Ravana rebuts Maareecha for giving an unasked advice and details his plan to abduct Seetha. Ravana intimidates Maareecha that he himself will kill Maareecha immediately if his orders are disobeyed, and Maareecha may perhaps have no opportunity to die at the hands of Rama.
मारीचस्य तु तत् वाक्यम् क्षमम् युक्तम् च रावणः |
उक्तो न प्रतिजग्राह मर्तु काम इव औषधम् || ३-४०-१
1. uktaH raavaNaH = he who is spoken thus, Ravana; maariicasya tu kSamam yuktam ca = Maareecha's, but, acceptable, equitable, also; tat vaakyam = that, sentence; martu kaama auSadham iva = to die, one desiring to, medicament, as with; na pratijagraaha = not, received - Ravana rejected.
When Maareecha spoke those acceptable and equitable words, Ravana rejected them like a person with a death wish rejects medicament. [3-40-1]
तम् पथ्य हित वक्तारम् मारीचम् राक्षसाधिपः |
अब्रवीत् परुषम् वाक्यम् अयुक्तम् काल चोदितः || ३-४०-२
2. raakSasa adhipaH = demons, king; kaala coditaH = by Time [the Terminator,] ushered; pathya hita vaktaaram = doing good - conducive, beneficial, who is speaking; tam maariicam = to him, to that Maareecha; a yuktam = unbefitting; paruSam vaakyam abraviit = uncouthly, words, spoke.
Ushered by the Terminator the king of demons Ravana, uncouthly spoke these unbefitting words to Maareecha who had been speaking conducive and beneficial words of advise. [3-40-2]
यत् किल एतत् अयुक्तार्थम् मारीच मयि कथ्यते |
वाक्यम् निष्फलम् अत्यर्थम् बीजम् उप्तम् इव ऊषरे || ३-४०-३
3. maariica = oh, Maareecha; a yukta artham = without, having, meaning - meaningless words; yat = that which; etat vaakyam = all these, sentence - advisory words; mayi = in me [to me]; kathyate = being said; that; uuSare uptam biijam iva = in wasteland, seeded, seed, like; ati artham = very, much - decidedly; niS phalam = without, fruit - worthless; kila = in effect.
"All these meaningless words that are being said to me are decidedly worthless, in effect, like the seeds seeded in wastelands. [3-40-3]
त्वत् वाक्यैः न तु माम् शक्यम् - भेतुम् - भेत्तुम् रामस्य संयुगे |
पाप शीलस्य मूर्खस्य मानुषस्य विशेषतः || ३-४०-४
4. tvat vaakyaiH = by your, words; paapa shiilasya = evil, in character - an iniquitous one; muurkhasya = imprudent one; visheSataH maanuSasya = especially, human; raamasya = from such a Rama; maam samyuge bhetum [bhettum] = me, from a war, to scare; na shakyam = not, possible.
"But it is impossible to scare me away from a war with that iniquitous and imprudent Rama, that too, from a human being, with these words of yours. [3-40-4]
There is a grammarian's irk in bhettum ' to cut off, to destroy' bhetum 'to scare me' and if bhettum is taken, then 'it is impossible for that human to destroy me in war' will be the meaning, as per Eastern recension.
यः त्यक्त्वा सुहृदो राज्यम् मातरम् पितरम् तथा |
स्त्री वाक्यम् प्राकृतम् श्रुत्वा वनम् एक पदे गतः || ३-४०-५
5. yaH = who is - which Rama is; praakR^itam strii vaakyam shrutvaa = artless, woman's, word, on hearing; su hR^idaH = good, hearted - friends and relatives; raajyam = kingdom; maataram = mother; tathaa = likewise; pitaram = father; tyaktvaa = on leaving; eka pade = in single, foot - trotted, loped; vanam gataH = forest, went to - bolted off; ellip. maama bhetum nashakyaa = you cannot scare me away from such a Rama.
"He who bolted off to forest in a single-foot on hearing the artless words of a woman, forfeiting his kingdom, friends and relatives, and even his mother, likewise his father too, you cannot scare me away from such a Rama. [3-40-5]
अवश्यम् तु मया तस्य संयुगे खर घातिनः |
प्राणैः प्रियतरा सीता हर्तव्या तव संनिधौ || ३-४०-६
6. samyuge khara ghaatinaH = in war, Khara, killer of; tasya praaNaiH priya taraa siitaa = than his, by lives, dear, more, Seetha; tava sannidhau = in your, presence - with your help; avashyam mayaa hartavyaa = certainly, by me, is to be stolen - seizable.
