Ravana rebuts Maareecha for giving an unasked advice and details his plan to abduct Seetha. Ravana intimidates Maareecha that he himself will kill Maareecha immediately if his orders are disobeyed, and Maareecha may perhaps have no opportunity to die at the hands of Rama.
mārīcasya tu tat vākyam kṣamam yuktam ca rāvaṇaḥ |
ukto na pratijagrāha martu kāma iva auṣadham || 3-40-1
1. uktaH raavaNaH = he who is spoken thus, Ravana; maariicasya tu kSamam yuktam ca = Maareecha's, but, acceptable, equitable, also; tat vaakyam = that, sentence; martu kaama auSadham iva = to die, one desiring to, medicament, as with; na pratijagraaha = not, received - Ravana rejected.
When Maareecha spoke those acceptable and equitable words, Ravana rejected them like a person with a death wish rejects medicament. [3-40-1]
tam pathya hita vaktāram mārīcam rākṣasādhipaḥ |
abravīt paruṣam vākyam ayuktam kāla coditaḥ || 3-40-2
2. raakSasa adhipaH = demons, king; kaala coditaH = by Time [the Terminator,] ushered; pathya hita vaktaaram = doing good - conducive, beneficial, who is speaking; tam maariicam = to him, to that Maareecha; a yuktam = unbefitting; paruSam vaakyam abraviit = uncouthly, words, spoke.
Ushered by the Terminator the king of demons Ravana, uncouthly spoke these unbefitting words to Maareecha who had been speaking conducive and beneficial words of advise. [3-40-2]
yat kila etat ayuktārtham mārīca mayi kathyate |
vākyam niṣphalam atyartham bījam uptam iva ūṣare || 3-40-3
3. maariica = oh, Maareecha; a yukta artham = without, having, meaning - meaningless words; yat = that which; etat vaakyam = all these, sentence - advisory words; mayi = in me [to me]; kathyate = being said; that; uuSare uptam biijam iva = in wasteland, seeded, seed, like; ati artham = very, much - decidedly; niS phalam = without, fruit - worthless; kila = in effect.
"All these meaningless words that are being said to me are decidedly worthless, in effect, like the seeds seeded in wastelands. [3-40-3]
tvat vākyaiḥ na tu mām śakyam - bhetum - bhettum rāmasya saṃyuge |
pāpa śīlasya mūrkhasya mānuṣasya viśeṣataḥ || 3-40-4
4. tvat vaakyaiH = by your, words; paapa shiilasya = evil, in character - an iniquitous one; muurkhasya = imprudent one; visheSataH maanuSasya = especially, human; raamasya = from such a Rama; maam samyuge bhetum [bhettum] = me, from a war, to scare; na shakyam = not, possible.
"But it is impossible to scare me away from a war with that iniquitous and imprudent Rama, that too, from a human being, with these words of yours. [3-40-4]
There is a grammarian's irk in bhettum ' to cut off, to destroy' bhetum 'to scare me' and if bhettum is taken, then 'it is impossible for that human to destroy me in war' will be the meaning, as per Eastern recension.
yaḥ tyaktvā suhṛdo rājyam mātaram pitaram tathā |
strī vākyam prākṛtam śrutvā vanam eka pade gataḥ || 3-40-5
5. yaH = who is - which Rama is; praakR^itam strii vaakyam shrutvaa = artless, woman's, word, on hearing; su hR^idaH = good, hearted - friends and relatives; raajyam = kingdom; maataram = mother; tathaa = likewise; pitaram = father; tyaktvaa = on leaving; eka pade = in single, foot - trotted, loped; vanam gataH = forest, went to - bolted off; ellip. maama bhetum nashakyaa = you cannot scare me away from such a Rama.
"He who bolted off to forest in a single-foot on hearing the artless words of a woman, forfeiting his kingdom, friends and relatives, and even his mother, likewise his father too, you cannot scare me away from such a Rama. [3-40-5]
avaśyam tu mayā tasya saṃyuge khara ghātinaḥ |
prāṇaiḥ priyatarā sītā hartavyā tava saṃnidhau || 3-40-6
6. samyuge khara ghaatinaH = in war, Khara, killer of; tasya praaNaiH priya taraa siitaa = than his, by lives, dear, more, Seetha; tava sannidhau = in your, presence - with your help; avashyam mayaa hartavyaa = certainly, by me, is to be stolen - seizable.
