On one day before the sunrise Rama proceeds to River Godavari for daily bath along with Seetha and Lakshmana. On the way looking at the nature around Lakshmana eulogises winter season. In doing so he casts aspersions on queen Kaikeyi, and Rama reproves it.
वसतः तस्य तु सुखम् राघवस्य महात्मनः |
शरद् व्यपाये हेमंतऋतुर् इष्टः प्रवर्तत || ४-१६-१
1. mahaatmanaH tasya raaghavasya = noble-souled, that, Raghava's; sukham vasataH = comfortably, while staying; sharat vyapaaye = autumn, season, on passing off; iSTaH hemanta R^ituH = pleasant, pre-winter, season; pravartate = set in.
Pleasant hemantha R^itu , pre-winter season has set in after the passage of sharat R^itu, post-rainy season at Panchavati where the noble souled Rama is staying comfortably. [4-16-1]
स कदाचित् प्रभातायाम् शर्वर्याम् रघुनंदनः |
प्रययाव अभिषेकार्थम् रम्यम् गोदावरीम् नदीम् || ४-१६-२
2. kadaacit = on some day; saH raghu nandanaH = he Raghu's, legatee Rama; sharvaryaam prabhaataayaam = night, when becoming day at dawn; ramyam godaavariim nadiim = to delightful, Godavari, river; abhiSeka artham prayayaava = bath, for purpose of, started.
On some day when night faded into dawn Rama started for the delightful River Godavari for a bath. [4-16-2]
प्रह्वः कलश हसतः तम् सीतया सह वीर्यवान् |
पृष्ठतो अनुव्रजन् भ्राता सौमित्रिर् इदम् अब्रवीत् || ४-१६-३
3. bhraataa viiryavaan = with brother, valorous one [Lakshmana]; prahvaH = humbly; kalasha hasataH = with vessel, in hand; saumitriH = Saumitri; pR^iSThataH = at back; siitayaa saha = Seetha, along with; anuvrajan = while following; idam abraviit = this, spoke.
His valorous brother Saumitri following him humbly with a handy vessel, along with Seetha, spoke this to Rama. [4-16-3]
अयम् स कालः संप्राप्तः प्रियो यः ते प्रियंवद |
अलंकृत इव आभाति येन संवत्सरः शुभः || ४-१६-४
4. priyam vada = oh, pleasant, conversationalist; yaH te priyaH = by which, to you, is pleasant; saH ayam kaalaH = that, this one, is the time; [samvatsrasya = of the year]; sampraaptaH = has set in; yena = by which; shubhaH samvatsaraH = propitious - promising, year; alamkR^ita iva aabhaati = is adorned, as though, bright.
"Adorned by which season the promising year will be bright, oh, pleasant conversationalist, and which season will also be pleasant to you, that hemanta season has set in. [4-16-4]
नीहार परुषो लोकः पृथिवी सस्य मालिनी |
जलानि अनुपभोग्यानि सुभगो हव्य वाहनः || ४-१६-५
5. lokaH = world [people]; niihaara paruSaH = by dew, [bodies] harsh; pR^ithivii sasya maalinii = earth is, crops, has on it; jalaani an upabhogyaani = waters, not, enjoyable; havya vaahanaH subhagaH = oblation, carrier [the fire,] delightful [warmish.]
"These days the dew is harsh to the bodies of people, earth is overlaid with crops, water is unenjoyable, but fire is delightful. [4-16-5]
नव आग्रयण पूजाभिर् अभ्यर्च्य पितृ देवताः |
कृत आग्रयणकाः काले सन्तो विगत कल्मषाः || ४-१६-६
6. santaH = righteous persons; nava aagrayaNa puujaabhiH = in new [northern,] solstice, with worships; pitR^i devataaH = ancestral, deities [manes]; abhyarcya = having appeased; kaale kR^ita aagrayaNakaaH = in time, performing, solstitial rituals; vigata kalmaSaaH = becoming free of, evils.
"On appeasing manes with worships during northern solstice and even on performing solstitial rituals in time, the righteous people are becoming free from evils. [4-16-6]
The ritual agraayaNa is a havis , oblation performed after the arrival of harvest at home from fields and before the start of its usage. Usually this is the time of Makara Sankranti, the starting day of northern solstice. na anviShTa aagraayaNe na aahitaagni navasya ashniiyaat vriihiinaam yavaanaam shyaamakaanaam iti agra paakasya yajeta -- aapasthamba suutra
प्राज्यकामा जनपदाः संपन्नतर गो रसाः |
विचरन्ति महीपाला यात्र अर्थम् विजिगीषवः || ४-१६-७
7. sampanna tara go rasaaH = affluent, higher, with cows, dairy; jana padaaH = rural, areas villagers; praajya kaamaa = ample, desires [self-satisfied]; mahii paalaa = earth, rulers kings; vi jigiiSavaH = wishing to vanquish [other kings]; yaatra artham = campaigns, for the purposes of; vicaranti = making moves.