"But his wife Seetha who is dearer to him more than his lives is certainly seizable by me in association with you, as that Rama had purposelessly killed Khara in a war. [3-40-6]
एवम् मे निश्चिता बुद्धिः हृदि मारीच विद्यते |
न व्यावर्तयितुम् शक्या स इन्द्रैः अपि सुर असुरैः || ३-४०-७
7. maariica = oh, Maareecha; me buddhiH evam nishcitaa = my, thinking, in this way, is decided; and; hR^idi vidyate [vartate] = in heart, obtains [lingering on] sa indraiH sura asuraiH api = with, Indra, by gods, by demons, even; vyaavartayitum = to revolute, to roll back; na shakyaa = not, possible.
"In this way my thinking is decided and it is lingering on in my heart, and it is impossible to roll back my mind or heart even for Indra coming along with gods and demons. [3-40-7]
दोषम् गुणम् वा संपृष्टः त्वम् एवम् वक्तुम् अर्हसि |
अपायम् वा अपि उपायम् वा कार्यस्य अस्य विनिश्चये || ३-४०-८
8. asya kaaryasya vinishcaye = of that, deed's, in determining; doSam guNam vaa = discredit, credit, or; apaayam vaa api = danger, either, or; upaayam vaa = ideation, or; sampR^iSTaH = if [you are] asked; tvam evam vaktum arhasi = you, this way, to talk, apt of you.
"If you are asked about the credits or discredits, or either of the danger or ideation of the deed for determining its modus operandi, it will be apt of you to talk like this, but I did not seek any viewpoints of yours. [3-40-8]
संपृष्टेन तु वक्तव्यम् सचिवेन विपश्चिता |
उद्यत अंजलिना राज्ञे य इच्छेत् भूतिम् आत्मनः || ३-४०-९
9. yaH = he who; aatmanaH bhuutim icChet = his own, welfare, if desires; such a one; sampR^iSTena = someone who is asked; vipashcitaa = by an intellectual; sacivena = by an adviser; udyata anjalinaa = with upraised, folded palms; raaj~ne [raaj~naH] = to king; vaktavyam = is liable to speak.
"Even if someone is asked, and if he desires his own welfare, then he has to submit his opinion to the king suppliantly upraising his palm-fold, may he be an intellectual, or an astute adviser. [3-40-9]
A king cannot be addressed unless he asks. Then Maareecha, who is fully aware of monarchical protocol, how he informed his analysis of Rama to Ravana, will be the question. Even if a king is resolute in undertaking a mad act, he is to be cautioned. In some cases, a king is to be held by hair and taught, as a teacher holds the taught by his tuft of hair to earbash. Likewise an upright minister shall counsel the king properly, as Krishna advises Vidura in Maha Bharata at Udyoga Parva 93:
nanu evam sati niitij~no maariico raavaNena apR^iShTaH katham uktavaan it cet - tanna - unmatto raaj~naa prashna akareNa api kaaryaatyaprasaktau nigR^ihya api vaktavyatvaat - tathaa ca pR^iShTen naiva vaktavyam iti katham vaktum shakyata iti cenna - pR^iShTenaiva vaktavyam iti etasya svastha avastha raaja viShayatvaat - aapadi uttham pratipanne c raajani kesha grahaNa puurvakam pR^iShTe naa api vaktavyam eva - dk .
वाक्यम् अप्रतिकूलम् तु मृदु पूर्वम् शुभम् हितम् |
उपचारेण युक्तम् च वक्तव्यो वसुधा अधिपः || ३-४०-१०
10. vasudhaa adhipaH = a land, lord of - a king; a prati kuulam = not, going against - contradictory; mR^idu puurvam = gentility, preceding; hitam = beneficial; shubham = favourable; upacaareNa yuktam ca = etiquette, inclusive of, also; vaakyam = with such a - sentence; vaktavyaH = is to be addressed.
"The king being lord of the land is to be addressed preceded with gentility, with auspicious and beneficial words that do not contradict the interests of that lord, more so, they shall be inclusive of etiquette. [3-40-10]
The imperial protocol is an exaggerated affair, as known to everybody. Here Ravana is demanding one more aspect in demanding, 'the words that do not go against the whims and fancies of the king.' And this is more than an autocrat's mentality. Dharmaakuutam says referring to Kaamandaka, a scripture on political science: 'even if a king asks, one shall not 'readily' reply though every aspect of that question is known to the replier, and the subject speaking in the audience of a king shall forget his own know-all-ness or his own entity in the knowledge of the subject at issue. vijaanan na api bruuyaat bhartruH kShiptaH uttaram vacaH | praviiNo api hi medhaavii varjayet abhimaanitaam ||.
