Rama and Khara exchange a haughty wordy duel and when the demon Khara charges at Rama, Rama eliminates him with his all-powerful arrow and gods and sages shower flowery rain. Seetha and Lakshmana return from their hiding cave and Seetha becomes very happy on seeing her victorious and indefatigable husband.
भित्त्वा तु ताम् गदाम् बाणैः राघवो धर्म वत्सलः |
स्मयमानः खरम् वाक्यम् संरब्धम् इदम् अब्रवीत् || ३-३०-१
1. dharma vatsalaH raaghavaH = virtue, patron, Raghava; taam gadaam baaNaiH bhittvaa = that, mace, with arrows, having smashed; smayamaanaH = while smiling; samrabdham kharam = to flustering, Khara; idam vaakyam abraviit = this, sentence, spoke.
On smashing the mace with arrows Raghava spoke this sentence to Khara smiling him out of temper, without assaulting weaponless and flustering Khara, because Rama is the patron of virtue following the protocol of righteous war. [3-30-1]
This seems to be a roundabout meaning. But to explain why the epithet dharma vatsala to Rama is given, this beating round the bush is necessary. So also, many epithets used in this epic have relevance to the circumstances, characters, or their actions. These cannot be explained without the support of commentaries, and unfortunately commentaries skip these minor details assuming that the readers are capable enough to grasp them in the course of narration, which resulted otherwise at a later time. We therefore request pundits to consolidate the relevancy of each the inordinate epithet used to the situations narrated somewhere like web, if it is going to cost a fortune on printing and stationary. Explaining them occasionally is unnoticed, and they appear to be redundant metre fillers in these days where Sanskrit itself has become an alienated language.
एतत् ते बल सर्वस्वम् दर्शितम् राक्षसाधम |
शक्ति हीनतरो मत्तो वृथा त्वम् उपगर्जसि || ३-३०-२
2. raakSasa adhama = oh, demon, the wretched; te etat = your, all this - this is all the strength you have, is it; bala sarvasvam darshitam = strength [of yours and your army,] in its entirety, is displayed; mat taH shakti hiina taraH = than mine [your,] strength, paltry, higher in comparison - paltriest; tvam vR^ithaa upagarjasi = you, futilely, blare - you boast yourself.
"So, this is all the strength of yours and your army that is displayed and nothing more to display, is it! You wretched demon, it is paltriest compared to my strength, yet you vaunt aloud futilely! [3-30-2]
एषा बाण विनिर्भिन्ना गदा भूमि तलम् गता |
अभिधान प्रगल्भस्य तव प्रत्यय घातिनी || ३-३०-३
3. eSaa gadaa = this, mace [of yours]; baaNa vi nir bhinnaa = with arrows, very, completely, battered; abhidhaana pragalbhasya = in talking, pompous [of a bombastic being]; tava pratyaya ghaatinii = your, aplomb, is shattered - by mace; bhuumi talam gataa = mace, on earth's, surface, gone down.
"This mace of yours in which you repose your bombastic aplomb, now completely battered with my arrows has gone onto the surface of earth, so also is your vanity. [3-30-3]
यत् त्वया उक्तम् विनष्टानाम् इदम् अश्रु प्रमार्जनम् |
राक्षसानाम् करोमि इति मिथ्या तत् अपि ते वचः || ३-३०-४
4. [aham = I will]; vi naSTaanaam raakSasaanaam = completely, lost, demons - of demons whose kinsfolk is lost; idam = this; ashru pramaarjanam = tears, dabbing; karomi = I will do; iti = thus; yat tvayaa uktam = what words, by you, said; te tat vacaH api = your, that, words, even; mithyaa = are fake.
"What that is said by you, 'I will dab the tears of the demons whose kinfolk are dead here...' even this word of yours is a fake. [3-30-4]
नीचस्य क्षुद्र शीलस्य मिथ्या वृत्तस्य रक्षसः |
प्राणान् अपहरिष्यामि गरुत्मान् अमृतम् यथा || ३-३०-५
5. niicasya = of a knave; kSudra shiilasya = roguish, in character; mithyaa vR^ittasya = of devious, behaviour [ghoulish]; rakSasaH = being a demon; such as you are, your; praaNaan = lives; garutmaan amR^itam yathaa = Garuda, Ambrosia, as with; [aham = I will]; apahariSyaami = I will snatch away.
"In boasting you are knavish, in character roguish, and in behaviour ghoulish, such a demon as you are, I will take your life away as the Divine Eagle Garuda took away Ambrosia. [3-30-5]
अद्य ते भिन्न कण्ठस्य फेन बुद्बुद भूषितम् |
विदारितस्य मत् बाणैः मही पास्यति शोणितम् || ३-३०-६
6. anvaya/word order: adya = now; mat baaNaiH vi daaritasya = by my, arrows verily, rip; bhinna kaNThasya = chopped off, of your throat; te phena budbuda bhuuSitam shoNitam = your, with froth, foam, garnished with, blood [gushed from chopped throat]; mahii paasyati = earth, guzzles.