"Amply fulfilled are the desires of the villagers with the affluence of milch cows and dairy, and the vanquishing kings are make moves for the purposes of their further vanquishes. [4-16-7]
सेवमाने दृढम् सूर्ये दिशम् अन्तक सेविताम् |
विहीन तिलका इव स्त्री न उत्तरा दिक् प्रकाशते || ४-१६-८
8. suurye = by sun; antaka sevitaam disham = by time-god, attended by, direction [namely south]; dR^iDham sevamaane = steadfastly, while attending; uttaraa dik = in northern, direction; vihiina tilakaa strii iva = lost, Tilaka [vermilion mark on fore head,] woman, like; na prakaashate = not, brilliant.
"While the sun is steadfastly attending the direction of Time-god Yama, namely southern horizon, the northern direction is not brilliant like a woman who lost the vermilion mark on her forehead. [4-16-8]
The tilaka is the vermilion mark of sindur , vermilion-red powder specially made out of turmeric and limejuice and other ingredients and called as kunkuma . This is sacred and used in daily worships and applied as a mark on forehead at a place where the Third Eye, j~naana netra is said to exist. For the women this mark is for their glorification of womanhood by virtue of the existence of her husband. Should she become a widow this mark is made no more and her face will become dullish for she is without a husband. So also the sun is such a mark on the forehead of the woman called horizon. Without him no quarters glitter.
प्रकृत्या हिम कोश आढ्यो दूर सूर्याः च सांप्रतम् |
यथार्थ नामा सुव्यक्तम् हिमवान् हिमवान् गिरिः || ४-१६-९
9. prakR^ityaa = by nature; hima kosha aaDhyaH = snow, depository, full of which is known to be the full depository of snow - Himalayas; saampratam = presently; duura suuryaaH ca = distanced, from sun; himavaan giriH = Himalayan, mountains; himavaan = is snowy; su vyaktam = very, obviously; yathaartha naamaa = true to it, name.
"By their very nature Himalayas are the depositories of snow, and presently distanced from the sun they are very obviously snowy true to their name. [4-16-9]
अत्यन्त सुख संचारा मध्याह्ने स्पर्शतः सुखाः |
दिवसाः सुभग आदित्याअः छ्हाया सलिल दुर्भगाः || ४-१६-१०
10. madhyaahne sparshataH sukhaaH = in midday, by way of touch, will be comfortable; atyanta sukha samcaaraa = very much, comfortable, for rambling; divasaaH = day times; subhaga aadityaaaH = are with genial, sun; Chaayaa salila = shades, waters; dur bhagaaH = are not, genial.
"By the way of touch the mid days are comfortable and in these days the daytime is very much comfortable for sauntering, thus the sun in daytimes is genial and ungenial are the shades and waters. [4-16-10]
मृदु सूर्याः सनीहाराः पटु शीताः समारुताः |
शून्य अरण्या हिम ध्वस्ता दिवसा भान्ति सांप्रतम् || ४-१६-११
11. saampratam = presently; hima dhvastaa = by snow, overwhelmed; divasaa = day times; mR^idu suuryaaH = are with soft, sun; sa niihaaraaH = with, mist; paTu shiitaaH = bitterly, cold; sa maarutaaH = with, [wintry] breezes; shuunya araNyaa = bleak, forests; bhaanti = shining forth.
"Overwhelmed by snow presently the noontimes are with soft sun, with bitter cold, with mists and wintry breezes, and with them the forests too are bleak in their sheen. [4-16-11]
निवृत्त आकाश शयनाः पुष्यनीता हिम अरुणाः |
शीता वृद्धतर आयामः त्रि यामा यान्ति सांप्रतम् || ४-१६-१२
12. saampratam = presently; nivR^itta aakaasha shayanaaH = precluded is, [under] sky, reclining; puSya niitaa = Pushya constellation [in Cancer,] led by; hima aruNaaH = fog, brownish-grey; shiitaa = chilly; vR^iddha tara aayaamaH = prolonged, much, lengths [of nights]; tri yaamaa yaanti = three, three watches, slipping away.
"Precluded is the reclining under open sky as the nights are led by the Pushya constellation, they will now be with brownish-grey fog and chilly, and prolonged are the lengths of nights whereby the three watches of night will be quickly slipping away.
The three yaamaa-s or praharaH-s, are three hours or three watches, where each yaama, is three hours. The commentators said that nivR^itta aakaasha shayanaa : precluded are troubles to those that are reclining in heavens i.e., divine beings; vR^iddha tara tri yaamaa : prolonged are the nightly activities of demons. puSya aaniitaa , where puSya also means Kali, the doom, and the demons are brining it up. Thus Lakshmana is said to have reminded Rama about the purpose of his incarnation, where the gods are precluded from a restful reclining, the nightly activities of demons are on the increase, and the demons are bringing doom time, so Rama has to quicken their eradication.
