Rama and Lakshmana come to know about the curse of Viradha. Viradha desires to die in then hands of Rama according to the amendment given by the cursing authority, and thus he will be killed and relieved of his curse by Rama, and his elimination of negative forces starts with the elimination of Viradha. At the time of release from his curse, Viradha advises Rama to go to Sage Sharabhanga, who can advise Rama properly. It is said whenever a superior being is approached, he shall not be neared empty-handedly. So, the elimination of Viradha, first act of Rama to safeguard the diinajana parirakshana in Dandaka forests is the gift that Rama takes to the Sage Sharabhanga in next chapter. This is not a separate chapter in Baroda edition. But in Gorakhpur and Eastern versions it is a separate one.
ह्रियमाणौ तु काकुत्स्थौ दृष्ट्वा सीता रघूत्तमौ |
उच्चैः स्वरेण चुक्रोश प्रगृह्य सु महाभुजौ || ३-४-१
1. siitaa = Seetha; dR^iSTvaa = on seeing; pragR^ihya = on grabbing; hriyamaaNau su mahaa bhujau = being carried off, very great, shouldered ones [very dexterous ones]; kaakutsthau raghu uttamau = scions of Kakutstha, the best ones from Raghu dynasty Rama and Lakshmana; uccaiH svareNa chukrosha = in high-pitched voice, screamed.
On seeing those two very dexterous scions of Kakutstha, and the best ones from Raghu dynasty, namely Rama and Lakshmana, grabbed and being carried off, Seetha screamed in a high-pitched voice.[3-4-1]
एष दाशरथी रामः सत्यवान् शीलवान् शुचिः |
रक्षसा रौद्र रूपेण ह्रियते सह लक्ष्मणः || ३-४-२
2. satyavaan shiilavaan suchiH = truth abiding one, virtuous one, flawless one; esha daasharathii = he that, Dasharatha's, Rama; saha lakshmaNaH = with Lakshmana; rakshasaa raudra ruupeNa hriyate = by demon ,with ferocious look, being carried off.
"He that truth-abiding, virtuous, and the flawless Rama of Dasharatha is carried off along with Lakshmana by the demon with a ferocious look... [3-4-2]
माम् ऋका भक्ष इष्यन्ति शार्दूल द्वीपिनः तथा |
माम् हरः उत्सृज्य काकुत्स्थौ नमस्ते राक्षसोत्तमः || ३-४-३
3. maam R^ikaa tathaa shaarduula dviipinaH bhaksha iSyanti = me, wild-bears, like that, tigers, panthers, to eat, they aspire; raakshasa uttamaH = oh, demon, the best; maam haraH = me, thieve; utsR^ijya kaakutsthau = release, Kakutstha-s; namadte - te namaH = to you, my salutation.
"Wild bears, tigers and panthers aspire to eat me away... oh, best demon, thieve me instead and release Kakutstha-s... Hail to thee..." [Said Seetha.] [3-4-3]
तस्याः तत् वचनम् श्रुत्वा वैदेह्याः राम लक्ष्मणौ |
वेगम् प्रचक्रतुर् वीरौ वधे तस्य दुरात्मनः || ३-४-४
4. viirau = valorous ones Rama and Lakshmana; tasyaaaH vaidehyaaH tat vachanam shrutvaa = her, Vaidehi's, that, utterance, on hearing; dura aatmanaH = minded one's; tasya = of that Viradha; vadhe vegam prachakratuH = in killing, speedily, busied themselves.
On hearing Vaidehi's that utterance those valorous ones Rama and Lakshmana speedily busied themselves in eliminating that evil-minded demon Viradha. [3-4-4]
तस्य रौद्रस्य सौमित्रिः सव्यम् बाहुम् बभञ्ज ह |
रामः तु दक्षिणम् बाहुम् तरसा तस्य रक्षसः || ३-४-५
5. Soumitri; tasya raudrasya savyam baahum babhanja ha = that, ferocious one's, left, arm, severed, indeed; raamaH tu = Rama, too; tasya raakshasaH = of that, demon; dakshiNam baahum right, shoulder, tarasa [babhanja]= wikth might, [rent].