"Now, my arrows will rip and chop off your throat, and then the earth will guzzle the blood gushed therefrom garnished with froth and foam. [3-30-6]
पांसु रूषित सर्वान्गः स्रस्त न्यस्त भुज द्वयः |
स्वप्स्यसे गाम् समाश्लिष्य दुर्लभाम् प्रमदाम् इव || ३-३०-७
7. paamsu ruuSita sarva angaH = by dirt, smeared with, on all, limbs; srasta nyasta bhuja dvayaH = made to slide, laid [knocked down to earth,] arms, two; svapsyase gaam sam aashliSya = you sleep [eternally,] on earth, well-embracing; dur labhaam pramadaam iva = impossible one, to gain, lady, like.
"You will go to eternal sleep embracing the earth as you embrace an un-gainable lady, when both of your arms are knocked down to slide on earth, and limbs smeared with dirt. [3-30-7]
प्रवृद्ध निद्रे शयिते त्वयि राक्षस पांसने |
भविष्यन्ति अशरण्यानाम् शरण्या दण्डका इमे || ३-३०-८
8. raakSasa paamsane = oh, demon, the notorious; tvayi = by you; pra vR^iddha nidre shayite = in well developed [profound,] sleep, while sleeping; ime daNDakaaH = these, Dandaka forests; sharaNyaanaam = for shelter-worthy [sages]; sharaNyaa bhaviSyanti = shelter, will become.
"While you are in profound sleep, oh, notorious demon, this Dandaka forest becomes a shelter to the shelter-worthy sages and saints. [3-30-8]
जनस्थाने हत स्थाने तव राक्षस मत् शरैः |
निर्भया विचरिष्यन्ति सर्वतो मुनयो वने || ३-३०-९
9. raakSasa = oh, demon; tava janasthaane = in your, Janasthaana; mat sharaiH = with my, arrows; hata sthaane = ruined, strongholds [of demons]; munayaH nir bhayaa = sages, without, fear; sarvataH vane = everywhere, in forest; vi cariSyanti = well, move about.
"When the strongholds of demons in your Janasthaana are ruined with my arrows, the sages in this forest will move about everywhere, fearlessly. [3-30-9]
अद्य विप्रसरिष्यन्ति राक्षस्यो हत बान्धवाः |
बाष्प आर्द्र वदना दीना भयात् अन्य भयावहाः || ३-३०-१०
10. anya bhayaavahaaH = to others, terrorizing [so far]; raakSasyaH = demonesses; hata baandhavaaH = killed, kinsmen; baaSpa aardra vadanaa = with tear, wet, with faces; bhayaat diinaa = with fear, becoming pitiable; adya = now; viprasariSyanti [vi pra sariSyanti] = very, quickly, flee away.
"The demonesses who terrorized others so far will be pitiably terrorised now, and they flee away very quickly with tear-wet faces as their kinsmen are killed. [3-30-10]
अद्य शोक रसज्ञाः ताः भविष्यन्ति निरर्थकाः |
अनुरूप कुलाः पत्न्यो यासाम् त्वम् पतिः ईदृशः || ३-३०-११
11. yaasaam = to which females [demonesses]; iidR^ishaH tvam patiH = this kind of you, [abominable one] is the husband; anuruupa kulaaH = well-matched to you, in befitting family [taken birth]; taaH = they the demonesses; patnyaH = are [befittingly deplorable] wives; adya = now; nir arthakaaH = without, meaning - meaningless - lives of demonesses became meaningless; shoka rasaGYaaH = grief's, enjoyers of empathy; bhaviSyanti = they will become.
"To which demonesses your kind of grievous demon is the husband, they must have taken birth in a befittingly grievous family like that of yours, and must be well-matched to you in grievous atrocities, and though they might not have tasted a grievous situation so far, since their lives have become meaningless, now they will become the enjoyers of the empathy of grief. [3-30-11]
नृशंस शील क्षुद्र आत्मन् नित्यम् ब्राह्मण कण्टक |
त्वत् कृते शन्कितैः अग्नौ मुनिभिः पात्यते हविः || ३-३०-१२
12. nR^ishamsa shiila = atrocious, in conduct; kSudra aatman = debased, by conscience; nityam braahmaNa kaNTaka = always, Brahmans, bothersome to; tvat kR^ite shankitaiH = by your, deeds, sceptical of; munibhiH haviH agnau paatyate = by sages, in Ritual-Fire, oblations dropped - consigned.
"You are atrocious in conduct because you countervail against Veda-s, debased by conscience because you counteract to Vedic rituals, and you are countermanding Vedic procedures because you have always been bothersome to Brahmans, and those Brahmans becoming sceptical of your deeds of hindrance, they are hesitatingly consigning oblations into Ritual-Fire, which are to be swiftly dropped into fire to the chants of hymns and even on time, hence you are countervailing against Veda-s and counteracting to their rituals, and countermanding their procedures." Thus Rama spoke to Khara irefully. [3-30-12]
तम् एवम् अभिसंरब्धम् ब्रुवाणम् राघवम् रणे |
खरो निर्भर्त्सयामास रोषात् खरतर स्वरः || ३-३०-१३
13. evam = this way; [raNe = in war] vane = in forest; abhi samrabdham bruvaaNam = very impetuously, who is speaking; tam raaghavam = to that, Raghava; roSaat = rancorously; khara tara svaraH = ass, more than, one who has voice - very harsh voiced Khara - stridulous than braying; kharaH = Khara; nirbhartsayaamaasa = started to intimidate.
