Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek
Shuurpanakha taunts Ravana for his un-kingly activities, by which his kingdom is going to face a calamitous situation soon. While gibing at him she narrates how a king, really fit for kingship, shall conduct the affairs of kingdom. She speaks many paradigms on which many commentaries are declined basing on kings and their vices.
This chapter vies with the 33rd chapter of Kishkindha Kanda in the attitudes of a king and his kingship. These two chapters, as detailed by ancient commentators, equally deal with raaja niiti shastra 'political science' and there in Kishkindha the only rescue to Sugreeva is Tara, who saves the face of Sugreeva before Lakshmana, whereas in here Ravana has none to come to his aid when chided by Shuurpanakha. Though Shuurpanakha is a sultry and harpy demoness, the Sage Valmiki has put some rational words on her tongue in forewarning Ravana.
tataḥ śūrpaṇakhā dīnā rāvaṇam loka rāvaṇam |
amātya madhye saṃkruddhā paruṣam vākyam abravīt || 3-33-1
1. tataH diinaa shuurpaNakhaa = then, doleful, Shuurpanakha; samkruddhaa = becoming furious; amaatya madhye = ministers, amid - in the presence of; loka raavaNam = world, on who makes to wail; raavaNam = to Ravana; paruSam vaakyam abraviit = scornful, words, spoke.
Then that doleful Shuurpanakha spoke these scornful words to Ravana who makes the world to wail in the presence of his ministers. [3-33-1]
pramattaḥ kāma bhogeṣu svaira vṛtto niraṃkuśaḥ |
samutpannam bhayam ghoram boddhavyam na avabudhyase || 3-33-2
2. pra mattaH = highly, infatuated; you are; kaama bhogeSu svaira vR^ittaH = in lustful, gratifications; without, goading [incontinent]; nir ankushaH = without, a goad - unchecked; boddhavyam = that which is to be known; sam utpannam ghoram bhayam = well arisen - surfaced, calamitous, jeopardy; na avabudhyase = not, observant - as a king.
"Highly infatuated with lustful gratifications you are incontinent and unchecked, thus you are unobservant of a calamitous jeopardy that has surfaced, though you ought to be observant of it as a king. [3-33-2]
saktam grāmyeṣu bhogeṣu kāma vṛttam mahīpatim |
lubdham na bahu manyante śmaśāna agnim iva prajāḥ || 3-33-3
3. graamyeSu bhogeSu saktam = in dirty, pleasures, clinging to; kaama vR^ittam = self, driven - deports in overly self-assured manner, swaggeringly; lubdham = with self-serving motives; mahiipatim = at king; prajaa = people; shmashaana agnim iva = in crematory ground, fire - crematory-fire, like; na bahumanyante = will not, honour.
"If a king deports himself in an overly self-assured manner, that too with self-serving motives, and clings only to dirty pleasures, he will be unhonoured by people as with a crematory fire. [3-33-3]
For those who are self-centred there will be no fear, no shame. artha aaturaaNaam na gurur na bandhuH | kaama aaturaaNaam na bhayam na lajja | kShudha aaturaaNaam na rucir na pakvam | vidya aaturaa Naam na sukham na nidraa -- niiti shaastra 'for money-mongers no venerable ones, no relative... for lust-mongers no fear, no shame... for food-mongers no taste, no proper baking... for education-mongers, no comfort, no sleep...' morals.
svayam kāryāṇi yaḥ kāle na anutiṣṭhati pārthivaḥ |
sa tu vai saha rājyena taiḥ ca kāryaiḥ vinaśyati || 3-33-4
4. yaH paarthivaH = which, king; kaale = on time; kaaryaaNi = concerns; svayam = personally; na anu tiSThati = will not, deal with; saH = he; raajyena saha = kingdom, along with; taiH kaaryaiH ca [saha] = with those, concerns, [together with]; vinashyati vai = gets ruined, indeed.