रवि संक्रान्त सौभाग्यः तुषार अरुण मण्डलः |
निःश्वास अन्ध इव आदर्शाः चंद्रमा न प्रकाशते || ४-१६-१३
13. ravi samkraanta saubhaagyaH = by sun, transgressed, is the destiny [of moon]; tuSaara aruNa maNDalaH = fog, flush, sphere; niHshvaasa andha iva aadarshaaH = by suspire, blinded, like, mirror; candramaa na prakaashate = moon, not, lustrous.
"Transgressed is the destiny of moon by the sun as moon lost the chance of keeping people happy with his lustrousness in these days, thus the lustreless moon remained in a blushing sphere with fog, just like a mirror blinded by the fog of a suspire. [4-16-13]
ज्योत्स्ना तुषार मलिना पौर्णमास्याम् न राजते |
सीता इव च आतप श्यामा लक्ष्यते न तु शोभते || ४-१६-१४
14. paurNamaasyaam = on full moon day; tuSaara malinaa = by mist, blemished; jyotsnaa na raajate = moonlight, not, shiny; aatapa shyaamaa = by sun heat, blackened - swarthy; siitaa iva lakSyate = Seetha, like, appearing; na tu shobhate = not, but, bright.
"Even on a full moon day the moonlight is unbright blemished by mist, and it is appearing like brightly Seetha becoming swarthy by sun's heat, but not brightly. [4-16-14]
प्रकृत्या शीतल स्पर्शो हिम विद्धाः च सांप्रतम् |
प्रवाति पश्चिमो वायुः काले द्वि गुण शीतलः || ४-१६-१५
15. prakR^ityaa shiitala sparshaH = by nature, cool, for touch; saampratam = presently; hima viddhaaH = by snow, marred [charged with]; pashcimaH vaayuH = western, breeze; kale [kalyam] dviguNa shiitalaH = in time [in early hours,] twofold, chilly; pravaati = wafting.
"The western breeze by itself will be cool to touch, but presently charged with snow it is wafting doubly chilly in the early hours. [4-16-15]
The vernal breeze will be cool by its nature and so is the Omnipotent. Now the snowy dew enriches the breeze's coolness. So also the Omnipotent, namely Rama, is doubly cool by the coolness of the prayers of divinities and the sages as well. Govindaraja.
बाष्प च्छ्हन्नानि अरण्यानि यव गोधूमवंति च |
शोभन्ते अभ्युदिते सूर्ये नदद्भिः क्रौन्च सारसैः || ४-१६-१६
16. baaSpa cChannaani araNyaani = dew, covered,, forests; yava godhuumavanti ca = having barley, wheat, also; shobhante abhyudite suurye = glistening, at rise of, sun; nadadbhiH kraunca saarasaiH = callings, of krauncha, saarasa [waterfowls.]
"Covered with the dew the forests that already covered with crop fields of barley and wheat are beaming forth, together with the callings of waterfowls, at the rise of the sun. [4-16-16]
The sun now risen is Rama. The word baaSpa also means tears. The fertile lands are shedding tears in fear of Ravana. Again baaSpaH is vapour that spreads. Rama's benevolence is spreading like vapour. The forests are with full crops. The lands are full with asceticism and Vedic practices to receive the mercy of Rama. The birds' callings are the echoing of Vedic sonority. Govindaraja. The yava grains are not exactly western barley grains as usually shown in lexicons. It is called locally as jov dhaan and is used in fire oblations, . It is a dietary prescription to diabetics nowadays.
खर्जूर पुष्प आकृतिभिः शिरोभिः पूर्ण तण्डुलैः |
शोभन्ते किंचिद् आलंबाः शालयः कनक प्रभाः || ४-१६-१७
17. kanaka prabhaaH shaalayaH = golden, in lustre, paddy fields; kharjuura puSpa aakR^itibhiH = date-fruit, flowers, in shape; puurNa taNDulaiH = full with, grain; shirobhiH = at heads corn cobs; kimcit aalambaaH = a little, bent down; shobhante = gleaming forth.
"The paddy crops in fields are gleaming forth with golden lustre, and their heads full with grain and a little bent down are shapely like the flowers of date-fruit. [4-16-17]
The heads of crops are a little bent down by weight of corn, like the heads of sages who bow down with the weight of knowledge before the Absolute. Thus their age-old golden hair is gleaming at the first rays of sun. Govindaraja.
मयूखैः उपसर्पद्भिः हिम नीहार संवृतैः |
दूरम् अभ्युदितः सूर्यः शशांक इव लक्ष्यते || ४-१६-१८
18. hima niihaara samvR^itaiH = with snowy, mist, besieging; upasarpadbhiH mayuukhaiH = though spreading around, are sunbeams; suuryaH duuram abhyuditaH = sun, distantly, [up on sky,] came up; shashaanka iva lakSyate = moon, to be, appearing to be.
