Book IV : Kishkindha Kanda - The Empire of Holy Monkeys
Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Seetha under the leadership of Sushena, the father of lady Tara. Describing the various and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month's time.
tataH prasthaapya sugriivaH taan hariin dakSiNaam disham |
abravit megha sa.nkaasham susheSaNam naama vaanaram | 4-42-1
1. sugriivaH= Sugreeva; hariin= monkeys; dakSiNaam disham prasthaapya= to southern, direction, on sending; tataH= then; saH he - Sugreeva; megha sankaasham= to [massive] cloud, one who looked like; susheSaNam naama vaanaram= Sushena, named, to vanara; abravit= spoke to.
On sending monkeys to southern direction Sugreeva spoke to a vanara named Sushena who looked like a massive cloud. [4-42-1]
taaraayaaH pitaram raajaa shvashuram bhiima vikramam |
abraviit praa.njaliH vaakyam abhigamya praNamya ca || 4-42-2
2. raajaa= king [Sugreeva]; taaraayaaH pitaram= Lady Tara's, father; shvashuram= to [his own] father-in-law; bhiima vikramam= of awesome, valour - Sushena; abhigamya praNamya ca= approached, venerated [- Sushena,] also; praanjaliH= with palms-folded; vaakyam abraviit= sentence, spoke.
On approaching and venerating that awesomely valorous Sushena, the father of Lady Tara, thereby his own father-in-law, king Sugreeva spoke this sentence while adjoining palms in supplication. [4-42-2]
maharSi putram maariicam arciSmantam mahaakapim |
vR^i^itam kapivaraiH shuuraiH mahendra sadR^i^isha dyutim || 4-42-3
buddhi vikrama sampannaan vainateya sama dyutim |
mariici putraan maariicaan arcirmaalyaan mahabalaan || 4-42-4
R^iSi putraan ca taan sarvaan pratiiciim aadishat disham |
3, 4, 5a. maharSi putram maariicam= to the great-sage's, son, Mareecha; mahaa kapim= superb, monkey; shuuraiH kapi varaiH vR^i^itam= with braving, monkeys, exceptional ones, surrounded with; mahendra sadR^i^isha dyutim= Mahendra, coequal, in resplendence; buddhi vikrama sampannaan= in brilliance, bravery, one endowed with; vainateya sama dyutim= Vinata's, son, equal, in sheen [outstanding speed]; arciSmantam= [one who is known as] Arcishman; mariici putraan= Sage Mareecha's sons,; arcirmaalyaan= [known as] Arcishmaalyaa-s; maha balaan= greatly, mighty ones; R^iSi putraan ca= sage's, sons, also; taan sarvaan maariicaan= them, all, [called as] Maareecha-s [brothers of Arcishman]; pratiiciim disham= to western, direction; aadishat= ordered.
Sugreeva ordered the superb monkey son of great-sage Mareecha, called Arcishman, to western direction, who is a surrounded with exceptional and braving monkeys, a coequal to Indra in his resplendence, endowed with brilliance and bravery and whose speed equals that of the son of Vinata, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu. Along with him Sugreeva also ordered the greatly mighty brothers of Arcishman i.e., the other vanara sons of Sage Mareecha, known as Arcishmaalyaa-s, also called as Mareecha-s. [3, 4, 5a]
dvaabhyaam shata sahasraabhyaam kapiinaam kapi sattamaaH || 4-42-5
susheSaNa pramukhaa yuuyam vaidehiim parimaargatha |
5b, 6a. kapi sattamaaH= oh, monkeys, outstanding ones; yuuyam= you all; susheSaNa pramukhaa= Sushena, in fore, front [as leader]; kapiinaam= of monkeys; dvaabhyaam shata sahasraabhyaam= with two, hundred, thousands - two lakhs of monkeys; vaidehiim parimaargatha= let Vaidehi, be tracked down.