"But his wife Seetha who is dearer to him more than his lives is certainly seizable by me in association with you, as that Rama had purposelessly killed Khara in a war. [3-40-6]
evam me niścitā buddhiḥ hṛdi mārīca vidyate |
na vyāvartayitum śakyā sa indraiḥ api sura asuraiḥ || 3-40-7
7. maariica = oh, Maareecha; me buddhiH evam nishcitaa = my, thinking, in this way, is decided; and; hR^idi vidyate [vartate] = in heart, obtains [lingering on] sa indraiH sura asuraiH api = with, Indra, by gods, by demons, even; vyaavartayitum = to revolute, to roll back; na shakyaa = not, possible.
"In this way my thinking is decided and it is lingering on in my heart, and it is impossible to roll back my mind or heart even for Indra coming along with gods and demons. [3-40-7]
doṣam guṇam vā saṃpṛṣṭaḥ tvam evam vaktum arhasi |
apāyam vā api upāyam vā kāryasya asya viniścaye || 3-40-8
8. asya kaaryasya vinishcaye = of that, deed's, in determining; doSam guNam vaa = discredit, credit, or; apaayam vaa api = danger, either, or; upaayam vaa = ideation, or; sampR^iSTaH = if [you are] asked; tvam evam vaktum arhasi = you, this way, to talk, apt of you.
"If you are asked about the credits or discredits, or either of the danger or ideation of the deed for determining its modus operandi, it will be apt of you to talk like this, but I did not seek any viewpoints of yours. [3-40-8]
saṃpṛṣṭena tu vaktavyam sacivena vipaścitā |
udyata aṃjalinā rājñe ya icchet bhūtim ātmanaḥ || 3-40-9
9. yaH = he who; aatmanaH bhuutim icChet = his own, welfare, if desires; such a one; sampR^iSTena = someone who is asked; vipashcitaa = by an intellectual; sacivena = by an adviser; udyata anjalinaa = with upraised, folded palms; raaj~ne [raaj~naH] = to king; vaktavyam = is liable to speak.
"Even if someone is asked, and if he desires his own welfare, then he has to submit his opinion to the king suppliantly upraising his palm-fold, may he be an intellectual, or an astute adviser. [3-40-9]
A king cannot be addressed unless he asks. Then Maareecha, who is fully aware of monarchical protocol, how he informed his analysis of Rama to Ravana, will be the question. Even if a king is resolute in undertaking a mad act, he is to be cautioned. In some cases, a king is to be held by hair and taught, as a teacher holds the taught by his tuft of hair to earbash. Likewise an upright minister shall counsel the king properly, as Krishna advises Vidura in Maha Bharata at Udyoga Parva 93:
nanu evam sati niitij~no maariico raavaNena apR^iShTaH katham uktavaan it cet - tanna - unmatto raaj~naa prashna akareNa api kaaryaatyaprasaktau nigR^ihya api vaktavyatvaat - tathaa ca pR^iShTen naiva vaktavyam iti katham vaktum shakyata iti cenna - pR^iShTenaiva vaktavyam iti etasya svastha avastha raaja viShayatvaat - aapadi uttham pratipanne c raajani kesha grahaNa puurvakam pR^iShTe naa api vaktavyam eva - dk .
vākyam apratikūlam tu mṛdu pūrvam śubham hitam |
upacāreṇa yuktam ca vaktavyo vasudhā adhipaḥ || 3-40-10
10. vasudhaa adhipaH = a land, lord of - a king; a prati kuulam = not, going against - contradictory; mR^idu puurvam = gentility, preceding; hitam = beneficial; shubham = favourable; upacaareNa yuktam ca = etiquette, inclusive of, also; vaakyam = with such a - sentence; vaktavyaH = is to be addressed.