"The king who will not deal with the concerns of kingdom, in person and on time, he and his kingdom and even those concerns of his kingdom will get ruined. [3-33-4]
This can also be expressed as: ssaH taiH kaaryaiH saha raajyena ca vinashyati '...by those very issues of kingdom, the king along with his kingdom gets ruined...' because the major issue on hand is Rama and Lakshmana and they can ruin Ravana and his kingdom. Inordinate revelling in comforts and lust makes a king weak in body, mind, and time. The timely actions he is supposed to take do not come to mind because mind is weakened and benumbed. Then he is liable to believe his aids that may precisely land him into further troubles. Hence a king / ruler has to take actions and decisions personally, on time, duly remaining firm by his body and mind.
ayukta cāram durdarśam asvādhīnam narādhipam |
varjayanti narā dūrāt nadī paṃkam iva dvipāḥ || 3-33-5
5. a yukta caaram = not, with, spies - inaccessible to spies; dur darsham = impossible, to see [unavailable for an audience]; a sva adhiinam = not, in one's own, control - not, self-possessed, intemperate; nara adhipam = peoples, lord of - king; naraa = people - subjects; dvipaaH nadii pankam iva = elephants, river's, mud, as with; duuraat varjayanti = from distance, will eschew.
"If a king is inaccessible to spies for exchange of information, unavailable for subjects for an audience for a similar appraisal, more so if he is intemperately not able to impose self-discipline, people will eschew such a king from a distance as elephants will refrain themselves from the mud of river from a distance. [3-33-5]
Shuurpanakha knows that Ravana has spies all around, but she is also in the know that they are worthless fellows because they narrate mythologies after every thing is ruined, as was done by Akampana in the previous episode. There is none to caution him beforehand excepting herself, that is her confidence. So, she is haranguing Ravana to take immediate action, otherwise, there may be a mutiny or cold war in his kingdom, and his subjects may desert him during wartime, like Vibheeshana.
ye na rakṣanti viṣayam asvādhīnā narādhipaḥ |
te na vṛddhyā prakāśante girayaḥ sāgare yathā || 3-33-6
6. a sva adhiinaa = not, in self, restrained; ye naraadhipaH = which, kings; viSayam na rakSanti = kingdom, not, safeguard; te = those; vR^iddhyaa = by advantage; saagare girayaH yathaa = in ocean, mountain, like; na prakaashante = will not, outshine.
"Which of those kings that will not safeguard their kingdoms by remaining in a self-restrained manner, they will not outshine advantageously, like mountains submerged under ocean. [3-33-6]
"Without keeping the kingdom under your personal control, you have shuffled the administration onto the ministers and army personnel like Khara, Duushana et al. And these figureheads alone become the tiderips, for they quarrel among themselves about the kingship of Lanka after your ruin, and they alone are floating like oceanic tides up above your head and thus you are a submerged sovereign. In any way, your doom is destined either by Rama, who is an imminent danger, or by your military managers, who are the in-built dangers."
Ravana is no doubt mountainous in his wealth and prosperity but he is engulfed in the ocean called promiscuity, and as long as those waters of lust tiderip over his head he cannot surface himself.
ātmavadbhiḥ vigṛhya tvam deva gaṃdharva dānavaiḥ |
ayukta cāraḥ capalaḥ katham rājā bhaviṣyasi || 3-33-7
7. tvam = you; aatmavadbhiH = with clear-headed ones [sensible gods etc - externally]; deva gandharva daanavaiH = with gods, gandharva-s, [other] demons; vigR^ihya = belligerent; a yukta caaraH = without, having [not employed - needful of, internally] intelligence agents; such as you are, you; capalaH = are erratic; katham raajaa bhaviSyasi = how, as king, you thrive.
"Externally you are belligerent with sensible gods, gandharva-s and other demons, and internally you are needful of intelligence agents, and such as you are, you are an erratic even, then how can you thrive as a king! [3-33-7]
Your enmity with the sensible gods will make them sensitive to be vigilant. And because there is a lack of intelligence or agents to you, added to it there is a lack of your own personal intelligence required for a king, and above all there is a lacking in the insistence of real kingship with you. Then, will not those gods take opportunity to hit you back, for everything is lacking in you, except lusting?'
tvam tu bāla svabhāvat ca buddhi hīnaḥ ca rākṣasa |
jñātavyam tu na jānīṣi katham rājā bhaviṣyasi || 3-33-8
8. raakshasa = oh, demon; tvam tu = you, on your part; baala svabhaavat ca = you, but, of boyish, attitude [bent,] also; buddhi hiinaH ca = mind, less, also; GYaatavyam tu na jaaniiSi = knowable, but, not, knowing - because you are carefree; katham raajaa bhaviSyasi = how, as king, you thrive.