"Oh, outstanding monkeys, you shall search for Vaidehi proceeding with two hundred thousand monkeys, say two lakhs, and Sushena as your leader." Thus, Sugreeva started to speak to vanara troops. [4-42-5b, 6a]
sauraaSTraan saha baahliikaan ca.ndracitraan tathaiva ca || 4-42-6
sphiitaan jana padaan ramyaan vipulaani puraaNi ca |
pu.mnaaga gahanam kukSim vakula uddaalaka aakulam || 4-42-7
tathaa ketaka kha.nDaan ca maargadhvam hari pu.ngavaaH |
6b, 7, 8a. hari pungavaaH= oh, monkeys, the best; sauraaSTraan= Suraashtra province; tathaiva ca= like that, also; saha baahliikaan= along with, Baahlika province; candracitraan= Candracitra province; sphiitaan= extensive ones; ramyaan= delightful ones; jana padaan= rural, areas; vipulaani puraaNi ca= spacious, cities, also; punnaaga gahanam= in Punnaga tree, woods; vakula uddaalaka aakulam= Vakula, Uddaalaka trees, [areas] filled with; kukSim= in stomach - in interiors; tathaa= like that; ketaka khanDaan ca= in Ketaka, thickets, also; maargadhvam= be searched.
"Oh, best monkeys, conduct search in the Suraashtra, Baahlika and Candracitra provinces, including their extensive and delightful rural areas and spacious cities, as well as in their woods with Punnaaga trees, areas filled with Vakula, and Uddalaka trees and in their interiors, and even in the thickets of Ketaka trees. [4-42-6b, 7, 8a]
The province of Candracitra, the present day Mathura and is also mentioned as shuura desha 'Shuura province...' in other mms, and the Suraashtra is identified with present day Sauraashtra, a peninsula in Gujarat.
pratyak sroto vahaaH caiva nadyaH shiitajalaaH shivaaH || 4-42-8
taapasaanaam araNyaani kaa.ntaaraa girayaH ca ye |
tatra sthaliiH marupraayaa ati ucca shikharaaH shilaaH || 4-42-9
giri jaala aavR^itaam durgaam maargitvaa pashcimaam disham |
tataH pashcimam aagamya samudram draSTum arhatha || 4-42-10
timi nakra aakula jalam gatvaa drakshyatha vaanaraaH |
8b, 9, 10, 11a. vaanaraaH= oh, vanara-s; pratyak srotaH vahaaH= to west, flowing, flows - rivers flowing westward; shiita jalaaH= with cool, waters; shivaaH= blest ones; nadyaH ca eva= rivers, also thus; taapasaanaam araNyaani= of sages, forests; ye= which - are there; kaantaaraa girayaH ca= in forests, mountains, also; are there, they are to be searched; tatra= there; [ye= which of those that are]; maru praayaaH sthaliiH= waterless, virtually, lands - are there, they also; [ye= which of those that are there]; ati ucca shishiraaH shilaaH= highly, towering, chilly, mountains; [ye= which of those that are there]; giri jaala aavR^itaam= mountain, meshes of, encircled; [ye= which of those that are there]; durgaam= impassable places - are there; such a; pashcimaam disham maargitvaa= western, quarter, on searching; tataH= then; pashcimam samudram aagamya= to western, ocean, on coming; draSTum arhatha= to see, apt of you; gatvaa= having gone there - to western ocean; timi nakra aakula jalam= with sharks, crocodiles, ruffled, waters; drakshyatha= you shall see.
"Oh, vanara-s, search at the blest rivers in the west whose cool water flows westward, as well as in the forests of sages and on the mountains of those forests, and even in lands that are virtually waterless and on the highly towering mountains that are chilly. On searching such an impassable western quarter encircled with enmeshed mountains, then it will be apt of you to come and see Western Ocean. Having come to Western Ocean, you will see seawater ruffled by sharks and crocodiles. [8b, 9, 10, 11a]
tataH ketaka kha.nDeSu tamaala gahaneSu ca || 4-42-11
kapayo vihariSyanti naarikela vaneSu ca |
11b, 12a. tataH= later; kapayaH= monkeys; ketaka khanDeSu= in Ketaka plant, shrubberies of; tamaala gahaneSu ca= Tamaala plant's, copses, also; naarikela vaneSu ca= in coconut, boscages, also; vihariSyanti= may ramble.