"Though he came up long back, and though his beams are spreading around, besieged by snowy mist the sun is appearing as moon. [4-16-18]
The sun again is Rama. 'Though you have risen in the vast of forests long back and avowed to eradicate demons, has your radiance decreased like the vernal sun, while the demons are still radiant by their activities...' is the question of Lakshmana. Govindaraja.
अग्राह्य वीर्यः पूर्वाह्णे मध्याह्ने स्पर्शतः सुखः |
संरक्तः किंचिद् आपाण्डुः आतपः शोभते क्षितौ || ४-१६-१९
19. puurvaahNe a graahya viiryaH = in mornings, not, usurped / inappreciable, valour [warmth of sun]; madhyaahne sparshataH sukhaH = at noontime, for touch, comfortable; samraktaH kimcit aapaaNDuH = reddish, a little, palish; kSitau aatapaH shobhate = on earth, sun-warmth, radiating.
Inappreciable is the warmth of sun in the mornings, but comfortable for touch at noontimes, since the reddish but a little palish sunshine is radiating on earth. [4-16-19]
The warmth of the sun is his valour which is usurped by the snowy mist. Rama's valour is usurped or inappreciable by his taciturnity. Then Lakshmana is deemed to have said, 'The demons are dominating the nature with their cold-blooded activities like coldish snow, oh, Rama, sustaining them with kind of cool profile of yours is inapt of you...' Govindaraja.
अवश्याय निपातेन किंचित् प्रक्लिन्न शाद्वला |
वनानाम् शोभते भूमिर् निविष्ट तरुण आतपा || ४-१६-२०
20. avashyaaya nipaatena = by dewdrops, falling; kimcit praklinna shaadvalaa = a little, moistened, are pasturelands; niviSTa taruNa aatapaa = radiance, tender, sun-warmth; vanaanaam bhuumiH shobhate = of forests, lands, are enlivened.
"The pasturelands are a little moistened with the fall of dewdrops, but the fields of forest are enlivened by the radiance of tender sun's warmth. [4-16-20]
The pastureland are like the serene sages who are wetting their faces with droplets of merciful tears by the activities of the demons. And now the warmth of the tender sun / valour of Rama, is radiating on the countenances of pasturelands/sages which will be furious henceforth. Govindaraja.
स्पृशन् तु सुविपुलम् शीतम् उदकम् द्विरदः सुखम् |
अत्यन्त तृषितो वन्यः प्रतिसंहरते करम् || ४-१६-२१
21. atyanta tR^iSitaH = intensely, thirsty; vanyaH dviradaH = forest, elephant; su vipulam = with very, broad [trunk]; [or, suvimalam = very clear water]; shiitam udakam sukham spR^ishan = cold, water, easily, on touching; karam prati samharate = trunk, in turn, backs away [taking back.]
"On easily touching very clear and cold water with its very broad trunk that intensely thirsty wild elephant is backing away its trunk for the water is that cold. [4-16-21]
Gods are withdrawing to touch pleasurable items that are usually enjoyable to them, fearing Ravana. Govindaraja
एते हि समुपासीना विहगा जलचारिणः |
न अवगाहन्ति सलिलम् अप्रगल्भा इव आवहम् || ४-१६-२२
22. samupaasiinaa = nearby sitting; ete jala caariNaH = these, water, movers; viha gaa = sky, going birds waterfowls; a pragalbhaa = not, courageous ones cowards; aavaham iva = into battle, like; salilam na avagaahanti = water not, going in.
"These waterfowls that are sitting nearby are not entering into waters like cowards not entering battlefields. [4-16-22]
The waterfowls are compared with the sages. The sages though staying nearby asceticism, like birds sitting on riverbanks, are not able to enter into its enjoyable main realm, namely samaadhi, concentration. Another way is 'oh Rama, though you are an expert in warfare why you are backing away for a war with demons? Why not jump to it? Are you like these fearing waterfowls?'
अवश्याय तमो नद्धा नीहार तमसा आवृताः |
प्रसुप्ता इव लक्ष्यन्ते विपुष्पा वन राजयः || ४-१६-२३
23. avashyaaya tamaH naddhaa = by snowy, darkness, subdued; niihaara tamasaa aavR^itaaH = by mist, gloom, enclosed; vi puSpaa = without, flowers; vana aajayaH = forest, ranges; pra suptaa iva lakSyante = well-slept, like, appearing.
"Subdued by snowy darkness, enclosed in misty gloom, and reft of flowers these forest ranges appear like those that are asleep. [4-16-23]
Mantled by darkness and dewdrops dribbling, the leaves and leaflets are crouched and look like sleeping ones. Further blanketed by the mist they are appearing as those that are sleeping covering a blanket. Flowers are not blooming like the closed eyes of a sleeper. Thus the woodlands are asleep. Govindaraja.