"Your bent is boyish and you are mindless, oh, demon, you are not able to know the knowable danger because you are carefree, and how do you thrive as a king! [3-33-8]
yeṣām cāraḥ ca kośaḥ ca nayaḥ ca jayatām vara |
asvādhīnā narendrāṇām prākṛtaiḥ te janaiḥ samāḥ || 3-33-9
9. jayataam vara = oh, among triumphant ones, best one - in dissent, sarcastically; yeSaam = to those; nara indraaNaam = men, lords of - for kings; caaraH ca koshaH ca nayaH ca = spies, also, treasury, also, strategies; a sva adhiinaa = not, in, one's own control -if they do not retain; te = they are; praakR^itaiH janaiH samaaH = peasant, people, equal to - tantamount to.
"Oh, so-called best one among triumphant kings, those kings that do not retain spies, treasuries and strategies under their control, but vouchsafe them to others, they are of a piece with the peasantry. [3-33-9]
yasmāt paśyanti dūrasthān sarvān arthān narādhipāḥ |
cāreṇa tasmāt ucyante rājāno dīrgha cakṣuṣaḥ || 3-33-10
10. nara adhipaaH = oh, humans, overlord of - in dissent; yasmaat = whereby; duurasthaan sarvaan arthaan = distantly situated, all, subjects - situations; caareNa = by spies; pashyanti = those that can see; tasmaat = thereby; raajaanaH = kings; diirgha cakSuSaH ucyante long, sighted [prescient ones]; they are called.
"Oh, titular overlord of humans, only some can be called prescient kings because they see all the situations happening distantly through their spies. [3-33-10]
Though the spies bring in various pieces of information they are to be collated and analysed by the king. anena caareNa vyavahitaa api arthaa avashyam vicaaraNiiyaa iti suucitam - dk 'so you neither have those intelligent spies nor the least intelligence required of a 'prescient king' thus your doom is certain.'
ayukta cāram manye tvām prākṛtaiḥ sacivaiḥ yutaḥ |
sva janam ca janasthānam nihatam na avabudhyase || 3-33-11
11. a yukta caaram = without, having [appointed,] spies - maladroit in organising spies; tvaam = you are; praakR^itaiH sacivaiH yutaH = with artless, ministers, one associated with; manye = I believe; [yaH = which you]; janasthaanam = Janasthaana [janasthaane = in Janasthaana]; sva janam nihatam = you own, subjects, as ruined; na avabudhyase = not, cognisant of.
"I believe that you have no spies worth their profession, yet you are associated with artless ministers worthy to worship you, hence you are incognisant of the ruination of all of your subjects in Janasthaana, including Janasthaana. [3-33-11]
caturdaśa sahasrāṇi rakṣasām bhīma karmaṇām |
hatāni ekena rāmeṇa kharaḥ ca saha dūṣaṇaḥ || 3-33-12
12. ekena raameNa = by only one, Rama; bhiima karmaNaam rakSasaam = of dreadful, deeds, demons; catur dasha sahasraaNi = four, ten, thousand; [janasthaane = in Janasthaana]; hataani = are killed; saha duuSaNaH = along with, Duushana; kharaH ca = Khara, is also - killed.
"A single soul called Rama has eliminated fourteen thousand demons of dreadful deeds in Janasthaana, even Duushana is killed, even Khara is also killed. [3-33-12]
ṛṣīṇām abhayam dattam kṛta kṣemāḥ ca daṇḍakāḥ |
dharṣitam ca janasthānam rāmeṇa akliṣṭa kāriṇā || 3-33-13
13. a kliSTa kaariNaa = without, fatigue [indefatigable,] performer of deeds - champion; raameNa = by Rama; R^iSiiNaam abhayam dattam = to sages, security, given; daNDakaaH = Dandaka forest; kR^ita kSemaaH ca = made, safeguard - rendered safe, as well; janasthaanam dharSitam ca = Janasthaana, assailed - put to rout, also.
"That indefatigable champion Rama gave security to the sages, rendered Dandaka forest safeguarded, and he put Janasthaana to rout. [3-33-13]
tvam tu lubdhaḥ pramattaḥ ca parādhīnaḥ ca rāvaṇa |
viṣaye sve samutpannam yo bhayam na avabudhyase || 3-33-14
14. raavaNa = oh, Ravana; tvam tu = you, on your part; lubdhaH = selfish; pra mattaH ca = hotheaded, also; para aadhiinaH ca = in other's, control, also - controlled by promiscuity; yaH = which, you are; sve viSaye = in one's, own kingdom; sam utpannam = rising up; bhayam na avabudhyase = calamity, not, perceptive of.