"Later the monkeys may ramble in the shrubberies of Ketaka plants, in copses of Tamaala plants and in the boscages of coconut trees. [4-42-11b, 12a]
tatra siitaam ca maargadhvam nilayam raavaNasya ca || 4-42-12
velaatala niveSTeSu parvateSu vaneSu ca |
muracii pattanam caiva ramyam caiva jaTaa puram || 4-42-13
ava.ntiim a.ngalepaam ca tathaa ca alakSitam vanam |
raaSTraaNi ca vishaalaani pattanaani tataH tataH || 4-42-14
12b, 13, 14. tatra= there; velaa tala niveSTeSu= sea, on edge [shore,] sitting pretty; parvateSu= in mountains; vaneSu ca= forests, also; siitaam ca= Seetha, and; raavaNasya nilayam ca= of Ravana, residency, also; maargadhvam= shall be searched; muracii pattanam caiva= Muraci, city, also, thus; ramyam jaTaapuram caiva= delightful, Jaatapura city, also thus; avantiim angalepaam ca= Avanti, Angalepa, also; tathaa= like that; alakSitam vanam ca= Alakshita, forest, also; tataH tataH= there, and there; raaSTraaNi ca=[nearby] provinces, also; vishaalaani pattanaani= spacious, townships; [maargadhvam= shall be searched.]
"Seetha shall be searched along with the residency of Ravana on the mountains that are sitting pretty on the seashore, as well as in the forests on those mountains. Further, the delightful cities available alongshore like Muraci, Jaatapura, Avanti and Angalepa are to be searched together with the forest of Alakshita, including the nearby provinces and spacious townships. [4-42-12b, 13, 14]
These are said as cities with names of muralii, jaTiipuram, in other mms, and it is also said to be Maurvi. The said Avanti is not the Avanti already said to the monkeys who were sent to east. is 'un-cared-for' as the thick woods at its periphery make the interiors of forest neglected.
si.ndhu saagarayoH caiva sa.ngame tatra parvataH |
mahaan hema giriH naama shata shR^i.ngo mahaadrumaH || 4-42-15
15. sindhu saagarayoH sangame= of Sindhu, of ocean, at junction; tatra= there; hemagiriH naama= Hemagiri [or, Somagiri,] named; shata shR^ingaH= with hundreds of, summits; mahaa drumaH= with gigantic, trees; mahaan parvataH= huge, mountain; is there.
"At the junction of River Sindhu with the ocean, Mouth of Indus, there is a huge mountain named Hemagiri, Golden-Mountain, which is with hundreds of summits and gigantic trees. [4-42-15]
tatra prastheSu ramyeSu si.mhaaH pakSa gamaaH sthitaaH |
timi matsya gajaamb caiva niiDaani aaropayanti te || 4-42-16
16. tatra== there; ramyeSu prastheSu= on beautiful, mountain ridges; pakSa gamaaH simhaaH sthitaaH= with wings, going, lions, are there [flying lions]; te= they; timi matsya gajaam caiva= sharks, fish, elephants [elephant seals,] also thus; niiDaani aaropayanti= to nests [to lairs in mountains,] uplifts [winching.]
"On the beautiful ridges of that mountain flying-lions are inhibiting and they will be winching sharks, fish and elephant seals to their lairs. [4-42-16]
taani niiDaani si.mhaanaam giri shR^i.nga gataaH ca ye |
dR^iptaaH tR^iptaaH ca maata.ngaaH toyada svana niHsvanaaH || 4-42-17
vicaranti vishaale asmin toya puurNe samantataH |
17, 18a. giri shR^inga gataaH= on mountain, top, gone in [inhibiting]; toya da svana niH svanaaH= water, giver [cloud,] sound [thunder,] emitting, sound [trumpeting like thundering clouds]; dR^iptaaH= conceited ones; tR^iptaaH ca= contented ones, also; ye= which; maatangaaH= elephants - are there, they; samantataH= everywhere; toya puurNe= water, filled [water abutted area of the mountain]; asmin vishaale= in that, vast [area]; taani= at those [of flying-lions]; simhaanaam niiDaani= of flying-lions, at lairs; vicaranti= verily, move about.