While Raghava is speaking that way with such an impetuosity in that forest, Khara started to intimidate him rancorously in a voice stridulous than braying. [3-30-13]
दृढम् खलु अवलिप्तो असि भयेषु अपि च निर्भयः |
वाच्य अवाच्यम् ततो हि त्वम् मृत्यु वश्यो न बुध्यसे || ३-३०-१४
14. bhayeSu api ca = = in fearful [situation,] even, also; nir bhayaH tvam = without, fearing, you are; dR^iDham avaliptaH asi = resolutely, you pride yourself; tataH = thereby; mR^ityu vashyaH hi = [even if you are under] death's, control, indeed; vaacya a vaacyam = speakable, not, speakable; tvam = you; na budhyase khalu = not, mindful of, for sure.
"Priding yourself resolutely you are unfearing even in a fearful situation, thereby you have indeed gone into the control of death, and for sure you are unmindful of what is speakable and what is not." Thus, Khara started his tongue-lashing. [3-30-14]
काल पाश परिक्षिप्ता भवंति पुरुषा हि ये |
कार्य अकार्यम् न जानन्ति ते निरस्त षड् इन्द्रियाः || ३-३०-१५
15. ye puruSaa = such of those, men; kaala paasha pari kSiptaa = Time's, lead, overly, when closing in; bhavanti = they will be; te = they; nir asta = without, animation; SaD indriyaaH = six, senses [on becoming insensible to]; kaarya a kaaryam = doable, not, doable; na jaananti = not, knowing.
"Such of those men on whom the Lead of the Time verily closes in, they will not know what is to be done and what not, for all of their six senses will be rendered insensible." Thus Khara intimidated Rama. [3-30-15]
dhvani/allusion: For the above three verses it said: evam bruvaaNam raamam 'to Rama who saying that way...' mR^ityu vashya kharaH 'Khara going under the control of Death...' is saying 'oh, Rama...' tvam vaacya a+vaacya na budhyase iti 'you know not what to speak and what not to speak - to a dying creature like me, because that creature's six-senses are stand-still...' Then why is this nirbhartsayana, roSa? 'threatening me, and anger at me?' 'Because the faculties of that dying creatures, presently mine, will be in a flux, they will attack anyone verbally or physically, let alone the Almighty... thus you are not able to distinguish between what is to be done or not to be done with such a senseless creature... So, what you have to do now is to finish me, and what is not to be done is this sermonising. Why not finish me off from this curse and accord salvation?' Maheshvara Tiirtha. anena maraNa samaye janaanaam buddhi bhramsho bhavati iti sUchitam - dk 'at the time of death people's mind deranges...'
एवम् उक्त्वा ततो रामम् संरुध्य भृकुटिम् ततः |
स ददर्श महा सालम् अविदूरे निशाचरः || ३-३०-१६
रणे प्रहरणस्य अर्थे सर्वतो हि अवलोकयन् |
16, 17a. saH nishaacaraH = he that, nightwalker; raamam evam uktvaa = to Rama, this way, on saying; tataH = then; bhR^i kuTim = eye, brows; sam rudhya = tightly, contracting; raNe praharaNasya arthe = in war, to assault, for purpose of [assault weapon]; sarvataH avalokayan = everywhere, while seeing; a vi duure = not, very, faraway; tataH = then; mahaa saalam dadarsha hi = a huge, saala tree, he saw, in fact.
Saying so to Rama that nightwalker Khara then knitting his brows tightly saw everywhere for an assault weapon for use in that combat, and then he indeed found one not far away from him, namely a huge saala tree. [3-30-16, 17a]
स तम् उत्पाटयामास संदष्ट दशन च्छ्हदम् || ३-३०-१७
तम् समुत्क्षिप्य बाहुभ्याम् विनर्दित्वा महाबलः |
रामम् उद्दिश्य चिक्षेप हतः त्वम् इति च अब्रवीत् || ३-३०-१८
17b, 18. saH = he that Khara; dashana cChadam = teeth, covering of [lips]; sam daSTa [sam dashya] = well, biting [curling in frown]; tam utpaaTayaamaasa = that tree, started to extricate; mahaabalaH = great-mighty one [Khara]; tam = it [tree]; baahubhyaam = by both hands; sam ut kSipya = forcefully, up, lifting; vi narditvaa = loudly, braying; raamam uddishya cikSepa = Rama, aiming at, hurled; tvam hataH = you are, killed; iti ca abraviit = thus, also, saying - shouting.
He curled his lips in frown and started to extricate that Saala tree, and that great-mighty Khara on forcefully uprooting that tree with both of hands hurled it aiming at Rama, braying loudly and shouting at him 'you are dead...' [3-30-17b, 18]
तम् आपतन्तम् बाण ओघैः च्छ्हित्त्वा रामः प्रतापवान् |
रोषम् आहारयत् तीव्रम् निहंतुम् समरे खरम् || ३-३०-१९
19. prataapavaan raamaH = adventurous one, Rama; aa patantam = coming, falling; tam = it [tree]; baaNa oghaiH = with arrow, torrent of; cChittvaa = on shredding; samare kharam nihantum = in war, Khara, to eliminate; roSam aahaarayat tiivram = rancour, evoked, unusual [rancour.]