"On your part you are but selfish, hotheaded, and others like the appeasers of your lust, or these artless ministers, or those underpaid unfaithful spies hold you down, and such as you are, you are unperceptive of the calamity rising up against you in your own kingdom. [3-33-14]
tīkṣṇam alpa pradātāram pramattam garvitam śaṭham |
vyasane sarva bhūtāni na abhidhāvanti pārthivam || 3-33-15
15. tiikSNam = overweening; alpa pradaataaram = , scanty, endower [under-payer]; pramattam = improvident; garvitam = self-conceited; shaTham = who secretly harms - dubious; paarthivam = if the king is such; vyasane = in strife; sarva bhuutaani = all, beings - subjects; na abhi dhaavanti = not, towards, run - bid goodbye to such a king.
"Should a king be overweening, an under-payer, an improvident, self-conceited, and dubious, all his subjects bid goodbye to such a king when he is in strife. [3-33-15]
atimāninam agrāhyam ātma saṃbhāvitam naram |
krodhinam vyasane hanti sva jano api narādhipam || 3-33-16
16. ati maaninam = unduly, self-conceited; a graahyam = not, take to - unapproachable, self-centring; aatma sam bhaavitam = soul, well, adoring [self-adulating]; naram = such a man - here such a demon; krodhinam = a spitfire; naraadhipam = such a king; sva janaH api = own, people, even - kith and kin; vyasane = in his distress; hanti = will ruin.
"Should a ruler be unduly self-conceited, self-centred, self-adulating and a spitfire too, his own kith and kin will ruin him when he is in distress. [3-33-16]
na anutiṣṭhati kāryāṇi bhayeṣu na bibheti ca |
kṣipram rājyāt cyuto dīnaḥ tṛṇaiḥ tulyo bhavet iha || 3-33-17
17. Which king; kaaryaaNi na anutiSThati = good offices, will not, officiate; bhayeSu na bibheti ca = in panicky [situations, who is] not, panicked, also; kSipram raajyaat cyutaH = quickly, from kingdom, on falling - when overthrown; iha = here [in world]; diinaH = on becoming debased; tR^iNaiH tulyaH bhavet = piece of straw, equated, he will be.
"That king who does not officiate his good offices, nor un-panicked into panicky situations, he will be quickly overthrown from his kingdom, and on becoming a debased individual he will be equated with a piece of straw in this world. [3-33-17]
śuṣka kāṣṭhaiḥ bhavet kāryam loṣṭaiḥ api ca pāṃsubhiḥ |
na tu sthānāt paribhraṣṭaiḥ kāryam syāt vasudhādhipaiḥ || 3-33-18
18. shuSka kaaSThaiH = with dried, wood-sticks; [shuSka] loSTaiH api = with [dried up] globs, even; paamsubhiH api ca = with particles of dust, even, also; kaaryam bhavet = there will be, [some] utility [they are of some avail]; tu = but; sthaanaat paribhraSTaiH vasudha adhipaiH from position, collapsed, with earth, rulers; kaaryam na syaat = utility is not, there they are of no avail.
"Dried sticks, globs or the particles of dust are of some avail, but kings fallen from their position are of no avail. [3-33-18]
upabhuktam yathā vāsaḥ srajo vā mṛditā yathā |
evam rājyāt paribhraṣṭaḥ samartho api nirarthakaḥ || 3-33-19
19. upa bhuktam vaasaH yathaa = used up, cloth, as with; mR^iditaa srajaH vaa yathaa = crumpled, flower-tassels, or, as with; evam = likewsie; raajyaat paribhraSTaH = from kingdom, ousted - king; samarthaH api = formidable one, even if; nir arthakaH = not, of any means [meaningless, of no avail.]
"As to how a used up raiment or a crumpled flower-tassel is meaningless, likewise a king derelict from his kingdom, though functional, is meaningless. [3-33-19]
apramattaḥ ca yo rājā sarvajño vijitendriyaḥ |
kṛtajño dharma śīlaḥ ca sa rājā tiṣṭhate ciram || 3-33-20
20. yaH raajaa = which, king; a pramattaH ca = not, incautious [cautious,] also; sarva GYaH = all-knowing [clever]; vijita indriyaH = controlled senses; kR^itaGYaH = thankful; dharma shiilaH ca = conscientious, also; saH raajaa ciram tiSThate = that, king, for a long time, stays - survives.