"The elephants inhibiting on the top of that mountain are contended and conceited, and trumpeting like thunderous clouds they will be moving everywhere in that vast area of the mountain abutted by water and near at the lairs of flying-lions. [4-42-17, 18a]
tasya shR^i.ngam diva sparsham kaa.ncanam citra paadapam ||4-42-18
sarvam aashu vicetavyam kapibhiH kaama ruupibhiH |
18b, 19a. diva sparsham= heaven, touching; citra paadapam= having, amazing, trees; kaancanam= golden one; tasya shR^ingam= its, peak; sarvam= in entirety; kaama ruupibhiH kapibhiH= by wish, guise-changers, by monkeys; aashu vicetavyam= quickly, to be searched.
"The monkeys who can change their guise by their wish have to quickly and entirely search the golden peak of that Hemagiri which will be touching the sky and which has amazing trees on it. [4-42-18b, 19a]
koTim tatra samudre tu kaa.ncaniim shata yojanam || 4-42-19
durdarshaam paariyaatrasya gataa drakSyatha vaanaraaH |
19b, 20a. vaanaraaH= oh, vanara-s; tatra gataa= there, having gone - on seagoing; samudre tu= in ocean, but [waterlogged in ocean]; paariyaatrasya= of Mt. Paariyaatra; shata yojanaam= hundred, yojana-s [in height]; kaancaniim= golden; dur darshaam= impossible, to see [because it is blindingly glittering]; koTim= mountain peak; drakSyatha= you shall see.
"On your seagoing there, oh, vanara-s, you will see the golden peak of a waterlogged mountain called Mt. Paariyaatra, which peak will be hundred yojana-s in height, and which is difficult to see as it will be blindingly glittering. [4-42-19b, 20a]
koTyaH tatra caturvimshat ga.ndharvaaNaam tarasvinaam || 4-42-20
vasanti agni nikaashaanaam ghoraaNaam kaama ruupiNaam |
20b, 21a. tatra= there - on that mountain; tarasvinaam= mighty ones; agni nikaashaanaam= fire, similar in glow; ghoraaNaam= atrocious ones; kaama ruupiNaam= by wish, guise-changers; such of those; gandharvaaNaam= of Gandharva-s; catur vimshat koTyaH= four, twenty, crores, [a host of twenty-four crores]; vasanti= are living.
"Twenty four crores of mighty and atrocious Gandharva-s whose glow is similar to the fire and who can change their guise at their wish are living there on that mountain Paariyaatra. [4-42-20b, 21a]
The Gandharva-s said here are not the celestial musicians but human Gandharva-s and the Paariyaatra Mountain may perhaps belong to one in Suleiman Range, now in Pakistan, but not the one among Vindhya Range.
paavaka arciH pratiikaashaaH samavetaaH samantataH || 4-42-21
na ati aasaadayitvaaH te vaanaraiH bhiima vikramaiH |
21b, 22a. samantataH= everywhere; samavetaaH= thronging together [if offended]; paavaka arciH pratiikaashaaH= fire, tongues of, those that are reflective of - who resemble; te= those [Gandharva-s]; bhiima vikramaiH vaanaraiH= awfully, courageous, by vanara-s; na= not; ati aasaadayitvaaH= closely, to be approached [provoked.]
"If those Gandharva-s who resemble the tongues of fire are given offence, they will be thronging together from everywhere, as such even awfully courageous vanara-s shall not provoke them. [4-42-21b, 22a]
na adeyam ca phalam tasmaat deshaat kimcit plava.ngamaiH || 4-42-22
duraasadaa hi te viiraaH sattvavanto mahaabalaaH |
phala muulaani te tatra rakSante bhiima vikramaaH || 4-42-23
22b, 23. tasmaat deshaat= from that, province; plavamgamaiH= by fly-jumpers; phalam kimcit na aadeyam ca= fruit, at least, not, to be picked, also; sattva vantaH= assiduous ones; mahaabalaaH= highly mighty ones; te viiraaH= those, valiant ones - Gandharva-s; dur aasadaa= impossible, for overtures; hi= isn't it; bhiima vikramaaH= appallingly, audacious ones; te= those - Gandharva-s; tatra= there; phala muulaani= fruits, tubers; rakSante= will be safeguarding.