But that adventurous Rama on shredding that tree which is swooping down with a torrent of arrows, and deciding to eliminate that Khara in that war evoked an unusual rancour, which rancour is equally an unusual facet of Rama. [3-30-19]
The inveterate bitterness of Rama is to see the unyielding Khara at a time when all of his war paraphernalia is lost, but still trying to be aggressive, rancorously.
जात स्वेदः ततो रामो रोषात् रक्त अन्त लोचनः |
निर्बिभेद सहस्रेण बाणानाम् समरे खरम् || ३-३०-२०
20. tataH = then; jaata svedaH = emerging [on body,] sweat; roSaat rakta anta locanaH = in acrimony, bloodshot, at ends, with eyes; raamaH = such Rama; baaNaanaam sahasreNa = with arrows, a thousand; samare kharam = in war, Khara is; nirbibheda [nir bi bheda = completely, utterly, shredded] = shredded utterly.
Rama whose body is perspiring and whose eyes are acrimoniously bloodshot at ends, he utterly shredded Khara with a thousand arrows in that war. [3-30-20]
तस्य बाण अंतरात् रक्तम् बहु सुस्राव फेनिलम् |
गिरेः प्रस्रवणस्य इव धाराणाम् च परिस्रवः || ३-३०-२१
21. tasya phenilam = his [Khara's,] frothy [blood]; bahu raktam = copious, blood; baaNa antaraat = arrow's, gaps [apertures made by arrows, gashes]; prasravaNasya gireH iva = Prasavana, of mountain, like [the flow of rapids on Mt. Prasavana;] su sraava [gireH kharsya] = well, flowed [from mountainous Khara]; dhaaraaNaam ca pari sravaH = on earth, also, over, flowing.
Copious frothy blood gushed out from the gashes of arrows on the mountainous body of Khara, like the rapids on Mt. Prasavana, and it overflowed on earth too. [3-30-21]
Mt. Prasavana is depicted in Kishkindha canto where Rama admires and eulogises the rainy season when waiting for Sugreeva's help.
विकल स कृतो बाणैः खरो रामेण संयुगे |
मत्तो रुधिर गन्धेन तम् एव अभ्यद्रवत् द्रुतम् || ३-३०-२२
22. samyuge raameNa baaNaiH = conflict, by Rama, with arrows; vikala [vihvala] kR^itaH = to torment, made to; mattaH saH kharaH = is bedevilled, he, that Khara; rudhira gandhena = with blood, stinking [on body]; drutam tam [raama] eva abhi adravat = quickly, to him [Rama,] towards, bolted.
When Khara is tormented with the arrows of Rama in that conflict he is bedevilled and with his blood stinking body he quickly bolted towards that Rama alone. [3-30-22]
तम् आपतंतम् संरब्धम् कृत अस्त्रो रुधिर आप्लुतम् |
अपसर्पत् द्वि त्रि पदम् किंचित् त्वरित विक्रमः || ३-३०-२३
23. kR^ita astraH [shaastraH] = completed, missiles [sciences - one who learnt archery in full-fledged manner]; Rama; aa patantam = coming, falling - descending on; rudhira aaplutam = blood, bathed in; samrabdham = boisterous one; tam = him; on seeing; tvarita vikramaH = in swiftness, valorous one Rama; dvi tri padam = two, three, steps; kimcit apasarpat = a little, swerved, veered - stepped back.
When Khara is descending on boisterously with his body bathed in blood, that adept one in the Science of Archery, dhanur veda , the scripture on archery, and that valorous Rama, in swiftness lurched a little...say, two or three steps... [3-30-23]
On this back stepping, backtracking, or the scrape Rama took in war, [ scrape - intr. draw back a foot in making a clumsy bow; and here without clumsiness of bow]; much discussion is available discussing whether Rama can retrace his step or not. It is said that stepping back in war is prohibited for a valorous warrior or to the epical hero. sa~Ngraame sa~Nsthaanam anivR^ittiH ca - gautama and many more scriptures say this. And a relaxation to such a stance is said: kvacit ati sankaTa viShaye subhaTaanaam abhito ayam apasarpaH - vedaanta deshika But here Rama is taking a runner's back-leg and it is not to be construed as an act of cowardice. Dharmaakuutam clarifies this as: vasca shatru vadhe kaamayamaana raamsya dhanuShi baaNa sandhaana aadi saukaryaartham apasarpaNam raameNa kR^itam bhuuShaNam eva na tu duuShaNam | ata eva muule apasarpaNe kR^ita astram eva hetumatvena maharShiNaa upanyastham | anantara shlokena khara vadaaya shara sandhaana mokShaNa aadi pratipaadanam upapannam bhavati | bhityaa apasarpaNe punaH shara mokSha anupapatto riti | dk 'Wishing to eliminate the demon Rama has taken a back step. It is only to have a leeway between his target, arrow, and arrow-flinging place... In the verse itself the great-sage Valmiki incorporated words like kR^ita astra that Rama is an exponent in archery [keeping some doubting Thomas' in view.] Further, in the next few verses Rama eliminates Khara, thus it is not an act of cowardice...'