"The king being lord of the land is to be addressed preceded with gentility, with auspicious and beneficial words that do not contradict the interests of that lord, more so, they shall be inclusive of etiquette. [3-40-10]
The imperial protocol is an exaggerated affair, as known to everybody. Here Ravana is demanding one more aspect in demanding, 'the words that do not go against the whims and fancies of the king.' And this is more than an autocrat's mentality. Dharmaakuutam says referring to Kaamandaka, a scripture on political science: 'even if a king asks, one shall not 'readily' reply though every aspect of that question is known to the replier, and the subject speaking in the audience of a king shall forget his own know-all-ness or his own entity in the knowledge of the subject at issue. vijaanan na api bruuyaat bhartruH kShiptaH uttaram vacaH | praviiNo api hi medhaavii varjayet abhimaanitaam ||.
sa avamardam tu yat vākyam athavā mārīca hitam ucyate |
na abhinaṃdati tat rājā mānārthī māna varjitam || 3-40-11
11. maariica = oh, Maareecha; athavaa = or else; maana varjitam = honour, devoid of - dishonourable words; yat hitam vaakyam tu = which, beneficial, advise, but; sa ava mardam = with, down, letting - with reprehension; ucyate = will be said so; tat = that advise; maana arthii [or, maanaarhaH] = honour, insists upon [honourable]; raajaa = king; na abhi nandati = not, towards [him,] gladdens.
"Or else, oh, Maareecha, even if a beneficial word is said, but if it is said with reprehension it will not gladden that king who insists upon honour, for that said word is dishonourable, let alone reprehension. [3-40-11]
paṃca rūpāṇi rājāno dhārayanti amita ojasaḥ |
agneḥ indrasya somasya yamasya varuṇasya ca || 3-40-12
12. a mita ojasaH = not, limited in vigour - with infinite, vigour; raajaanaH = kings; agneH indrasya somasya yamasya varuNasya ca = of Fire, Indra [the Administrator of Natural Forces,] Moon, Terminator, Rain, also; panca ruupaaNi dhaarayanti = five, aspects - constituent forces, he bear - he embodies.
"The kings with infinite vigour embody five constituents forces of Fire, Moon, Rain, Terminator, and that of Indra, the Administrator of Natural Forces. [3-40-12]
auṣṇyam tathā vikramam ca saumyam daṇḍam prasannatām |
dhārayanti mahātāmno rājānaḥ kṣaṇadācara || 3-40-13
tasmāt sarvāsu avasthāsu mānyāḥ pūjyāḥ ca pārthivāḥ |
13, 14a. kshaNadaa cara = oh, night, walker Maareecha; mahaataamnaH raajaanaH = great-souls, kings; auSNyam = sultriness; tathaa = likewise; vikramam ca = sternness, also; saumyam daNDam prasannataam = softness, harshness, suppleness; dhaarayanti = they are bearing - they personify; tasmaat paarthivaaH = therefore, kings; sarvaasu avasthaasu = in all, situations; maanyaaH puujyaaH ca = are respectable, reverential, also.
"Oh, nightwalker, thus the kings being great-souls personify the sultriness of Fire, sternness of Indra, softness of Moon, suppleness of Rain, and harshness of Terminator, and therefore in all situations they are respectable and reverential. [3-40-13, 14a]
Ravana has already conquered Indra and the said gods are responsible for the routine administration of universe. Hence, he is informing Maareecha about ordinary kings, presuming that Maareecha does not recognize the rectitude in dealing with ordinary kings, more so, with the king of kings, namely Ravana himself, which he says in next verse. A king acquires these traits of the presiding deities of the compass, by virtue of his kingship, and the sages said the very same to Rama when he entered Dandaka forest. anena agni aadi dik paalaka ruupatvaat raajaa puujyo maanyaH ca iti suucitam - dk .
tvam tu dharmam avijñāya kevalam moham āśritaḥ || 3-40-14
abhyāgatam mām daurātmyāt paruṣam vadasi īdṛśam |
14b, 15a. tvam tu = you, on your part; dharmam a vij~naaya = rectitude, not, knowing - incognizant of; kevalam moham aashritaH = only, your obsession, holding on to; abhi aagatam maam = to your near, who came, with me; daur aatmyaat = with ill, wishing; iidR^isham paruSam vadasi = this way, ill-advisedly, you are babbling.
"But you are ill-advisedly babbling with me in this way, incognizant of rectitude and holding on to your obsession, and wishing ill of me, as I am on your doorstep. [3-40-14b, 15a]
guṇa doṣau na pṛcchāmi kṣamam ca ātmani rākṣasa || 3-40-15
mayā uktam api ca etāvat tvām prati amitavikrama |
15. raakSasa = oh, demon; guNa doSau = rights, wrongs; aatmani = for me; [yat = which is]; kSamam ca = expedient, also; na pR^icChaami = not, I asked; a mita vikrama = oh, one with not, limited, brave - oh, Maareecha untold bravery; tvaam prati = you, addressing [samprati = presently]; etaavat = this much; mayaa uktam api ca = by me, said, but, also.