Soumitri indeed severed the left arm of that ferocious one, while Rama rent the right arm of that demon with his might. [3-4-5]
सः भग्न बहुः संविग्नः पपात आशु विमूर्छितः |
धरण्याम् मेघ संकाशो वज्र भिन्न इव अचलः || ३-४-६
6. bhagna baahuH megha samkaashaH saH = mutilated, arms, dark-cloud, similar to, he that demon; samvignaH muurchitaH = frustrated, fainted; vajra bhinnaH achala iva = by Thunderbolt, demolished, mountain, like; aashu papaata dharaNyaa = quickly, fell-down, onto the ground.<
When his arms are mutilated that demon similar to a dark-cloud is frustrated, fainted, and fell onto ground, like the mountain demolished by the Thunderbolt of Indra. [3-4-6]
मुष्टिभिर् बाहुभिर् पद्भिः सूदयन्तौ तु राक्षसम् |
उद्यंयोद्यंय च अपि एनम् स्थण्डिले निष्पिपेषतुः || ३-४-७
7. raakshasaam = that demon is; mushtibhiH baahubhiH padbhiH = with fists, with hands, with feet; suudayantau tu = battering, but; [Rama and Lakshmana]; enam = him; udyama udyamya cha api = heaving and heaving, also, even; staNDile niS pipeSatuH = on ground, entirely, pounded.
They battered that demon with their fists, hands and feet, and even by heaving and hurling him again and again they entirely pounded on him on the ground. [3-4-7]
स विद्धो बहुभिर् बाणैः खड्गाभ्याम् च परिक्षतः |
निष्पिष्टो बहुधा भूमौ न ममार स राक्षसः || ३-४-८
8. saH = he is; bahubhiH baaNaiH viddhaH = by many, arrows, hurt; khadgaabhyaam cha parikshtaH = by two swords, even, sheared off; bahudhaa bhuumau nisH pishtaH = in many ways, on ground, [though] entirely, pounded; saH raakshasa na mamaara = he, that demon, not, killed.
Though that demon is battered with many arrows, even sheared off with two swords, and even though he is entirely pounded on the ground he is not killed. [3-4-8]
तम् प्रेक्ष्य रामः सुभृशम् अवध्यम् अचल उपमम् |
भयेषु अभय दः श्रीमान् इदम् वचनम् अब्रवीत् || ३-४-९
9. bhayeSu abhaya daH = in fear, shelter, bestower [Rama]; shriimaaan = sublime one; achala upamam = mountain, in simile; tam su bhR^ishaam = very easily; a vadhyam = not, eliminable; prekshya = on observing; idam vachanam abraviit = this, sentence, spoke.
On observing that the mountain-similar demon is ineradicable that easily, then Rama, the sublime one, and the bestower of shelter in fear, spoke this sentence to Lakshmana. [3-4-9]
तपसा पुरुषव्याघ्र राक्षसोऽयम् न शक्यते |
शस्त्रेण युधि निर्जेतुम् राक्षसम् निखनावहे || ३-४-१०
10. purSa vyaaghraH = manly tiger - Lakshmana; tapasaa = by penance; raakshasaH ayam = demon, this one; yudhi shashtreNa nirjetum = in war, by weapons, to overpower; na shakyate = not, possible to; raakshasam nikhanaavahe = demon be, bury we will.
"Oh! Manly-tiger Lakshmana, it is impossible to overpower this demon with weapons in a confrontation, hence, let's bury this demon... [3-4-10]
कुंजर्स्य इव रौद्रस्य राक्षसस्य अस्य लक्ष्मण! |
वने अस्मिन् सुमहद् श्वभ्रम् खन्यताम् रौद्रवर्चसः || ३-४-११
11. Lakshmana; raudrasya raudra karmaNaH asya raakshasya = for furious one, for ferocious, reprobate, for this, demon; kunjarasya iva = for an elephant, as though; asmin = in forest; su mahat swabhram khanyataam = very, deep, pit, be dug.
"Lakshmana, a very deep pit be dug for this furious and ferocious reprobate in this forest, as though for an elephant... [3-4-11]
इति उक्त्वा लक्ष्मणम् रामः प्रदरः खन्यताम् इति |
तस्थौ विराधम् आक्र्ंय कण्ठे पादेन वीर्यवान् || ३-४-१२
12. viiryavaan = valiant one Rama; lakshmaNam = to Lakshmana; pradara khanyataam iti = trench, shall be dug, thus; uktvaa = having said; viraadham paadena kanThe aakramya tasthau = Viradha is, with foot, on the throat, overcoming [repressing,] stood in readiness.