स अवमर्दम् तु यत् वाक्यम् अथवा मारीच हितम् उच्यते |
न अभिनंदति तत् राजा मानार्थी मान वर्जितम् || ३-४०-११
11. maariica = oh, Maareecha; athavaa = or else; maana varjitam = honour, devoid of - dishonourable words; yat hitam vaakyam tu = which, beneficial, advise, but; sa ava mardam = with, down, letting - with reprehension; ucyate = will be said so; tat = that advise; maana arthii [or, maanaarhaH] = honour, insists upon [honourable]; raajaa = king; na abhi nandati = not, towards [him,] gladdens.
"Or else, oh, Maareecha, even if a beneficial word is said, but if it is said with reprehension it will not gladden that king who insists upon honour, for that said word is dishonourable, let alone reprehension. [3-40-11]
पंच रूपाणि राजानो धारयन्ति अमित ओजसः |
अग्नेः इन्द्रस्य सोमस्य यमस्य वरुणस्य च || ३-४०-१२
12. a mita ojasaH = not, limited in vigour - with infinite, vigour; raajaanaH = kings; agneH indrasya somasya yamasya varuNasya ca = of Fire, Indra [the Administrator of Natural Forces,] Moon, Terminator, Rain, also; panca ruupaaNi dhaarayanti = five, aspects - constituent forces, he bear - he embodies.
"The kings with infinite vigour embody five constituents forces of Fire, Moon, Rain, Terminator, and that of Indra, the Administrator of Natural Forces. [3-40-12]
औष्ण्यम् तथा विक्रमम् च सौम्यम् दण्डम् प्रसन्नताम् |
धारयन्ति महाताम्नो राजानः क्षणदाचर || ३-४०-१३
तस्मात् सर्वासु अवस्थासु मान्याः पूज्याः च पार्थिवाः |
13, 14a. kshaNadaa cara = oh, night, walker Maareecha; mahaataamnaH raajaanaH = great-souls, kings; auSNyam = sultriness; tathaa = likewise; vikramam ca = sternness, also; saumyam daNDam prasannataam = softness, harshness, suppleness; dhaarayanti = they are bearing - they personify; tasmaat paarthivaaH = therefore, kings; sarvaasu avasthaasu = in all, situations; maanyaaH puujyaaH ca = are respectable, reverential, also.
"Oh, nightwalker, thus the kings being great-souls personify the sultriness of Fire, sternness of Indra, softness of Moon, suppleness of Rain, and harshness of Terminator, and therefore in all situations they are respectable and reverential. [3-40-13, 14a]
Ravana has already conquered Indra and the said gods are responsible for the routine administration of universe. Hence, he is informing Maareecha about ordinary kings, presuming that Maareecha does not recognize the rectitude in dealing with ordinary kings, more so, with the king of kings, namely Ravana himself, which he says in next verse. A king acquires these traits of the presiding deities of the compass, by virtue of his kingship, and the sages said the very same to Rama when he entered Dandaka forest. anena agni aadi dik paalaka ruupatvaat raajaa puujyo maanyaH ca iti suucitam - dk .
त्वम् तु धर्मम् अविज्ञाय केवलम् मोहम् आश्रितः || ३-४०-१४
अभ्यागतम् माम् दौरात्म्यात् परुषम् वदसि ईदृशम् |
14b, 15a. tvam tu = you, on your part; dharmam a vij~naaya = rectitude, not, knowing - incognizant of; kevalam moham aashritaH = only, your obsession, holding on to; abhi aagatam maam = to your near, who came, with me; daur aatmyaat = with ill, wishing; iidR^isham paruSam vadasi = this way, ill-advisedly, you are babbling.
"But you are ill-advisedly babbling with me in this way, incognizant of rectitude and holding on to your obsession, and wishing ill of me, as I am on your doorstep. [3-40-14b, 15a]
गुण दोषौ न पृच्छामि क्षमम् च आत्मनि राक्षस || ३-४०-१५
मया उक्तम् अपि च एतावत् त्वाम् प्रति अमितविक्रम |
15. raakSasa = oh, demon; guNa doSau = rights, wrongs; aatmani = for me; [yat = which is]; kSamam ca = expedient, also; na pR^icChaami = not, I asked; a mita vikrama = oh, one with not, limited, brave - oh, Maareecha untold bravery; tvaam prati = you, addressing [samprati = presently]; etaavat = this much; mayaa uktam api ca = by me, said, but, also.