More so, some scholars hold that this verse has got grammatical glitches, some ancient mms reads this verse as, even though this verse too has the word apasarpaNa scrape: tam aapatantam vegena iiptaasyam rudhira plutam | apasR^itya tataH sthaanaat dR^iShTvaa tvarita vikramaH ||
ततः पावक संकाशम् वधाय समरे शरम् |
खरस्य रामो जग्राह ब्रह्म दण्डम् इव अपरम् || ३-३०-२४
24. tataH = then; raamaH = Rama; kharasya vadhaaya = for Khara, to eliminating; paavaka samkaasham = , Ritual-fire, similar to; aparam brahma daNDam iva = another - secondary, Brahma's, shaft [missile,] as with; such a; sharam = arrow; samare jagraaha = in that conflict, taken.
Then, Rama snatched an arrow which is similar to the Ritual-fire, and secondary only to the ultimate missile, namely the Brahma-missile, for the elimination of Khara in war. [3-30-24]
स तत् दत्तम् मघवता सुर राजेन धीमता |
संदधे च स धर्मात्मा मुमोच च खरम् प्रति || ३-३०-२५
25. dharmaatmaa = virtue-souled one; saH = he that Rama; dhiimataa maghavataa sura raajena = by sensible one, prosperous one, gods, king of - namely Indra; dattam = given; tat = that [particular arrow]; sam dadhe ca = fitted on bow, also; kharam prati = Khara, towards; mumoca ca = released, also.
That particular arrow is made available to Rama through Sage Agastya by the king of gods, namely Indra, because Indra is a sensible one about the future course of events, and he is also prosperous in securing impossible weaponry, and now Rama fitted such an arrow on his bow and released it towards Khara. [3-30-25]
स विमुक्तो महाबाणो निर्घात सम निःस्वनः |
रामेण धनुरायम्य खरस्य उरसि च आपतत् || ३-३०-२६
26. raameNa = by Rama; dhanuH aayamya = bow, bending - by stretching bowstring to ear; kharasya urasi vimuktaH = on Khara's, chest, released; nir ghaata out, falling, [with electric-force, viz., thunderbolt]; sama = similar to = niH svanaH = out, roaring - thunderous; saH mahaa baaNaH = that, great - formidable, arrow; aa patat = came, and fell [on Khara's chest.]
That formidable arrow is promptly released on Rama's stretching the bowstring up to his ear, bending bow almost to a circularity, and which arrow is thunderous while in egress like the thunder of a thunderbolt, and that has come and plunged inthe chest of Khara. [3-30-26]
स पपात खरो भूमौ दह्यमानः शर अग्निना |
रुद्रेण एव विनिर्दग्धः श्वेत अरण्ये यथा अन्धकः || ३-३०-२७
27. shara agninaa dahyamaanaH = by arrow's, radiation, being burnt; saH kharaH = that, Khara; shveta araNye = in White, forest; rudreNa vinirdagdhaH [vi nir dagdhaH] = by Rudra, very, completely, burnt; andhakaH yathaa = Andhaka, as with; bhuumau papaata = on earth, fell down.
Khara fell down on to earth and on being burnt by the radiation of that arrow he is like demon Andhaka, who once was very completely burnt by Rudra in Shveta-araNya, the White-forest. [3-30-27]
Andhaka is the son of Danu, the wife of Kashyapa Prajaapati, and her progeny is termed as daanava-s, demons. Shiva burns this Andhaka with his Third-eye in Shveta-forest, which is said to be at the confluence point of River Kauvery in ocean.
स वृत्र इव वज्रेण फेनेन नमुचिर् यथाअ |
बलो वा इन्द्र अशनि हतो निपपात हतः खरः || ३-३०-२८
28. saH kharaH = he that Khara; hataH = when eliminated; vajreNa vR^itra iva = with Thunderbolt of Indra, demon Vritta, like; phenena namuciH yathaaa = by froth [of blood,] demon Namuchi, like; indra ashani hataH = by Indra's, Thunderbolt, eliminated; balaH vaa = demon Bala, or; nipapaata [ni pa paata ] = fell down - brought fown.
As with fall of demon Vritta or fall of demon Bala who are eliminated by Indra with his Thunderbolt, or as with the collapse of demon Namuchi who is eliminated by the same Indra just with forth or foam, Khara too is brought down. [3-30-28]
The demon Namuchi secures a boon from the gods that he may not die by wetness or dryness, so Indra uses foam and forth, which are neither wet nor dry, to eliminated him.
एतस्मिन् अंतरे देवाः चारणयोः सह संगताः |
दुन्दुभिः च अभिनिघ्नंतः पुष्प वर्ष समंततः || ३-३०-२९
रामस्य उपरि संहृष्टा ववर्षुः विस्मिताः तदा |
29, 30a. etasmin antare = in this, meantime; devaaH caaraNayoH saha sangataaH = gods, carana-s [celestials,] along with, on gathering; sam hR^iSTaa = well-pleased; dundubhiH abhinighnantaH [abhi ni ghnantaH] = drums, also, all over, well, drummed; tadaa vismitaaH = then, amazed; raamasya upari = on Rama, above; samantataH = from all over; puSpa varSa vavarSuH = flowers, rain, showered.