"And the fly-jumpers shall not pluck at least a fruit in that province. Because those assiduous, highly mighty and valiant Gandharva-s are impossible for overtures, isn't it. Moreover, those appallingly audacious Gandharva-s will be safeguarding fruits and tubers there. [4-42-22, 23]
This area must be in and around present day Afghanistan because it is famous for dry fruits and it is the age-old practice of Kabuli Walla-s to sell most delicious dry-fruits. When they grow that kind of high-grade fruits which orchardist allows a monkey to pluck and plunder them.
tatra yatnaH ca kartavyo maargitavyaa ca jaanakii |
na hi tebhyo bhayam ki.ncit kapitvam anuvartataam || 4-42-24
24. tatra= there; yatnaH ca= put oneself in devoir, also; kartavyaH= doable - by you; jaanakii maargitavyaa ca= Janaki, is searchable, also; kapitvam= monkey-hood; anuvartataam= to those who are following it - who practise monkey tricks; tebhyaH= from them - Gandharva-s; bhayam kimcit= scare, in the least; na hi= is not there, indeed.
"There you have to put yourself in devoir and search for Janaki. In the event of your following just monkey-hood and its antics, without becoming adventuresome, there will be no scare from those Gandharva-s. Then you proceed from that Mt. Paariyaatra to Mt. Vajra. [4-42-24]
tatra vaiduurya varNaabho vajra sa.msthaana sa.msthitaH |
naanaa druma lataa aakiirNo vajraH naama mahaagiriH || 4-42-25
shriimaan samuditaH tatra yojanaanaam shatam samam |
guhaaH tatra vicetavyaaH prayatnena plava.ngamaaH || 4-42-26
25, 26. plavangamaaH= oh, fly-jumpers; tatra= there - in sea next to Mt. Paariyaatra; vaiduurya varNa abhaH= lapis gemstone, hue, similar in shine; vajra samsthaana samsthitaH= a diamond, in structure, standing - standing like a diamond in its shape; naanaa druma lataa aakiirNaH= diverse, trees, climbers, spread over; shriimaan= glorious one; vajraH naama mahaa giriH= Vajra, named, great mountain; tatra= there; yojanaanaam shatam= yojana-s, hundred; samam= squarely; samuditaH= soaring high; tatra= there on that mountain; guhaaH= caverns; prayatnena vicetavyaaH= pursuantly, are to be searched.
"Oh, fly-jumpers, there is a great mountain named Mt. Vajra in that sea beyond Mt. Paariyaatra. It will be with a shine similar to the hue of the gemstone lapis, and it will be standing like a diamond in its shape, hence it is diamondiferous. There that glorious mountain will be soaring high, squarely for a hundred yojana-s, and diverse trees and climbers will be spreading over it. There, on that mountain you have to search pursuantly including its caverns. [4-42-25, 26]
catur bhaage samudrasya cakravaan naama parvataH |
tatra cakram sahasraaram nirmitam vishvakarmaNaa || 4-42-27
27. samudrasya catur bhaage= of ocean, in fourth, quarter; cakravaan naama parvataH= Cakravaan, named, mountain - is there; tatra= there [on that mountain]; vishvakarmaNaa= by Vishvakarma; sahasra aram cakram= thousand, spoked, wheel; nirmitam= is constructed.
"In the fourth quarter of that ocean from land a mountain named Cakravaan is there. Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect, constructed a thousand-spoked wheel on it. [4-42-27]
This is not just a wheel with thousand spokes, but said to be a machine of weaponry with thousand parts or sub-weapons. The Divine Architect Vishvakarma constructs such marvellous things not only for to gods, but even to the demons coming under duress, as and when demons conquer Indra's paradise. In the following verses, a connected legend is also touched.