"Oh, demon, I did not ask the rights and wrongs concerning me, nor that which is expedient for me, but oh, demon of untold bravery, I have said this much to you. [3-40-15]
अस्मिन् तु स भवान् कृत्ये साहाय्यम् कर्तुम् अर्हसि || ३-४०-१६
श्रुणु तत् कर्म साहाय्ये यत् कार्यम् वचनात् मम |
16. asmin tu kR^itye = in this, but, deed; [tvam = you]; saahaayyam kartum arhasi = helping hand, to proffer, apt of you; mama vacanaat = my, from words - as I say; sa bhavaan = such as you are, you; saahaayye = in such assistance; yat kaaryam = which, is to be done; tat karma shruNu = that, task, you listen.
" 'It will be apt of you to proffer a helping hand in this deed.' This much I said to you. And such as you are you may now listen to that task which you have to undertake during the course of your assistance as I detail it to you. [3-40-16]
सौवर्णः त्वम् मृगो भूत्वा चित्रो रजत बिन्दुभिः || ३-४०-१७
आश्रमे तस्य रामस्य सीतायाः प्रमुखे चर |
प्रलोभयित्वा वैदेहीम् यथा इष्टम् गन्तुम् अर्हसि || ३-४०-१८
17. tvam = you; rajata bindubhiH = with silver, spots; citraH sauvarNaH mR^igaH bhuutvaa = amazing, golden, deer, on becoming; tasya raamasya aashrame = in that one, Rama's, in hermitage; siitaayaaH pra mukhe cara = in Seetha's, fore, front forefront, you move; vaidehiim pra lobhayitvaa = Vaidehi, on verily, alluring; yathaa iSTam gantum arhasi = as, you like, to go away, apt of you.
"On becoming an amazing silver-potted golden deer you move in front of Seetha in the hermitage of Rama, and on verily alluring Vaidehi you can go away as you like. [3-40-17, 18 ]
त्वाम् हि माया मयम् दृष्ट्वा कांचनम् जात विस्मया |
आनय एनम् इति क्षिप्रम् रामम् वक्ष्यति मैथिली || ३-४०-१९
19. maithilii = Maithili; kaancanam [mR^igam ] = golden [deer]; maayaa mayam = illusory, wholly; tvaam dR^iSTvaa = you, on seeing; jaata vismayaa = with arisen, curiosity; enam kSipram aanaya = this one, quickly, be brought; iti = thus; raamam vakSyati hi = to Rama, tells, indeed.
"On seeing you as a wholly illusory golden deer curiosity arises in Vaidehi, and indeed she tells Rama, 'bring that one quickly.' [3-40-19]
अपक्रान्ते च काकुत्स्थे दूरम् च यात्वा अपि उदाहर |
हा सीते लक्ष्मणे इति एवम् राम वाक्य अनुरूपकम् || ३-४०-२०
20. kaakutsthe apa kraante ca = Kakutstha, out, coming, further; [tvam = you]; duuram yaatvaa ca = distantly, having gone, also; raama vaakya anu ruupakam = Rama's, words [voice,] following, in model [mimicking]; haa siite lakshmaNe = ha, Seetha, ha, Lakshmana; iti evam thus, in that way; udaahara api = express - you blurt out even.
"Further, on Rama's coming out of his hermitage you go distantly and blurt out in this way, 'ha Seetha' and even as, 'ha, Lakshmana,' mimicking Rama's voice. [3-40-20]
तत् श्रुत्वा राम पदवीम् सीताया च प्रचोदितः |
अनुगच्छति संभ्रांतम् सौमित्रिः अपि सौहृदात् || ३-४०-२१
21. saumitriH api = Soumitri, even; tat shrutvaa = that, on hearing; siitaayaa ca pra coditaH = = by Seetha, further, well, hastened; sambhraantam = apprehensively; sauhR^idaat = due to fondness towards Rama; raama padaviim = on Rama's, path; anugacChati = follows.
"On hearing that, and further hastened by Seetha, even Soumitri apprehensively follows the path of Rama in all his fondness for Rama. [3-40-21]
अपक्रान्ते च काकुत्स्थे लक्ष्मण च यथा सुखम् |
आहरिष्यामि वैदेहीम् सहस्राक्षः शचीम् इव || ३-४०-२२
22. kaakutsthe = Rama; lakshmaNa ca = Lakshmana, as well; apa kraante = when sidetracked; vaidehiim = Vaidehi; sahasra akSaH shaciim iva = thousand, eyed one [Indra,] Sachi, like; yathaa sukham aahariSyaami = as per, convenience - effortlessly, I carry off.