On saying to Lakshmana that a trench shall be dug...' then Rama repressively placed his foot on the throat of Viradha, and stood by. [3-4-12]
तत् श्रुत्वा राघवेण उक्तम् राक्षसः प्रश्रितम् वचः |
इदम् प्रोवाच काकुत्स्थम् विराधः पुरुषर्षभम् || ३-४-१३
13. raakshasaH = the demon - Viradha; tat shrutvaa raaghaveNa uktam = that, on hearing, what by Raghava, said; puruSarSabhaH kaakuthsam = man, the best, to Kakutstha; idam prashritam vachaH = this, humble, words; pra uvaacha = well [sincerely,] spoke.
On hearing that said by Raghava, demon Viradha sincerely spoke these humble words to Rama, the finest one from Kakutstha dynasty. [3-4-13]
हतोऽहम् पुरुषव्याघ्रः शक्र तुल्य बलेन वै |
मया तु पूर्वम् त्वम् मोहान् न ज्ञातः पुरुषर्षभः || ३-४-१४
14. purusH vyaaghraH = man, the tiger; shakra tulya balena vai = Indra, equalling, in strength, indeed; [by you]; aham hataH = I am, dead; puruSrSabha = oh, man, the best; mayaa mohaat tu = by me, fallaciously, but; tvam puurvam na j~naataH = you are, earlier, [by me] unidentified.
"Dead I am, oh! Manly-tiger and a coequal of Indra in your strength... I have fallaciously not identified you earlier... oh, best one among men... [3-4-14]
कौसल्या सुप्रजातः तात रामः त्वम् विदितो मया |
वैदेही च महाभागा लक्ष्मणः च महायशाः || ३-४-१५
15. taataH = sire; tvam = you are; kausalyaa suprajaa = Kausalya's, son; as Rama; mayaa viditaH = by me, know to be; vaidehii cha mahaabhaagaa = Vaidehi, also, propitious one; Lakshmana cha mahaayashaH = Lakshmana, too, great, renowned one [are now known.]
"Oh, sire, now I have known you to be Rama, the son of Kausalya... and even propitious Seetha and greatly renowned one Lakshmana are now known to me... [3-4-15]
अभि शापाद् अहम् घोरम् प्रविष्टो राक्ष्सीम् तनुम् |
तुंबुरुः नाम गन्धर्वः शप्तो वैश्रवणेन हि || ४-३-१६
16. abhishaapaat = by curse; aham praviSTaH ghoram rakshasiim tanum = I, entered, ghoulish, demon's, body; tumburuH naama gandharava = Tumburu, named, celestial [I am]; shaptaH = cursed; vaishrvaNena hi = by Kubera, verily.
"By curse I had to enter this ghoulish demon's body, but I am a celestial gandharva, named Tumburu and Kubera cursed me... [3-4-16]
प्रसाद्यमानः च मया सोऽब्रवीत् माम् महायशाः |
यदा दाशरथी रमः त्वाम् वधिष्यति संयुगे || ३-४-१७
तदा प्रकृतिम् आपन्नो भवान् स्वर्गम् गमिष्यति |
17-18a. prasaadyamaanaH cha mayaa = entreated, he was, also, by me; mahaa yashaH, saH = great, renowned one, he, Kubera; abraviit maam = said, to me; yadaa dasharathii raamaH = when, Dasharatha's, Rama; tvaam vadhiSyati samyuge = you, kills, in fight; tadaa prakR^itim aapannaH = then, natural state [celestial body,] you attain; bhavaan swargam gamiSyati = you, to heavens, can go;.
"When entreated by me, he that greatly renowned Kubera said to me, 'When Dasharatha's Rama kills you in a fight... then you will attain your nature of celestial body and you will go to heavens...' [3-4-17, 18a]
अनुपस्थीयमानो माम् स क्रुद्धो व्याजहार ह || ३-४-१८
इति वैश्रवणो राजा रंभ आसक्तम् उवाच ह |
18b, 19a. anupasthiiya maanaH = not, presenting myself; maam = to me; sa kruddhaH vyaajahaaraH ha = in anger, said verily [cursed]; iti vaishravaNaH raajaa = thus, by Vaishravana, [Kubera,] the king; rambha aasaktam = in Rambha, interested; uvaaca ha = said [this curse-clearance,] indeed.