For those who are asleep it is a double darkness. One is the darkness of sleep, while the other is the darkness of night. They not only crouch in themselves with the inner darkness, but as they are also enfolded by the external darkness of night, they further crouch in. Maheshvara Tiirtha. By this sleep attribute, the dormant disposition of sages is made evident.
बाष्प संचन्न सलिला रुत विज्ञेय सारसाः |
हिमाअर्द्र वालुकैः तीरैः सरितो भान्ति सांप्रतम् || ४-१६-२४
24. saampratam = now; baaSpa samcChanna salilaa = mist, covered, waters; ruta vij~neya saarasaaH = by calling, perceptible, saarasa water birds; saritaH = rivers; hima aardra = by mist, wet; vaalukaiH tiiraiH = with sandbanks, declivities - shores; bhaanti = they glisten.
"Now the rivers are imperceptible as their water is overspread with dewdrops, but their water-birds are perceptible only by their callings, thus making that river perceptible, and such rivers are now glistening with moist sandbanks and shores. [4-16-24]
By rivers the sages are denominated and they are all enshrouded by the mist called the fear of demons, and they are perceptible just by their groaning. They are unable to come out of that misty climate, as good as waterfowls dependent on rivers.
तुषार पतनात् चैव मृदुत्वात् भास्करस्य च |
शैत्यात् अग अग्रस्थम् अपि प्रायेण रसवत् जलम् || ४-१६-२५
25. tuSaara patanaat caiva = snow, by fall, also thus; bhaaskarasya = of sun; mR^idutvaat shaityaat = softness, coldness; rasavat jalam = tasty, water; aga agrastham api [or, agaatha staham api] = on mountain, peak, even [deep down, even in wells]; praayeNa = generally; [apeyam = drinkable.]
"Owing to the fall of snow, further owing to the softness and coldness of sun, the water deep down the wells is generally agreeable for drinking. [4-16-25]
This falling of the snow is indicative of the falling of demons upon sages, and sun's softness is with the soft attitude of Rama. Tiirtha.
जरा जर्जरितैः पत्रैः शीर्ण केसर कर्णिकैः |
नाल शेषा हिम ध्वस्ता न भान्ति कमलाकराः || ४-१६-२६
26. kamala aakaraaH = lotus, lakes; jaraa jarjaritaiH patraiH [padmaiH] = with aged, withered, petals [lotuses]; siirNa kesara karNikaiH = with decrepit, fibrils, carpels; naala sheSaa = peduncles, remnant; hima dhvastaa = by cold, impaired; na bhaanti = not, glowing.
"Lotus lakes are left alone with stalks of lotuses as their petals are aged and withered, decrepit are the fibrils and carpels, thus impaired by cold they are ungracious in look. [4-16-26]
When the demons destroy the lake-like hermitages and their inmates, aged and withered sages and their lotus-petal like austerities are shattered by the hostilities of demons, and the remaining hermits are just like the stalks of lotuses left behind.
अस्मिन् तु पुरुषव्याघ्र काले दुःख समन्वितः |
तपश्चरति धर्मात्मा त्वत् भक्त्या भरतः पुरे || ४-१६-२७
27. asmin tu kale = during this, but, time; puruSavyaaghra = manly-tiger Rama; harmaatmaa bharataH = noble-souled, Bharata; duHkha samanvitaH = anguish, along with; tvat bhaktyaa = in you, with adoration; pure tapaH carati = in city, ascesis, he undertakes.
"But during this time, oh, manly-tiger, ushered by anguish that virtue souled one Bharata must be practising ascesis in city with adoration to you. [4-16-27]
त्यक्त्वा राज्यम् च मानम् च भोगांश्च विविधान् बहून् |
तपस्वी नियताहारः शेते शीते महीतले || ४-१६-२८
28. raajyam ca maanam = kingdom, as well, pride; vividhaan bahuun bhogaan ca= pleasures, varied, various ones, also; tyaktvaa = on forsaking; tapasvii = in self-denial; niyata aahaaraH = regulated, in food; shiite mahii tale shete = chilly, on earth's, surface, sleeping.
"On forsaking kingdom and pride of becoming the king of Ayodhya as well, and varied and various pleasures too, he is in self-denial, and with his food regulated he sleeps on chilly surface of earth. [4-16-28]
So far Lakshmana spoke about spring season indicating the sufferings of saints and sages by the chill and icy effects of demons indirectly. Now his broodings are turning to Bharata, for Bharata is avowed to self-immolate if Rama were not to come after a fixed time, and Rama is lingering here.