tatra pa.ncajanam hatvaa hayagriivam ca daanavam |
aajahaara tataH cakram sha.nkham ca puruSottamaH || 4-42-28
28. tatra= there - on mountain; puruSa uttamaH= Person, Supreme - Vishnu; hayagriivam daanavam hatvaa= Hayagreeva, demon, on slaying; tataH= from there [from him]; cakram= wheel; he took, and; pancajanam= Pancajana; [hatvaa= on slaying]; shankham ca= conch-shell, also; aajahaara= snatched away.
puraaNa/Legend: "Once upon a time in the crusades of gods-demons, Vishnu assuming the form of puroSottama 'Supreme Person' slew the horse-faced demon named Hayagreeva on that mountain, and snatched away the wheel-weapon from him. Until then, this wheel-weapon existed under the custody of that demon Hayagreeva. Purushottama also put another demon Pancajana to death on that very mountain and took away his backbone, which is a conch-shell. Thus the conch-shell handled by Vishnu is known as paancha janya shankha 'Paanchajanya conch.' Thus, this Cakravaan named mountain assumes legendary importance to search for Seetha. [4-42-28]
tasya saanuSu ramyeSu vishaalaasu guhaasu ca |
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-29
29. tasya= its - Mt. Cakravaan's; ramyeSu saanuSu= on delightful, cliffs; vishaalaasu guhaasu ca= spacious, caves, also; raavaNaH= Ravana; vaidehyaa saha= Vaidehi, together with; maargitavyaH= be searched; tataH tataH= there, there - here, there, and everywhere.
"Vaidehi is to be searched on the delightful cliffs of that Mt. Cakravaan and also in its spacious caves, together with Ravana, and search for her here, there, and everywhere. [4-42-29]
yojanaani catuH SaSTiH varaaho naama parvataH |
suvarNa shR^i.ngaH sumahaan agaadhe varuNa aalaye || 4-42-30
30. agaadhe= in the abyss of; varuNa aalaye= in Rain-god's, adobe - in ocean; catuH SaSTiH yojanaani= four, six [after sixty-four] yojana-s; suvarNa shR^ingaH= golden, peaked; varaahaH naama= Varaha, named; su mahaan parvataH= very, great, mountain - is there.
"After sixty-four yojana-s another very great mountain with golden peaks is there in abyss of the abode of Rain-god, namely the ocean, and it is named as Mt. Varaaha. [4-42-30]
tatra praak jyotiSam naama jaataruupamayam puram |
yasmin vasati duSTa aatmaa narako naama daanavaH || 4-42-31
31. tatra praakjyotiSam naama= there, Praagjyotisha, named; jaataruupamayam puram= completely golden, city - is there; yasmin= wherein; duSTa aatmaa= evil, minded one; narakaH naama daanavaH= Naraka, named, demon; vasati= lives.
"A city named Praagjyotisha is there which is completely golden, wherein the evil-minded demon named Naraka is living. [4-42-31]
This Praagjyotisha is held as the present Assam as has been referred by Kalidasa in his works and some say that this place should not have been referred here. The inclusion of this verse is said to be the problem with the copyist. S.M. Ali in 'The Geography of the Puranas' says: 'this was the famous janapada on the fringe of the Eastern country...' and it corresponds roughly with the middle Brahmaputra valley...' The name is derived as praak 'firstly, easterly...' jyotish 'planet, Sun,' that is to say, 'the place where the Sun shines firstly, that is in the east of India...' i.e., Assam. The said demon Naraka is not the buffalo-demon who was eliminated by Goddess Durga.
tatra saanuSu ramyeSu vishaalaasu guhaasu ca |
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-32
32. tatra ramyeSu saanuSu= there [on Mt. Varaaha,] on delightful, cliffs; vishaalaasu guhaasu ca= spacious, caves, also; raavaNaH= Ravana; vaidehyaa saha= Vaidehi together with; maargitavyaH tataH tataH= be searched, there, there.
"There on the delightful cliffs and spacious caves of that Mt. Varaaha, including that city Praagjyotisha, Ravana shall be searched together with Vaidehi. [4-42-32]
tam atikramya shailendram kaa.ncanaan antara darshanam |
parvataH sarva sauvarNo dhaaraa prasravaNa aayutaH || 4-42-33
33. tam= that [Mt. Varaaha]; kaancanaan antara darshanam [nirdaraam]= with gold-deposits, inlaid, appears [with golden caves]; shailendram= mountain, the best; atikramya= on ranging; dhaaraa prasravaNa aayutaH= waterfalls, rapids, containing; sarva sauvarNaH parvataH= entirely, golden, mountain - is there, called Meghavanta.