" King Kubera thus cursed angrily me for not presenting myself in his service when I was interested in a celestial dancer Rambha, and indeed he alone said this curse-clearance to me... [3-4-18b, 19a]
तव प्रसादान् मुक्तो अहम् अभिशापात् सु दारुणात् || ३-४-१९
भुवनम् स्वम् गमिष्यामि स्वस्ति वोऽस्तु परंतप |
19b, 20a. tava prasaadaat = by your, grace; su daaruNaH = utterly hideous one; abhi shaapaat = from the curse; muktaH aham = released, I am; bhuvanam swam gama iSyaami = to heavens, mine, [now,] to go, I wish; swasti vaH astu = safe, you all, will be; param tapa = others [enemies',] firestorm.
" And by your grace I am released from this utterly hideous cruse, and now I wish to go to my own heavenly abode, oh, firestorm of enemies, let safety betide you all... [3-4-19b, 20a]
The celestial beings are called sura and their antagonists are a-sura . There are many sura beings living in heavens and netherworlds. To name a few, they are uraga, garuda, gandharva, kimpurusha, siddha, saadhya, vidyaadhara, chaaraNa, apsara, yaksha, guhyaka, bhuuta, khechara and the like. Of them gandharva-s are amiable beings for their expertise in performing arts. The apsara beings are the divine courtesans and among them are four apsara beings of high order. They are Rambha, Urvashi, Menaka and Tilottama . These four are instrumental to Indra, to incite and allure sages from their austere penance, lest they may win over the ship on heavens from Indra. The present gandharva, namely Tumburu, in his courting with Rambha had belated his services to Kubera, the Chief Divinity for Wealth Management. Hence Kubera cursed this gandharva to become the demon called Viradha, but yet this Tumburu alias Viradha is the devotee of Goddess Lakshmi. The antagonists of sura are a-sura beings and all sorts of demons, monsters, etc., come under this category and they are not devils or Satan's stooges, but they equal the capabilities of sura beings. Prof. Ranade observes that "Dr. R.G. Bhandarkar, in an important article in the B.Br.A.S. Journal makes the following interesting suggestion. The Sanskrit equivalent of the word demon viz., 'Asurya' may here refer to the 'Assyrian' country. 'Assyrian and 'Asuryan' being philologically identical, the 'y' and the 'u' being interchangeable as in Greek..."
इतो वसति धर्मात्मा शरभङ्गः प्रतापवान् || ३-४-२०
अध्यर्थ योजने तातः महर्षिः सूर्य संनिभः |
तम् क्षिप्रम् अभिगच्छ त्वम् स ते श्रेयो अभिधास्यति || ३-४-२१
20b, 21. taata = sire; itaH adhyartha yojane = from here, after one and half, yojana-s; dharmaatmaa prataapavaan suurya sannibhaH = virtuous one, efficacious one, with sun-like resplendence; sharabhangaH mahariSiH vasati = Sharabhanga, great, saint, dwells; tvam kshipram tam abhigaccha = you, quickly, to him, approach; saH te shreyaH abhidaasyati = he, to you, opportune, advises.
"Oh, Sire, att one and half yojana-s of distance from here Sage Sharabhanga, a great saint of virtue, and an efficacious sage with sun-like resplendence dwells, you shall quickly approach him for he advises you opportunely... [3-4-20-21]
अवटे च अपि माम् राम निक्षिप्य कुशली व्रज |
रक्षसाम् गत सत्त्वानाम् एष धर्मः सनातनः || ३-४-२२
अवटे ये निधीयन्ते तेषाम् लोकाः सनातनाः |
22, 23a. Rama; avaTe cha api maam = in a pit, also, thus, me; prakshipya = bury; kushalii vraja = safely, you go; gata sattvaanaam = lost, vitality; rakshasaam = to demons; eSa dharma sanaatanaH = this is, custom, age-old; avaTe ye nidhiiyante = in pit, those, inhumed; teSaam lokaaH sanaatanaH = to them, worlds of manes.