सोऽपि वेलाम् इमाम् नूनम् अभिषेक अर्थम् उद्यतः |
वृतः प्रकृतिभिर् नित्यम् प्रयाति सरयूम् नदीम् || ४-१६-२९
29. saH api = he, even; imaam velaam = at this, time; abhiSeka artham udyataH = taking bath, for the purpose of, got up; nityam = always; prakR^itibhiH vR^itaH = by ministers, surrounded; sarayuum nadiim prayaati = to Sarayu, river, he proceeds; nuunam = definitely.
"Even he might always be getting up at this time of the day and proceeding to River Sarayu for a bath surrounded by ministers, definite is that. [4-16-29]
अत्यन्त सुख संवृद्धः सुकुमारो हिमार्दितः |
कथम् तु अपर रात्रेषु सरयूम् अवगाहते || ४-१६-३०
30 atyanta sukha samvR^iddhaH = very much, in comfort, he is brought up; sukumaaraH = delicate one; a para raatreSu = not, in post, of night [in small hours]; hima aarditaH sarayuum = by cold, wet, in Sarayu; katham = how; avagaahate = he enters.
"But how can he who is brought up in high comfort, a delicate one too, enter the cold-wet waters of River Sarayu, in these small hours. [4-16-30]
The compound atyanta sukha samvriddhaH brought up in comfort is but natural to a prince, but it is in its princely loftiness. But our father King Dasharatha has made it loftier. And you by your brotherly caring , you also looked Bharata. atyanata sukumaaraH by his feelings he is a delicate one who cannot tolerate your absence'. In other mms it is sukhochita in place of hima aardra which means one who is habituated to pleasures of a younger prince,' but not to become a monk in these early years of his youth. So you should relieve him of his vow. This is the import of Lakshmana's address to Rama.
पद्मपत्रेक्षणः श्यामः श्रीमान् निरुदरो महान् |
धर्मज्ञः सत्यवादी च ह्री निषेधो जितेन्द्रियः || ४-१६-३१
प्रियाभिभाषी मधुरो दीर्घबाहुः अरिन्दमः |
संत्यज्य विविधान् भोगान् आर्यम् सर्वात्मना आश्रितः || ४-१६-३२
31. padma patra ekSaNaH = one with lotus, petal, eyes; shyaamaH = blue-black [by complexion]; shriimaan = imposing one; nir udaraH = without, stomach [slender waisted lion]; mahaan = noble one; dharma j~naH = dharma, knower of; satya vaadii ca = truth, advocate; also; hrii niSedhaH = ignominy, intolerant of; jitendriyaH = sense-restrained one; priya abhi bhaaSii = dearly, talking; madhuraH = sweetly [talking]; diirgha baahuH = long, armed one - dextrous; arindamaH = enemy-destroyer; uch as Bharata is; vividhaan bhogaan samtyajya = various, pleasures, on foregoing; sarva aatmanaa = in any way; aaryam = adorable one [you alone are]; aashritaH = devoted to.
"That lotus-petal eyed one with blue-black complexion is an imposing one with lion-like waist, being the noblest he is knower of dharma thus an advocate of truth, and thus intolerant of ignominy, and as a self-restrained one he talks dearly and sweetly, and he is dextrous and an enemy-destroyer, such as he is, that Bharata on forgoing all of his various pleasures he is devoted to you, as you alone are his adorable brother. [4-16-31, 32]
Stomachless is not to say that Bharata is without a stomach but has a palm-like concave stomach, but not a potbelly to stomach the kingdom of Ayodhya that is easily usurped through his mother Kaika.
जितः स्वर्गः तव भ्रात्रा भरतेन महात्मना |
वनस्थम् अपि तापस्ये यः त्वाम् अनुविधीयते || ४-१६-३३
33. yaH = he who is; vanastham api = in forests, even though; tvaam anuvidhiiyate = you, following; taapasye = in the practise of austerities; such a; tava bhraatraa = your, brother; mahaatmanaa bharatena = by great-souled, Bharata; jitaH svargaH = conquered [here, refused,] heaven.
"Even though you are in forests far away from him, he is following you in the practise of austerities, and such a brother of yours, that great-souled Bharata has refused ascent to heaven. [4-16-33]
Bharata though staying in kingdom he is observing asceticism following the trend of Rama. By grief Bharata might have been dead, like King Dasharatha, and ascended to heavens. But Bharata's going to heavens is a hindrance in getting a glimpse of Rama after return from exile. So Bharata's refusing the heavens is said to be his conquering heavens. Lakshmana is quickening Rama's thinking to take some action to complete his mission in eradicating the demonic atrocities and quickly return to Ayodhya, lest time slips by and Bharata may self-immolate. After these many thoughts, now Lakshmana starts to move the eye of the needle towards Kaikeyi, the root cause for all miseries.
न पित्र्यम् अनुवर्न्तन्ते मातृकम् द्विपदा इति |
ख्यातो लोक प्रवादो अयम् भरतेन अन्यथा कृतः || ४-१६-३४
34. dvi padaa = two, footed, [bipeds, humans]; pitryam = father's [nature]; na anuvarntante = will not, follow - derive; maatR^ikam = [but] mother's [nature they follow]; iti khyaataH = thus, known as; ayam loka pra vaadaH = this, in world, well, saying [epigram]; bharatena anyathaa kR^itaH = by Bharata, otherwise, made [rendered.]