In this meantime gods gathering along with carana-s drummed celestial drums from all over and showered flowers on Rama from all over. [3-30-29, 30a]
अर्थ अधिक मुहूर्तेन रामेण निशितैः शरैः || ३-३०-३०
चतुर् दश सहस्राणि रक्ष्साम् काम रूपिणाम् |
खर दूषण मुख्यानाम् निहतानि महामृधे || ३-३०-३१
30b, 31. raameNa = by Rama; artha adhika muhuurtena = in half, more, one muhurta [hour]; nishitaiH sharaiH = with sharp, arrows; mahaa mR^idhe = in extreme, crack-down; khara duuSaNa mukhyaanaam = Khara, Duushana, chieftains; rakshsaam = of demons; kaama ruupiNaam = by wish, guise-changers; catur dasha sahasraaNi = four, ten, thousand [fourteen thousand]; nihataani = are eliminated.
And those gods and other celestials in their amazement said among themselves that 'in one and half hours, say seventy two minutes of this extreme crack-down Rama with his sharp arrows has eradicated fourteen thousand guise changing demons, including their chieftains Khara and Duushana. [3-30-30b, 31]
अहो बत महत् कर्म रामस्य विदित आत्मनः |
अहो वीर्यम् अहो दार्ढ्यम् विष्णोः इव हि दृश्यते || ३-३०-३२
इति एवम् उक्त्वा ते सर्वे ययुः देवा यथा आगतम्|
32, 33a. vidita aatmanaH = shrewd, souled; raamasya = of Rama; mahat karma = great, deed; aho bata = aha, Surprising; aho viiryam = what, a valour; aho daarDhyam = what, a fortitude; viSNoH iva = of Vishnu [valour, fortitude etc]; dR^ishyate hi = seems to be, really; iti evam uktvaa = thus, that way, saying; sarve te devaa = all, those, gods; yathaa aagatam yayuH = as, they came, went away.
"Aha! Surprising is this great deed of Rama, the shrewd-soul, what a valour, what a fortitude, really, his valour and fortitude are like those of Vishnu..." Thus saying that way all of those gods have gone away as the have come. [3-30-32, 33a]
ततो राज ऋषयः सर्वे सम्गताः परम ऋषयः || ३-३०-३३
सभाज्य मुदिता रामम् स अगस्त्या इदम् अब्रुवन् |
33b, 34a. tataH = then; sarve raaja R^iSayaH = all, kingly, sages; sa agastyaa = with, Agastya; parama R^iSayaH samgataaH = with elite, sages, foregathering; muditaa = delighted; raamam sa bhaajya = Rama, on adoring; idam abruvan = this, said.
All the kingly-sages and elite-sages along with Sage Agastya, who as incidentally came here to witness the victory of Rama, then on foregathering near at Rama delightedly said this on adoring him. [3-30-33b, 34a]
एतत् अर्थम् महातेजा महेन्द्रः पाक शासनः || ३-३०-३४
शरभंग आश्रमम् पुण्यम् आजगाम पुरंदरः |
34b, 35a. paaka shaasanaH = demon Paka, controller of; mahaatejaa = great-resplendent; purandaraH = enemy-city destroyer; mahendraH = Indra; etat artham = for this, purpose alone; puNyam sharabhanga aashramam aajagaama = meritorious, to Sharabhanga's, hermitage, came to.
"He that great-resplendent one, the controller of demon Paka, and the destroyer of enemy's cities, namely Indra, once came to the meritorious hermitage of Sage Sharabhanga only for the purpose such an elimination of demons. [3-30-34b, 35a]
आनीतः त्वम् इमम् देशम् उपायेन महर्षिभिः || ३-३०-३५
एषाम् वध अर्थम् शत्रूणाम् रक्षसाम् पाप कर्मणाम् |
35b, 36a. shatruuNaam = enemies; paapa karmaNaam = demons, evil, doers; eSaam rakSasaam = these, of demons; vadha artham = for eradication, purpose of; tvam = you; maharSibhiH upaayena = by sages, with ideation; imam desham aaniitaH = to this, countryside, you are brought.
"For the purpose of eradicating these demons who are the evildoers by nature and the natural enemies to saintly people you are led to this countryside by the great sages with an ideation. [3-30-35b, 36a]
तत् इदम् नः कृतम् कार्यम् त्वया दशरथ आत्मज || ३-३०-३६
स्व धर्मम् प्रचरिष्यन्ति दण्डकेषु महर्षयः |
36b, 37a. dasharatha aatmaja = oh, Dasharatha's, son; tat idam kaaryam tvayaa kR^itam = that, this, task, by you, is done; maharSayaH daNDakeSu = great-sages, in Dandaka; sva dharmam pracariSyanti [pra car iSyati] = their own [of sages,] duties, well-practise.
"That which is the task of ours it is accomplished by you, oh, son of Dasharatha, now that Dandaka is unimpeded these great-sages will be practising their respective sacred devoirs in it." Thus, the sages expressed their thanksgiving. [3-30-36b, 37a]
एतस्मिन् अनंतरे वीरो लक्ष्मणः सह सीतया || ३-३०-३७
गिरि दुर्गात् विनिष्क्रम्य संविवेश आश्रमम् सुखी |
37b, 38a. etasmin anantare = in this, meanwhile; viiraH lakSmaNaH saha siitayaa = brave, Lakshmana, with, Seetha; giri durgaat viniSkramya = mountain, from cave, verily, exiting; sukhii = who is happy [charmed for Rama's victory]; aashramam samvivesha [sam vi vesha] = to [their own] hermitage, well entered.