"Rama you go safely on burying me in a pit... this is the age-old custom for those demons that lost vitality... those that are inhumed in pit, to them there will be the worlds of manes..." [3-4-22, 23a]
एवम् उक्त्वा तु काकुत्स्थम् विराधः शर पीडितः || ३-४-२३
बभूव स्वर्ग संप्राप्तो न्यस्त देहो महाबलः |
23b, 24a. evam uktavaa = thus, saying; kaakuthsam = to Rama; Viradha; shara piiditaH = by arrows, hurt; babhuuva swarga sampraaptaH = became, heavens, attained [heaven-worthy]; nystha dehaH mahaabalaH = on leaving, body, of mighty, strength.
"And on saying thus to Rama that Viradha who is hurt by arrows became heaven-worthy on leaving his body. [3-4-23b, 24a]
तत् श्रुत्वा राघवः वाक्यम् लक्ष्मणम् व्यादिदेश ह || ३-४-२४
कुंजर्स्य इव रौद्रस्य राक्षसस्य अस्य लक्ष्मण! |
वने अस्मिन् सुमहत् श्वभ्रम् खन्यताम् रौद्रकर्मणः|| ३-४-२५
इति उक्त्वा लक्ष्मणम् रामः प्रदरः खन्यताम् इति |
तस्थौ विराधम् आक्रंय कण्ठे पादेन वीर्यवान् || ३-४-२६
24b, 25, 26. tat shrutvaa = that, hearing; Raghava; vakyam = words [of demon]; lakshmanam = to Lakshmana; vyaadidesha ha = ordered, indeed; O, Lakshmana; raudrasya raudra karmaNaH asya raakshasya = for furious one, for ferocious, reprobate, for this, demon; kunjarasya iva = for an elephant, as though; asmin = in forest; su mahat swabhram khanyataam = very, deep, pit, be dug. viiryavaan = valiant one Rama [spoke thus to Lakshmana]; lakshmaNam = to Lakshmana; pradara khanyataam iti = trench, shall be dug, thus; uktvaa = having said; viraadham paadena kanThe aakramya tasthau = Viradha is, with foot, on the throat, overcoming [repressing,] stood in readiness.
And Raghava on hearing those words of the demon ordered Lakshmana, "Lakshmana, a very deep pit be dug for this furious and ferocious reprobate in this forest, as though for an elephant..." On saying to Lakshmana that a trench shall be dug...' then Rama repressively placed his foot on the throat of Viradha, and stood by. [3-4-24b, 25, 26]
ततः खनित्रम् आदाय लक्ष्मणः श्वभ्रम् उत्तमम् |
अखनत् पार्श्वतः तस्य विराधस्य महात्मनः || ३-४-२७
27. tataH khanitram aadaaya = then, dig-tool, on taking; Lakshmana; uttamam shvabhram akhanat = deep, pit, dug; paarshvataH tasya viradhasya mahaa aatmanaH = beside of, that, of Viradha, the great soul.
Then, on taking a digging tool Lakshmana dug a deep pit beside the great soul Viradha. [3-4-27]
तम् मुक्त कण्ठम् उत्क्षिप्य शङ्कु कर्णम् महास्वनम् |
विराधम् प्राक्षिपत् श्वभ्रे नदन्तम् भैरव स्वनम् || ३-४-२८
28. tam mukta kanTham = him, on releasing, his throat; utkshipya = raised [to throw into grave]; shanku karNam = long eared one [like an ass]; mahaa swanam = one with lurid, voiced; viraadham = Viradha is; praakshipaH = ensconced; shwabhre = in the pit; nadantam = while he is still blaring; bhairava swanam = with horrific, voice.
On releasing his throat from the stamping of Rama, he that long eared, lurid voiced Viradha is ensconced in that pit while he is still blaring with his horrific voice. [3-4-28]
तम् आहवे दारुणम् आशु विक्रमौ
स्थिरौ उभौ संयति राम लक्ष्मणौ |
मुदान्वितौ चिक्षिपतुर् भयावहम्
नदन्तम् उत्क्षिप्य बिलेन राक्ष्सम् || ३-४-२९
29. aashu vikramau = deftly, victorious ones; samyati sthirau = in a fight, who compose themselves; raama lakshmaNau = Rama, Lakshmana; ubhau = both; muda anvitau = gladness, with [gladly]; aahave daaruNam = in fight, a ghoulish one; bhayaavaham = a terrifying one; tam nadantam = blaring one; raakshsam = him, that blaring, demon; utkshipya balena = raising up, by might; chikshipatuH = hurled; [avaTe = into pit.]