" Humans do not derive father's attitude but they take of their mothers' is the well-know maxim in the world, but Bharata rendered it otherwise. [4-16-34]
This is a proverbial saying that humans inherit mother's characteristics but not father's. But Bharata renders it otherwise for he has not inherited the mean and sordid nature of Kaikeyi. This proverbial saying is still in use in all languages in India, with a little change. In Marathi it is khaanaa tashii maatii va jaatii tashii potii' after Dr. Satya Vrat. This stems up from the Sanskrit dhanyaa pitR^i mukhii kanyaa dhanyaa maatR^i mukhaH sutaH 'Blest is father-like daughter, blest is mother-like son.'
भर्ता दशरथो यस्याः साधुः च भरतः सुतः |
कथम् नु सा अम्बा कैकेयी तादृशी क्रूरदर्शिनी || ४-१६-३५
35. yasyaaH = she to whom; dasharathaH bhartaa = Dasharatha is, husband; saadhuH bharataH sutaH ca = gentle, also, Bharata, the son, also; saa ambaa = such, [our] mother; kaikeyii = Kaikeyi; taa dR^ishii kruura darshinii katham nu = that, sort of, cruel, in mien - disposition, how, indeed.
"Whose husband is Dasharatha and whose son is gentle Bharata, how then can she, our mother Kaikeyi, is with this sort of cruel disposition, indeed " Thus Lakshmana spoke to Rama on their way to River Godavari. [4-16-35]
Rama uses the same wording for Kaikeyi as our middle mother' at 3-2-19b-20
इति एवम् लक्ष्मणे वाक्यम् स्नेहात् वदति धर्मिके |
परिवादम् जनन्यः तम् असहन् राघवो अब्रवीत् || ४-१६-३६
36. dharmike lakSmaNe snehaat = by upright, by Lakshmana, out of fondness [to Rama and Seetha]; iti evam vaakyam vadati = this, way, sentences, while saying; raaghavaH jananyaH = Raghava, about mother; tam pari vaadam = against, telling [slanderous talking]; a sahahan = not, tolerating; abraviit = spoke.
When that upright Lakshmana is speaking those words that way out of his fondness towards Rama, Raghava spoke to Lakshmana, intolerant of that slanderous talk about their mother. [4-16-36]
न ते अम्बा मध्यमा तात गर्हितव्या कथंचन |
ताम् एव इक्ष्वाकु नाथस्य भरतस्य कथाम् कुरु || ४-१६-३७
37. taata = oh, dear Lakshmana; madhyamaa ambaa = middle [second, another,] mother; kathamcana = in any way; te na garhitavyaa = by you, not, deplorable; ikSvaaku naathasya bharatasya = Ikshvaku-s, king, Bharata's; taam kathaam eva kuru = those, stories [topics,] alone, you make [you tell.]
"In any way, dear Lakshmana, you are not supposed to deplore another mother of ours, but you go on telling the topics of Bharata, the king of Ikshvaku-s. [4-16-37]
निश्चिता एव हि मे बुद्धिः वन वासे दृढ व्रता |
भरत स्नेह संतप्ता बालिशी क्रियते पुनः || ४-१६-३८
38. me buddhiH nishcitaa eva hi = my, mind, set upon, that way, indeed; vana vaase dR^iDha vrataa = in forest, dwelling, firmly, avowed; [api = even then]; bharata sneha samtaptaa = for Bharata's, fellowship, well, burning [yearning for]; punaH baalishii kriyate = again, boyishness [fascination,] is made [recurs.]
"My mind is indeed set to dwell only in forest, and it is firmly avowed, but while yearning for Bharata's fellowship my fascination to reunite with him is recurring again. [4-16-38]
संस्मरामि अस्य वाक्यानि प्रियाणि मधुराणि च |
हृद्यानि अमृत कल्पानि मनः प्रह्लादानि च || ४-१६-३९
39. priyaaNi madhuraaNi hR^idyaani amR^ita kalpaani = genial, sweet, heartily, ambrosia, equal to [ambrosial]; manaH prahlaadaani ca = heart, gladdening [heartening words]; asya vaakyaani = his, words; samsmaraami = I an reminiscing.
"I reminisce his words well, that are genial, sweet, heartily, ambrosial and that will gladden the heart. [4-16-39]
कदा हि अहम् समेष्यामि भरतेन महात्मना |
शत्रुघ्नेन च वीरेण त्वया च रघुनंदन || ४-१६-४०
40. raghu nandana = oh, Lakshmana; aham mahaatmanaa bharatena = I, with great-souled, Bharata; viireNa shatrughnena = with valorous, Shatrughna; tvayaa ca = with you [Lakshmana,] also; kadaa hi sameSyaami = when, really, I reunite.