"Which king will be cautious, clever, conscientious, with his controlled senses, and thankful, that king survives for a long time. [3-33-20]
nayanābhyām prasupto vā jāgarti naya cakṣuṣā |
vyakta krodha prasādaḥ ca sa rājā pūjyate janaiḥ || 3-33-21
21. [yaH = which king]; nayanaabhyaam = with both eyes [closed]; pra suptaH [api] = well, slept, [even though]; naya cakSuSaa = wariness, with eyes of; jaagarti = who will be wakeful; vyakta = making clear; krodha ca = his fury, also; a prasaadaH = without, inattentiveness - vigilantly; [in other mms: tyakta krodhaH pramaadaH ca = discarding, fury, frenzy, also]; saH raajaa janaiH puujyate = that, king, by people, will be revered.
"He who keeps his mental eyes of wariness will be wakeful even though he slept well closing his physical eyes and he who will make his fury and favour evident to people without any concealment or cunningness, people will highly revere him as a king.
"He who keeps his mental eyes of wariness wakeful even though he sleeps fast closing his physical eyes, thus discarded are his fury and frenzy as well, because he knows as to who is to be treated furiously and who is to be favoured, and thus people will revere him as a judicious king. [3-33-21]
tvam tu rāvaṇa durbuddhiḥ guṇaiḥ etaiḥ vivarjitaḥ |
yasya te aviditaḥ cāraiḥ rakṣasām sumahān vadhaḥ || 3-33-22
22. raavaNa = oh, Ravana; dur buddhiH = [because you are] bad, minded [imprudent]; tvam tu = you, for your part; etaiH guNaiH vi varjitaH = with these, merits, bereft of; yasya te = suchlike, to you; rakSasaam sumahaan vadhaH = demons', very great, massacre; caaraiH = by spies; a viditaH = not, known - though not personally, but art least thru spies it is not known to you.
"But, oh, Ravana, because you are imprudent you are bereft of these merits, and such as you are, unknown is the very great massacre of demons to you, though not personally, but at least through your spies. [3-33-22]
para avamaṃtā viṣayeṣu saṃgavān
na deśa kāla pravibhāga tattva vit |
ayukta buddhiḥ guṇa doṣa niścaye
vipanna rājyo na cirāt vipatsyate || 3-33-23
23. para avamantaa = others, humiliator - you are; viSayeSu sangavaan = in ravishes, hobnobbing with; na desha kaala pra vibhaaga tattva vit = [you are] not, place, time, well, dived up [apportion,] object, cognisant of; guNa doSa nishcaye = rights, wrongs, in deciding; a yukta buddhiH = not, having, mind [focus your thoughts]; vipanna raajyaH = ruined, kingdom - on becoming so; na ciraat = not, after [before long]; vipatsyate = you will be imperilled.
"You are the humiliator of others, you hobnob only with your ravishes, and incognisant of the object for apportionment of time and place for your activities, as to when and where and how the things are to be dealt with. And, as you are not attending any kingly activity, or do not focus your mind in deciding rights and wrongs, thereby your kingdom will get ruined and you will be imperilled, not before long." Thus Shuurpanakha declaimed Ravana about his worthlessness as a king. [3-33-23]
However self-sufficient and self-assured a king might be, he cannot underestimate rivalling kings as trivial, unilaterally. anena susamR^iddha raajyastho api raajaa etaiH doSaiH aciraat raajya bhrSTo bhavati iti - raaj~naa baliSTena api shatru durbala iti avamatiH na kartavyam ca suucitam - dk It is indicated that a king should be on his guard lest he will be overthrown, just because that king is associated with many un-kingly attitudes.
iti sva doṣān parikīrtitām tayā
samīkṣya buddhyā kṣaṇadā careśvaraḥ |
dhanena darpeṇa balena ca anvito
vicintayāmāsa ciram sa rāvaṇaḥ || 3-33-24
24. kSaNadaa cara iishvaraH = night, walkers, lord - Ravana; dhanena darpeNa balena ca anvitaH = with prosperity, pride, power, also, he who is with them; saH raavaNaH = such, Ravana; iti = in this way; tayaa pari kiirtitaam = by her, extolled; sva doSaan = his own, defects - negative traits; buddhyaa samiikSya = in mind, on poring over; ciram vi cintayaamaasa = over a time, started to contemplate.
In this way when Shuurpanakha extolled only his negative traits, he that lord of night-walkers Ravana, who holds only his pride, power and prosperity dear to him, pored them over in his mind and contemplated over a time. [3-33-24]
- - -
iti vālmīki rāmāyaṇe ādi kāvye araṇya kāṇḍe trayaḥ triṃśaḥ sargaḥ
© July, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : July 04]
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