Those deftly victorious ones Rama and Lakshmana who compose themselves in a given fight, both have gladly raised that Viradha, a ghoulish one in fight, a terrifying demon who is still blaring, with all their might and hurled him into the pit. [3-4-29]
अवध्यताम् प्रेक्ष्य महासुरस्य तौ
शितेन शस्त्रेण तदा नरर्षभौ |
समर्थ्य च अत्यर्थ विशारदौ उभौ
बिले विरधस्य वधम् प्रचक्रतुः || ३-४-३०
30. tadaa = then; nararSabhau = best ones among men; ati artha vishaaradau = very, in skills, experts [very expertly skilled]; tau ubhau = those, two; shitena shastreNa = by any sharp, weapon; mahaa asurasya tasya viraadhasya = of great, demon, of that, Viradha's; a vadhyataam prekshya = indestructibility, on observing; samarthya cha = on thinking well, also; bil vadham prachakratuH = in pit, elimination, they have undertaken.
On observing the indestructibility of that demon with any weapon, however sharp it might be, those two best ones among men that are very expertly skilled have thought over well and undertook the elimination of that great demon in a pit. [3-4-30]
स्वयम् विराधेन हि मृत्युम् आत्मनः
प्रसह्य रामेण वधार्थम् ईप्सितः |
निवेदितः कानन चारिणा स्वयम्
न मे वधः शस्त्र कृतो भवेत् इति || ३-४-३१
31. viraadhena svayam aatmaanaH mR^ityuH = by Viradha, on his own, of his own death; prasahya = preferred; raameNa = by Rama; vathaartham = to be killed; iipsitaH = desired for a long; kaanana chaariNa = forest, walker; me shastra kR^itaH vadhaH na bhavet iti = to me, weapon, oriented, killing, not, possible, thus as; swayam niveditaH = he himself, apprised.
Viradha himself preferred his death at the hands of Rama and desired for a long to be killed by Rama and that forest walker himself appraised that, "Killing me with any weapon is impossible..." [3-4-31]
तदेव रामेण निशंय भाषितम्
कृता मतिः तस्य बिल प्रवेशने |
बिलम् च तेन अति बलेन रक्षसा
प्रवेश्यमानेन वनम् विनादितम् || ३-४-३२
32. tat bhaashitam eva nishamya = that, said [by Viradha,] only, on listening; raameNa tasya bila praveshane kR^ita matiH = by Rama, his, into pit, entering [casting him,] resolved, in mind; bilam praveshyamaanena = into pit, while being entered [while flungh in to pit]; ati balena tena raakshasaa vanam vinaaditam = very, mighty one, by him, that demon, forest, is verily, blared.
On listening to that which is said by Viradha, Rama resolved his mind to cast him into pit, and when that mighty demon is being flung into the pit the whole forest blared with that demon's cries. [3-4-32]
प्रहृष्ट रूपौ इव राम लक्ष्मणौ
विराधम् उर्व्याम् प्रदरे निपात्य तम् |
ननन्दतुः वीत भयौ महावने
शिलाभिः अन्तर् दधतुः च राक्षसम् || ३-४-३३
33. prahR^iSTa ruupaH iva = very, happy, looking, like; Rama, Lakshmana; tam viraadham = him, Viradha is; urvyaaH pradare = in earth's, in pit; nipaatya = on burying; viita bhayaH = gone is, the fear; mahaa vane = in great forest; nanandatuH = rejoiced; raakshasam shilaabhiH antar dadhutuH cha = demon is, with boulders, within, concealed, also.
Rama and Lakshmana felt happy by way of their look in burying Viradha in the pit of the earth, and on burying him they two felt rejoiced for gone is the fear in that great forest, and within the pit they have also concealed him with boulders in order to make it a burial-chamber to the departed soul. [3-4-33]
Everywhere Rama patiently performs these funeral rites, whether it is demon, eagle or a monkey, if dead in his presence. Here also, Viradha's grave is covered with stones and boulders, as a kind of Stonehenge.