In the meanwhile the brave Lakshmana exiting from the mountain cave came along with Seetha to their hermitage, and he is charmed at the victory of his brother Rama. [3-30-37b, 38a]
ततो रामः तु विजयी पूज्यमानो महर्षिभिः || ३-३०-३८
प्रविवेश आश्रमम् वीरो लक्ष्मणेन अभिपूजितः |
38b, 39a. tataH = then; vijayii viiraH raamaH tu = victorious, brave man, Rama, but; maharSibhiH puujyamaanaH = by great-sages, being reverenced; lakSmaNena abhi puujitaH = by Lakshmana, coming towards, greeted; aashramam pravivesha = hermitage, entered.
And then that brave and victories Rama too came towards hermitage while great-sages reverenced him, and he entered the hermitage while Lakshmana came forward to greet him. [3-30-38b, 39a]
तम् दृष्ट्वा शत्रु हंतारम् महर्षीणाम् सुख आवहम् || ३-३०-३९
बभूव हृष्टा वैदेही भर्तारम् परिष्वजे |
39b, 40a. vaidehii = Seetha; shatru hantaaram = enemy, eliminator; maharSiiNaam sukha aavaham = for great-sages, rejoice, accorder; tam bhartaaram dR^iSTvaa = him, her husband, on seeing; hR^iSTaa babhuuva = became, rejoiced; pariSvaje = embraced.
And Seetha on seeing her husband, the eliminator of enemies and accorder of happiness to sages, embraced her husband Rama, rejoicingly. [3-30-39b, 40a]
मुदा परमया युक्ता दृष्ट्वा रक्षो गणान् हतान् |
रामम् च एव अव्ययम् दृष्टा तुतोष जनक आत्मजा || ३-३०-४०
40. janaka aatmajaa = Janaka's, daughter; hataan rakshaH gaNaan dR^iSTvaa = eliminated, demon, hordes, on seeing; paramayaa mudaa yuktaa = with extreme, rapture, along with; raamam ca eva = Rama, also, thus; a vyayam dR^iSTaa = not, scathed, on observing; tutoSa = gladdened for herself, with sniggering smiles, with smiles hid behind lips, soft-pedalled smiles.
Janaka's daughter Seetha on seeing the hordes of demons eliminated, and even on observing her husband is also scatheless, she is all-smiles for him smiling sniggeringly. [3-30-40]
Any wife on seeing her husband returning from a risky journey will embrace her husband delightfully, and nothing special about it. But the commentators attach a great significance to this situation.
Firstly Seetha is hR^iSTaa 'exultant...' more than happiness. Rama's victory is the cause for that. sati dharmiNi dharmaaH 'nature will have its own peculiar property...' Rama's victory is the peculiar property dharmi, and the exultancy caused is its nature dharma. hR^iSTaa 'exulted' 'thrilling, hair-raising, electrifying' 'as though the inner joy is going to outburst trough the skin pores...' Such is the joy of Seetha.
The cause for the extreme exultancy is said next. Vaidehi, is the daughter of Videha King, Janaka and when she is said so, it is remembered that mithila adhipatiH viiraH 'Mithila's king is the bravest of the brave...' Thus, she is aware what bravery and victory are, and knowing that she hailed her victorious husband, for she is a worthy princess. bhartaaram pariSvaje 'husband, embraced...' Is Rama a husband of Seetha or to total Universe? loka bhartaaram suSuveya. He is the husband of the total Universe. When she is the mother of all beings in the universe, and when her husband protects her progeny from the evildoers, will she not embrace that husband of hers, as well as of the Universe? The word bharta 'one who bears...' and this Rama has no other burden to bear, except the Universe.
This embracing is pariSvaje, pari sa svaje 'wholly embraced.' She embraced him from all over and fomented his war-wounds with her warm breasts. Then, why for this much happy hugging? It is replied: maharSiiNaam sukha aavaham pariSvaje 'one who brought comfort to great-sages, him she embraced...' The great-sages are her children, supplicating her to recommend to the Supreme Being to bestow His grace for their salvation. Since Rama brought some relief by his paternal affection to these children-like sages, she is happy and hugging.
Seetha came out of a mountain cave and embraced Rama. This suggests that the innate soul sheSi on the advise of a teacher, after leaving the cave-like living being, is released from bondages and embraces the master sheShin. This is the same predicament for her in Sundara Kanda, where the teacher Hanuma advises her to come with him, but she refuses, because her lord alone has to come conquering, as he has done now as far as her confinement is concerned. Here she is put in cave and guarded by Lakshmana, unlike demonesses guarding her in open-air gardens in Lanka. She came out of the cave and is joining her husband. Govindaraja.