"Oh, demon, I did not ask the rights and wrongs concerning me, nor that which is expedient for me, but oh, demon of untold bravery, I have said this much to you. [3-40-15]
asmin tu sa bhavān kṛtye sāhāyyam kartum arhasi || 3-40-16
śruṇu tat karma sāhāyye yat kāryam vacanāt mama |
16. asmin tu kR^itye = in this, but, deed; [tvam = you]; saahaayyam kartum arhasi = helping hand, to proffer, apt of you; mama vacanaat = my, from words - as I say; sa bhavaan = such as you are, you; saahaayye = in such assistance; yat kaaryam = which, is to be done; tat karma shruNu = that, task, you listen.
" 'It will be apt of you to proffer a helping hand in this deed.' This much I said to you. And such as you are you may now listen to that task which you have to undertake during the course of your assistance as I detail it to you. [3-40-16]
sauvarṇaḥ tvam mṛgo bhūtvā citro rajata bindubhiḥ || 3-40-17
āśrame tasya rāmasya sītāyāḥ pramukhe cara |
pralobhayitvā vaidehīm yathā iṣṭam gantum arhasi || 3-40-18
17. tvam = you; rajata bindubhiH = with silver, spots; citraH sauvarNaH mR^igaH bhuutvaa = amazing, golden, deer, on becoming; tasya raamasya aashrame = in that one, Rama's, in hermitage; siitaayaaH pra mukhe cara = in Seetha's, fore, front forefront, you move; vaidehiim pra lobhayitvaa = Vaidehi, on verily, alluring; yathaa iSTam gantum arhasi = as, you like, to go away, apt of you.
"On becoming an amazing silver-potted golden deer you move in front of Seetha in the hermitage of Rama, and on verily alluring Vaidehi you can go away as you like. [3-40-17, 18 ]
tvām hi māyā mayam dṛṣṭvā kāṃcanam jāta vismayā |
ānaya enam iti kṣipram rāmam vakṣyati maithilī || 3-40-19
19. maithilii = Maithili; kaancanam [mR^igam ] = golden [deer]; maayaa mayam = illusory, wholly; tvaam dR^iSTvaa = you, on seeing; jaata vismayaa = with arisen, curiosity; enam kSipram aanaya = this one, quickly, be brought; iti = thus; raamam vakSyati hi = to Rama, tells, indeed.
"On seeing you as a wholly illusory golden deer curiosity arises in Vaidehi, and indeed she tells Rama, 'bring that one quickly.' [3-40-19]
apakrānte ca kākutsthe dūram ca yātvā api udāhara |
hā sīte lakṣmaṇe iti evam rāma vākya anurūpakam || 3-40-20
20. kaakutsthe apa kraante ca = Kakutstha, out, coming, further; [tvam = you]; duuram yaatvaa ca = distantly, having gone, also; raama vaakya anu ruupakam = Rama's, words [voice,] following, in model [mimicking]; haa siite lakshmaNe = ha, Seetha, ha, Lakshmana; iti evam thus, in that way; udaahara api = express - you blurt out even.
"Further, on Rama's coming out of his hermitage you go distantly and blurt out in this way, 'ha Seetha' and even as, 'ha, Lakshmana,' mimicking Rama's voice. [3-40-20]
tat śrutvā rāma padavīm sītāyā ca pracoditaḥ |
anugacchati saṃbhrāṃtam saumitriḥ api sauhṛdāt || 3-40-21
21. saumitriH api = Soumitri, even; tat shrutvaa = that, on hearing; siitaayaa ca pra coditaH = = by Seetha, further, well, hastened; sambhraantam = apprehensively; sauhR^idaat = due to fondness towards Rama; raama padaviim = on Rama's, path; anugacChati = follows.
"On hearing that, and further hastened by Seetha, even Soumitri apprehensively follows the path of Rama in all his fondness for Rama. [3-40-21]
apakrānte ca kākutsthe lakṣmaṇa ca yathā sukham |
āhariṣyāmi vaidehīm sahasrākṣaḥ śacīm iva || 3-40-22
22. kaakutsthe = Rama; lakshmaNa ca = Lakshmana, as well; apa kraante = when sidetracked; vaidehiim = Vaidehi; sahasra akSaH shaciim iva = thousand, eyed one [Indra,] Sachi, like; yathaa sukham aahariSyaami = as per, convenience - effortlessly, I carry off.