ततः तु तौ कांचन चित्र कार्मुकौ
निहत्य रक्षः परिगृह्य मैथिलीम् |
विजह्रतुः तौ मुदितौ महावने
दिवि स्थितौ चन्द्र दिवाकरौ इव || ३-४-३४
34. tataH = then; kaanchana chitra kaarmukau = those having golden, dazzling, bows; tau = then, they two; nihatya rakshaH = on killing, the demon; parigR^ihya = took; maithiliim = Maithili; muditau = gladly; mahaa vane = in great, forests; divi sthitau = in skies, staying; tau = two; chandra divaakaraaH iva = Moon, Sun, like; vijahratuH = journeyed on.
Then they two who have dazzling golden bows have eliminated that demon and retrieved Seetha, and they gladly journeyed on in that great forest like the two entities abiding on the skies, namely the Sun and Moon. [3-4-34]
The simile of sun and moon is of some importance. It will not be clear as to, who is compared with Sun and who with Moon, unless some ancient commentaries are touched. Rama is compared with Chandra, the Moon, because, Moon will not travel without his wives. All the celestial stars are the wives of the Moon, and they twinkle before the Moon's arrival, in order to welcome him into the night. Hence Rama is suffixed with Chandra, compounding to Sri Ramachandra. On the other hand, Sun does not travel along with his wife, namely Chaya, the Shadow, but she always will be at his hind. We the living beings are in between the Sun and his wife Chaya. If we face Sun in the morning times, she will be at our back, and in the evenings, when the Sun is at our back, Chaya, shadow will be in front of us, reminding us of our lengthening shadow of life. Thus we are in between the light and shadow. The Sun is also called karma saakshi, [Witness of Deeds.] Our own shadow, shortens with the ascending Sun and lengthens as the dusk of our day or life increases. Hence Sun's travel is wife-less one, and Lakshmana is thus compared with the Sun, for he does not have his wife travelling with him now. And Lakshmana is another karma saakshi [Witness of Events] in the Ramayana. In another way of commenting it is said that both of them are said to be moon-like in their appeasing personalities and sun-like in their radiant valour.
The Episode of Viradha
The episode of Viraadha assumes some importance in Hindu mythology. It may be observed that Viraadha drops down Seetha, lifts and carries Rama and Lakshmana far away from Seetha, where Rama and Lakshmana kill Viraadha. aadhyaatma raamaayana which occurs in the chapter 61 of brahmaanmda puraana also narrates this episode of Viradha as a one to one fight, herein Rama affronts and kills him straight. But in Valmiki Ramayana, Viradha takes away Seetha first and then Rama and Lakshmana, too. A question arises as to why the demon should snatch Seetha away and later carry Rama and Lakshmana to a distant place from Seetha. It is part of the scheme that Rama kills no demon or sinner in the presence of Seetha, including Ravana, for she is that benevolent one to all the sinners and pardons them if surrendered in faith at her feet, as an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi. Our concern here is with skaanda purana , a Shiva Puraana, in which Viradha's episode is explained detailedly. The skaanda puraana puts it as:
so'pi taam jaanakii~N dR^iShTvaa shiighra~N sa~njaata
iya~N paraa mahaa shaktiH seya~N svargasya kaaraNa~N asyaa vibodho mokShepi kaaraNa~N bandhanepi ca |
tasmaat imaa~N bhajiShyami diShTyaa praapta~N hi darshanam |
iti darshana maatreNa vimuktaam augha pa~njaraH |
bhakti yukto jarahaara eNa~N siitaa~N caitanya ruupiNii~N |
On seeing Seetha Viraaadha thought, " She is the Supreme goddess through whom heavens can be obtained by salvation and also release from the bondage [of demon's body ] On just seeing Her, relieved is this body cage, so with all my devotion, I steal Her ." etc. Hence vi raadha meant to be verily, devout, like Radha of Krishna. When chased and hurt by Rama and Lakshmana, the demon releases Seetha, but carries both the brothers away. For this distancing Rama and Lakshmana from Seetha, it is said that Rama does not kill any demon in the presence of Seetha, for she graciously condones the mischief of the demons, if they are true devotees.
Again in skaanda puraana, at the end of this Viraaadha episode, the phala shruti [Fruit of Listening] it is narrated as:
yo viraadha vadha~N
nitya~N shR^iNoti shraavayeti vaa |
tasya paapaani sarvaaNi vinaShTaani na sa~NshayaH ||
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे चतुर्थः सर्गः
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© 1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised - March 04]