"When can I really reunite, oh, Lakshmana, with great-souled Bharata, valorous Shatrughna, and with you and Seetha." Thus said Rama to Lakshmana. [4-16-40]
Usually the word ca means 'also, and.' In compound tvayaa ca raghunandana it is said to indicate Seetha.
इति एवम् विलपन् तत्र प्राप्य गोदावरीम् नदीम् |
चक्रे अभिषेकम् काकुत्स्थः सानुजः सह सीतया || ४-१६-४१
41. kaakutsthaH = Rama; tatra = there; iti evam vilapan = thus, that way, worrying; godaavariim nadiim praapya = Godavari, river, having reached; sa anu ja = with younger brother; sa siitayaa = with, Seetha; cakre abhiSekam = performed, bathing,
Thus worrying that way while proceeding, there Rama reached River Godavari and performed bathing with his younger brother Lakshmana and along with Seetha. [4-16-41]
तर्पयित्वा अथ सलिलैः तैः पितॄन् दैवतानि च |
स्तुवन्ति स्म उदितम् सूर्यम् देवताअः च तथा अनघाः|| ४-१६-४२
42. atha = then; taiH = by them; salilaiH = with water; pitR^In daivataani ca = to manes, to gods, also; tarpayitvaa = having offered oblations; uditam suuryam = uprisen, sun; devataaaH ca = gods, also; anaghaaH = sinless trinity [Rama, Lakshmana, Seetha]; stuvanti sma = extolled, they are.
Then on offering water oblations to manes and gods that impeccant trinity extolled the rising sun and gods likewise. [4-16-42]
कृताभिषेकः स रराज रामः
सीता द्वितीयः सह लक्ष्मणेन |
कृत अभिषेको तु अग राज पुत्र्या
रुद्रः स नन्दिः भगवान् इव ईशः || ४-१६-४३
43. siitaa dvitiiyaH = Seetha, as second-half [along with]; saH raamaH = that, Rama; kR^ita abhiSekaH = on making [having taken,] river bath; saha lakSmaNena = with Lakshmana; aga raaja putryaa = with mountain, king's, daughter [Paarvati]; kR^ita abhiSekaH = making [having taken,] sacred bath, but; sa nandiH = one with Nandi, the Holy Bull; iishaH bhagavaan rudraH iva = all-controlling, god, Rudra [Shiva in fury,] like; raraaja = shone forth.
On taking bath in the river along with Seetha and Lakshmana, Rama shone forth like All-controlling god Rudra, who will be radiant on taking bath along with his consort Paarvati and with his follower Nandi, the Holy Bull. [4-16-43]
The similitude between Rama and Shiva suggests that Rama is about to start destruction of demons.
एक्ष्तोल्लिंग् सेअसोन्स् इन् एपिच्स्
The portrayal of seasons in epics with all their delicacies is a disputed topic. Ramayana also deals much on these descriptions of seasons. Whether an epic avowed to reflect the Vedic import, as said at 1-4-6, vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya , and that which is pious and merited puNyam vedaischa samamatam at 1-1-98, should have accounts on seasons is the question. For this is said that relating niceties of season time and again, is in perfect accord with Veda, for the season and time are subservient to all Veda-s as per the ancillary of Veda, the Astrology, veda-anga : jyotiShya . Veda-s themselves say that the year is the soul of the horse of Ashvameda. uShaa vaa ashvasya medhasya shiraH | sa~Nvatsara aatmaashvasya medhasya | -- yajurveda bR^ihadaaraNyaka Hence time and season are the mind and soul of all Veda-s.
Like this we find beautification of four seasons at four places, for e.g., hemanta spring is narrated in starting of Kishkindha. And vasanta post autumnal season is described in Kishkindha 43rd chapter, when Hanuma and others are in search for Seetha, and after their exit from the cave of Swayamprabha. varSa rainy season is portrayed in 28th chapter of Kishkindha. At every possible occasion, all the rituals, daily routines that are time oriented, do explain the importance of time than the importance of ritual or daily routine. It is said: vedopabR^ihmaNaartham pravR^itte asmin granthe veda vihita karma apekShita kaala visheSha nirNaayakatvaat kaala saadhaaraNa lakShaNa pratipaadanam eva tat tat R^itu varNana vyaajena kR^itam iti dharmopayoga sambhavaat | -- saayam kaalaadi cihna pratipaadanam iti etat sarvam karma anuShTaana upayukta kaala j~naapanaartham eva kR^itam iti dharma paryavasaanam sambhavati eva -- dharmaakuutam
Thus dharma is upheld in all these narratives about the season and time, which aspect is upheld by the commentators and they too comment lengthily whenever a season or time factor occurs.
इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे षोडशः सर्गः
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