"When Rama is diverted from hermitage, Lakshmana as well, I will carry off Vaidehi effortlessly like the Thousand-eyed Indra who once carried off Sachi Devi. [3-40-22]
एवम् कृत्वा तु इदम् कार्यम् यथा इष्टम् गच्छ राक्षस |
राज्यस्य अर्धम् प्रदास्यामि मारीच तव सुव्रत || ३-४०-२३
23. raakSasa = oh, demon; idam kaaryam evam kR^itvaa = this, stint, in this manner, on carrying out; yathaa iSTam gacCha = as, you like, you go; su vrata = oh, one with solemnly, avowed one; maariica = oh, Maareecha; tava = to you; raajyasya ardham pradaasyaami = kingdom's, half, I grant.
"Oh, demon, on carrying out this stint in this manner you may go as you like, and to you oh, Maareecha with solemn vows, I will grant half of my kingdom. [3-40-23]
गच्छ सौम्य शिवम् मार्गम् कार्यस्य अस्य विवृद्धये |
अहम् तु अनुगमिष्यामि स रथो दण्डका वनम् || ३-४०-२४
24. saumya = oh, gentle one; asya kaaryasya vi vR^iddhaye = for this, for task's, verily, for progressing - for easy achievement; shivam maargam gacCha = ontrouble-free, path, you get going; aham tu = I, for my part; sa rathaH daNDakaa vanam anugamiSyaami = with, chariot, to Dandaka, forest, I wish to follow.
"Hence, oh, gentle one, get going on a trouble-free path for the easy achievement of the task, and I for myself will follow you to Dandaka forest along with the chariot. [3-40-24]
प्राप्य सीताम् अयुद्धेन वंचयित्वा तु राघवम् |
लंकाम् प्रति गमिष्यामि कृत कार्यः सह त्वया || ३-४०-२५
25. raaghavam vancayitvaa tu = Raghava, on misleading, but; siitaam a yuddhena praapya = Seetha, without, conflict, on gaining; kR^ita kaaryaH = on gaining, task - my goal; tvayaa saha = you, along with; lankaam prati gamiSyaami = Lanka, towards, I will proceed.
"My goal will be achieved just by misleading Raghava, and by gaining Seetha without a conflict, then I will proceed to Lanka along with you. [3-40-25]
नो चेत् करोषि मारीच हन्मि त्वाम् अहम् अद्य वै |
एतत् कार्यम् अवश्यम् मे बलाद् अपि करिष्यसि |
राज्ञो हि प्रतिकूलस्थो न जातु सुखम् एधते || ३-४०-२६
26. maariica = oh, Maareecha; na karoSi cet = not, going to do, if; tvaam aham adya vai hanmi = you, I, now itself, truly, I kill; me etat kaaryam = mine, this, work; balaat api avashyam kariSyasi = by duress, even, certainly, you undertake - I will get it done; raaj~naH prati kuula sthaH = to king, indeed, opposite, staying - subjects that set against; jaatu = never; sukham na edhate hi = safely, not, succeeds, indeed.
"If you are not going to do so, oh, Maareecha, for sure I will kill you now itself. I will get my work done through you even under duress, and indeed, any subject setting against his king will never succeed safely. [3-40-26]
आसाद्या तम् जीवित संशयः ते
मृत्युर् ध्रुवो हि अद्य मया विरुध्यतः |
एतत् यथावत् परिगृह्य बुद्ध्या
यत् अत्र पथ्यम् कुरु तत् तथा त्वम् || ३-४०-२७
27. tam = him - Rama; aasaadyaa = on getting at; te jiivita samshayaH = your, life, will be indefinite; mayaa virudhyataH = with me, conflicting; adya mR^ityuH dhruvaH hi = now, death, is definite, surely; etat buddhyaa = all this, keeping in view; yathaavat parigR^ihya = as befitting - conducive, receiving - understanding, conclusion; atra = in this issue; yat pathyam = what is, desirable; tat tvam tathaa kuru = that, you, that way, do.
"Your life may be indefinite on reaching Rama, but your death is surely definite now as you are conflicting with me. Hence, keeping all this in view you come to a conclusion that would be conducive to your interests, and whatever desirable to you let it be done in that way. " Thus Ravana spoke to Maareecha. [3-40-27]
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इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे चत्वारिंशः सर्गः
© Aug, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]
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