"When Rama is diverted from hermitage, Lakshmana as well, I will carry off Vaidehi effortlessly like the Thousand-eyed Indra who once carried off Sachi Devi. [3-40-22]
evam kṛtvā tu idam kāryam yathā iṣṭam gaccha rākṣasa |
rājyasya ardham pradāsyāmi mārīca tava suvrata || 3-40-23
23. raakSasa = oh, demon; idam kaaryam evam kR^itvaa = this, stint, in this manner, on carrying out; yathaa iSTam gacCha = as, you like, you go; su vrata = oh, one with solemnly, avowed one; maariica = oh, Maareecha; tava = to you; raajyasya ardham pradaasyaami = kingdom's, half, I grant.
"Oh, demon, on carrying out this stint in this manner you may go as you like, and to you oh, Maareecha with solemn vows, I will grant half of my kingdom. [3-40-23]
gaccha saumya śivam mārgam kāryasya asya vivṛddhaye |
aham tu anugamiṣyāmi sa ratho daṇḍakā vanam || 3-40-24
24. saumya = oh, gentle one; asya kaaryasya vi vR^iddhaye = for this, for task's, verily, for progressing - for easy achievement; shivam maargam gacCha = ontrouble-free, path, you get going; aham tu = I, for my part; sa rathaH daNDakaa vanam anugamiSyaami = with, chariot, to Dandaka, forest, I wish to follow.
"Hence, oh, gentle one, get going on a trouble-free path for the easy achievement of the task, and I for myself will follow you to Dandaka forest along with the chariot. [3-40-24]
prāpya sītām ayuddhena vaṃcayitvā tu rāghavam |
laṃkām prati gamiṣyāmi kṛta kāryaḥ saha tvayā || 3-40-25
25. raaghavam vancayitvaa tu = Raghava, on misleading, but; siitaam a yuddhena praapya = Seetha, without, conflict, on gaining; kR^ita kaaryaH = on gaining, task - my goal; tvayaa saha = you, along with; lankaam prati gamiSyaami = Lanka, towards, I will proceed.
"My goal will be achieved just by misleading Raghava, and by gaining Seetha without a conflict, then I will proceed to Lanka along with you. [3-40-25]
no cet karoṣi mārīca hanmi tvām aham adya vai |
etat kāryam avaśyam me balād api kariṣyasi |
rājño hi pratikūlastho na jātu sukham edhate || 3-40-26
26. maariica = oh, Maareecha; na karoSi cet = not, going to do, if; tvaam aham adya vai hanmi = you, I, now itself, truly, I kill; me etat kaaryam = mine, this, work; balaat api avashyam kariSyasi = by duress, even, certainly, you undertake - I will get it done; raaj~naH prati kuula sthaH = to king, indeed, opposite, staying - subjects that set against; jaatu = never; sukham na edhate hi = safely, not, succeeds, indeed.
"If you are not going to do so, oh, Maareecha, for sure I will kill you now itself. I will get my work done through you even under duress, and indeed, any subject setting against his king will never succeed safely. [3-40-26]
āsādyā tam jīvita saṃśayaḥ te
mṛtyur dhruvo hi adya mayā virudhyataḥ |
etat yathāvat parigṛhya buddhyā
yat atra pathyam kuru tat tathā tvam || 3-40-27
27. tam = him - Rama; aasaadyaa = on getting at; te jiivita samshayaH = your, life, will be indefinite; mayaa virudhyataH = with me, conflicting; adya mR^ityuH dhruvaH hi = now, death, is definite, surely; etat buddhyaa = all this, keeping in view; yathaavat parigR^ihya = as befitting - conducive, receiving - understanding, conclusion; atra = in this issue; yat pathyam = what is, desirable; tat tvam tathaa kuru = that, you, that way, do.
"Your life may be indefinite on reaching Rama, but your death is surely definite now as you are conflicting with me. Hence, keeping all this in view you come to a conclusion that would be conducive to your interests, and whatever desirable to you let it be done in that way. " Thus Ravana spoke to Maareecha. [3-40-27]
- - - - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye araṇya kāṇḍe catvāriṃśaḥ sargaḥ
© Aug, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]
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