not, congruous; saa kaddacit = she, ever; mayaa vinaa = me, without; pankajaani na gacChati hi = for lotuses, not, she goes, indeed.
"Or, that lotus-faced, lotus-petal eyed Seetha has gone straight to bring lotuses! Nay, that idea itself is incongruous, for she never goes to get lotuses, indeed without me... [3-63-14]
kāmam tu idam puṣpita vṛkṣa saṇḍam
nānā vidhaiḥ pakṣi gaṇaiḥ upetam |
vanam prayātā nu tat api ayuktam
ekākinī sā ati bibheti bhīruḥ || 3-63-15
15. kaamam tu = voluntarily, but; puSpita vR^iksha saNDam = flowered, trees, stand of; naanaa vidhaiH pakshi gaNaiH upetam = divers, kinds of, birds, flights, having; idam vanam prayaataa nu = this, thicket, went to, really; tat api a yuktam = that, even, not, congruent; bhiiruH = [as a] timid one; saa ekaakinii ati bibheti = she, in solitude, much, scared - to go alone.
"But has she really gone to this stand of thicket which is with flowered trees and with birds of divers kind! Nay, that thought also is incongruent, because she as a timid one is much scared of solitude... [3-63-15]
āditya bho loka krṛta akṛta jñaḥ
lokasya satya anṛta karma sākṣin |
mama priyā sā kva gatā hṛtā vā
śaṃsava me śoka hatasya sarvam || 3-63-16
16. loka = world's; krR^ita a kR^ita = performed, not, performed [deeds]; GYaH = knower of; lokasya = of world; satya an R^ita karma saakshin = truth, un, truth [good and bad,] deeds, wittnesser; bho aaditya = oh, Sun; mama priyaa = my, ladylove; saa = she; kva gataa = where, gone [strolled]; hR^itaa vaa = stolen, or; shoka hatasya = by woe, writhing [such as I am]; sarvam me shamsava = all, to me, you tell.
"Oh, Sun, you are the knower of performed and unperformed deeds in the world, a wittnesser of good and bad deeds in the world, tell me, who am woefully writhing, to where my ladylove strolled, or is she stolen... [3-63-16]
lokeṣu sarveṣu na nāsti kiṃcit
yat te na nityam viditam bhavet tat |
śaṃsasva vayoḥ kula śālinīm tām
mṛtā hṛtā vā pathi vartate vā || 3-63-17
17. vayoH = oh, Air; sarveSu lokeSu = in all, worlds [wheresoever]; yat = which [whichsoever]; nityam = at all times [whensoever]; te = to you; na viditam = not, known; na bhavet = not, will be [cannot possibly become]; tat = that [whatsoever]; kimcit na asti = in the least, not, is there [how can that exist, whencesoever]; kula shaaliniim = of noble heritage, a lady; taam = of her; shamsasva = you tell; hR^itaa = stolen; mR^itaa vaa = slain, or; pathi vartate vaa = from path, strayed, or.
"Oh, Air, whatsoever is there in the world, wheresoever it might be, or whensoever it might have happened, and whichsoever it might be, and whencesoever it might exist, that cannot possibly be unknown to you. Hence, tell me of the lady from noble heritage... is she stolen, or slain, or strayed her steps..." Thus Rama begged of the Eternals for locating Seetha. [3-63-17]
iti iva tam śoka vidheya deham
rāmam visaṃjñam vilapaṃtam eva |
uvāca saumitriḥadīna sattvaḥ
nyāye sthitaḥ kāla yutam ca vākyam || 3-63-18
18. iti iva = thus, this way; shoka vidheya deham = by anguish, subordinated [routed by,] with physique; vi sanGYam = without, sensation; evam = that way; vilapantam = bewailing; tam = to him; raamam = to Rama; saumitriH = Soumitri; a diina sattvaH = not, dispirited, in courage; nyaaye sthitaH = in justice, standing [justifiably]; kaala yutam ca = time, oriented [timely,] also; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, spoke [suggested.]
To such a Rama whose physique is routed by his anguish in this way and who is insensately bewailing in that way, Soumitri whose courage is un-dispirited gave a justifiable and timely suggestion. [3-63-18]
śokam vimuṃca ārya dhṛtim bhajasva
saha utsāhatā ca astu vimārgaṇe asyāḥ |
utsāhavanto hi narā na loke
sīdanti karmasu ati duṣkareṣu || 3-63-19
19. aarya = oh, noble [brother]; shokam vimunca = anguish, release [banish]; dhR^itim bhajasva = fortitude, brace yourself; asyaaH vimaargaNe = in her, searching; saha utsaahataa ca astu = with, spiritedness, also, be there; loke = in world; utsaahavantaH naraaH = spirited, men; ati duSkareSu = [even though they are] highly, impracticable; karmasu = in enterprises; na siidanti = not, the sink [backslide]; hi = indeed.
"Oh, noble brother, banish that anguish and brace yourself with fortitude, and let you be with spiritedness in her searching... indeed, there is no backsliding for spirited men in their enterprises in this world, even though the enterprises are highly impracticable..." [3-63-19]
Lack of fortitude and spiritedness will sink anyone in a chasmal self-centred subjective grief. anena dhairya utsaahau shokam apanudya kaarya saadhakau iti suucitam - tathaa ca bhaatate - droNa parvaaNi - abhimanyu vadhe dharma putram prati vyaasaH - shocato hi mahaa raaja hi adhame abhivartate | tasmaat shokam parityajya shreyase prayated budhaH | praharSham abhimaanam ca cintayet | evam GYaatvaa sthiro bhuutvaa jahi ariin dhairyam aapnuhi | dk Thus Vyaasa advises Dharmaraja to have fortitude and courage when he was sinking under the grief for the merciless killing of lonesome Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, in Maha Bharata war.
iti iva saumitrim udagra pauruṣam
bruvantam ārto raghu vaṃśa vardhanaḥ |
na ciṃtayāmāsa dhṛtim vimuktavān
punaḥ ca duḥkham mahat abhyupāgamat || 3-63-20
20. aartaH = who is anguished; raghu vamsha vardhanaH = Raghu's, lineage, enhancer of [Rama]; iti iva bruvantam = thus, in this way, about him who is speaking so; udagra pauruSam = one with towering, bravery;, saumitrim = of Soumitri; na cintayaamaasa = not, gave heed to; dhR^itim vimuktavaan = fortitude, he who castaway; punaH ca = again, also; mahat duHkham abhyupaagamat = great [inexplicable,] anguish, he encountered with.
When Soumitri of towering bravery is speaking this way, Rama, the enhancer of Raghu's lineage, gave no heed to it, and since he castaway his fortitude he again encountered an inexplicable anguish. [3-63-20]
- - - - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye araṇya kāṇḍe tri ṣaṣṭitamaḥ sargaḥ
© Mar, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : December 0]