Next, Maheshvara Tiirtha records: tam dR^iSTvaa shatru hantaaram 'at him Rama, on seeing, enemy, eliminator...'in that compound: tam 'at him...' that Rama, which one-Rama assumed himself as fourteen thousand Rama-s, appearing as each to each demon at the time of war, with his divinely gracious aspect divya mangala vigraha and eliminated all demons, that Rama she saw. te tu yaavanta evaa~Nau taavaan tu dadR^ishe sataiH As many demons are there, so many Rama-s are there on the battlefield.
tam 'at him...' 'who eliminated fourteen thousand demons, single-handedly, , that too in seventy two minutes. These demons are so far undeafted even by Indra with all his forces. Rama defeated such demons without any damage to his person, a + vyayam 'unscathed, undamaged... and very easily also...' at such a Rama Seetha saw.
tam 'him' who looks girlish. Seetha once said that Rama is girly not only in his looks but also in bravery, perhaps. raama jaamaataram praapya striyam puruSha vigraham Ayodhya Part I, 30-3. When Rama dissuades Seetha from coming to forests, Seetha said to Rama, 'my father is the King of Mithila and he may think that you have left me behind at Ayodhya unable to protect me in forests... thus my father may also think that he got a 'girl' as his son-in-law in you...' Through this is a tongue-in-cheek expression Seetha reminded Rama at that situation of his Mohini ruupa 'getup of Mohini...' which he assumed at the time of churning Milky Ocean, it is her woomanhood that spoke like that. Though not then, even now Rama looks girlishly pleasant, if he is not summoning wrath upon him, as per his attributes, puNDarika vishaala aksha, somavat priya darshanaH 'lotus-petal-eyed, moon-like-delightful-aspect...' And he becomes unsightly, only if angered. Such a girlish Rama has won war, and at him Seetha saw in admiration about his mannishness. Now her father Janaka will definitely appreciate his son-in-law Rama. King Janaka is a result-oriented king, as said in Gita, 3-20: karmaNi evahi samsiddham aasthitaH janakaadayaH 'Janaka and others are involved in self-less- result-oriented deeds...' and facing him without results is impossible. Thus Seetha's opinion is 'my father Janaka who is result-oriented and self-less in his pursuits, he will now appreciate Rama, since Rama has also accomplished a self-less pursuit in saving the sages...'
tam shatru hantaaram 'at him... who has annihilated the enemies in war...' as he has annihilated troops and troops of unwieldy demons as said at: taiH dhanuu~NShi dhvaja agraaNi carmaaNi ca shiraa~Nsi ca || 3-25-21 and at bahuun sa hasta aabharaNaan uuruun kari kara upamaan | 3-25-22 [A] and also who later said that he will emerge, as and when needed to eradicate vice, as at paritraNaaya saadhuunaam vinaashaaya ca duSkR^itaam - Gita: 4-8 And Seetha saw at such an omnipotent Being who is an eliminator of evil.
maharSiNaam sukha aavaham 'for great-sages, accorder of comfort...' dR^iSTvaa vaidehii babhuuva 'on seeing Vaidehi became...' she became one with herself bhuu sattaayaam. When it is said aatmaa vai puruSasya daaraa 'wife indeed is the soul of manl...' that soul of Rama, namely Seetha is so far in a dilemma, because Rama is a lone-warrior against fourteen-thousand demons and his safe return is ambiguous. Now that he remained unhurt, that soul called Seetha, has regained her abode in Rama. Then hR^iSTaa pariSvaje 'delightfully embraced...' Maheshvara Tiirtha.
Dharmaakuutam also derives the same meanings, but with reference to dharma:
siitaa -- anaparaadhi raakShasa jana vadho na ucita iti vaidehii kR^ita pratiShedham api - apyaham jiivitam jahyaam tvaam vaa site - iti prakaareNa anaadR^itya - caturdasha sahasraaNi raakShasa -- ekasca raamo -- iti R^iShi janaanaam api samshayite uddhe kruurataraan raakShasaan hatvaa - avyatho yo raamaH taadR^ishaH paraamR^ishyate -- siitaa -- tathaa ca - shatru hantaaram maharShiNaam sukha aavaham -- iti - avyadham iti ca visheShaNaani upapannaani bhavanti -- ata eva ete arthaa uttara slokaabhyaam upasamhR^itaaH
ततः तु तम् राक्षस संघ मर्दनम्
स पूज्यमानम् मुदितैः महात्मभिः |
पुनः परिष्वज्य मुदा अन्वित आनना
बभूव हृष्टा जनक आत्मजा तदा || ३-३०-४१
41. tataH = then; mudaa anvita aananaa = delight, having [beaming with,] with visage; janaka aatmajaa = Janaka's, daughter; raakshasa sangha mardanam = demonic, troops, eliminator of; muditaiH mahaatmabhiH = with delighted, great sages; sa puujyamaanam = with, adorability - who adore him; such as he is, tam = him, at that Rama; punaH pariSvajya = again, embraced; tadaa hR^iSTaa babhuuva = then, rapturous, she became.
She whose face is beaming with delight that Seetha, the daughter Janaka, on seeing Rama who has eliminated demonic troops, and whom great-sages are worshipping, again embraced him and became rapturous. [3-30-41]
Anytime an evil-force is eliminated by any divinity the fruits of its reading/listening is said at conclusion. For the annihilation of Khara there is such an epilogue phala shruti quoted by Maheshvara Tiirtha.
shrutvaa shrii raama vijayam paapa badhaat pramucyate |
tathaiva sR^inkhalaa bandhaat R^iNa bandhaat vimucyate |
shrutvaa puShpavatii naarii tanayam vamsha vardhanam |
labhate raaghavendrasya prasaadaat kiirti vardhanam || skaanda puraaNa
On hearing Rama's victory one will be freed from shackles of sins, also from the chains of punishment, also from the entanglement of debt... should a bride hear this she begets son, who enhances dynasty... and by the grace of Raghava, enriched is the renown... skaanda puraaNa.
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे त्रिंश सर्गः
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© 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [ Revised : July 04]