"On ranging from that best Mt. Varaaha, whose caves are inlaid with gold-deposits apparent to the naked eye, there is an entirely golden mountain containing waterfalls and rapids called Meghavanta. [4-42-33]
tam gajaaH ca varaahaaH ca si.mhaa vyaaghraaH ca sarvataH |
abhigar.hjanti satatam tena shabdena darpitaaH || 4-42-34
34. sarvataH= all around; gajaaH ca varaahaaH ca simhaa vyaaghraaH ca= elephants, also wild-boars, also, lions, tigers, also; tena shabdena= by its [mountain's,] sound [on listening the reverberating sounds of rapids and falls of that mountain]; darpitaaH= proud-heartedly; satatam= always; abhi garjanti= facing towards [mountain,] [elephants will be] roaring.
"Listening the sonorous sounds of waterfalls and rapids of that mountain, and construing them to be the roars of their opponent beasts, the elephants, wild boars, lions, and tigers will always be facing that mountain and roaring proud-heartedly all around it, by which that Mt. Meghavanta itself appears to be roaring, proud-heartedly. [4-42-34]
yasmin hari hayaH shriimaan mahendraH paakashaasanaH |
abhiSiktaH surai raajaa megho naama sa parvataH || 4-42-35
35. hari hayaH= green, horses - one who has, Indra ; shriimaan= distinguished one; paaka shaasanaH= demon Paka, controller of; mahendraH= Mahendra; yasmin= where - on which mountain; suraiH= by gods; raajaa= as king; abhiSiktaH= is anointed; saH= such a; meghaH naama parvataH= Megha, named, mountain - it is.
"On which mountain the distinguished Mahendra, whose horses are green and who is the controller of demon Paka, is anointed by gods as their king, such a mountain is this named Mt. Megha, or Mt. Meghavanta, which you have to scour. [4-42-35]
tam atikramya shailendram mahendra paripaalitam |
SaSTim giri sahasraaNi kaa.ncanaani gamiSyatha || 4-42-36
taruNa aaditya varNaani bhraajamaanaani sarvataH |
jaataruupamayaiH vR^ikSaiH shobhitaani supuSpitaiH || 4-42-37
36, 37. mahendra paripaalitam= by great Indra, ruled; tam shailendram= that, mountain the best - Mt. Meghavanta; atikramya= going further; taruNa aaditya varNaani= young, sun, in tinge with; sarvataH bhraajamaanaani= all around, radiant; su puSpitaiH= with fully flowered; jaataruupamayaiH= completely golden in hue; vR^ikSaiH= with such - trees; shobhitaani= resplendent with; kaancanaani= golden ones; SaSTim= sixty; giri sahasraaNi= mountain, thousands [a range of sixty thousand mountains]; gamiSyatha= you shall go to.
"On going further from that best mountain ruled by Mahendra, namely Mt. Meghavanta, you shall go to the range of sixty thousand golden mountains. Those mountains are radiant all around with the tinge of young Sun, and with the resplendence of fully flowered trees which are wholly golden in hue. [4-42-36, 37]
teSaam madhye sthito raajaa meruH uttama parvataH |
aadityena prasannena shailo datta varaH puraa || 4-42-38
38. teSaam madhye= their, in midst; raajaa meruH uttama parvataH= kingly, Meru, unique, mountain; sthitaH= is there; puraa= once upon a time; shailaH= that mountain; prasannena aadityena= by generous, Sun; datta varaH= accorded, boon.
"There is a unique and kingly mountain in the midst of that range of golden mountains, which is called Mt. Meru, or Saavrni Meru, to which mountain generous Sun has once given a boon. [4-42-38]
tena evam uktaH shailendraH sarva eva tvat aashrayaaH |
mat prasaadaat bhaviSyanti divaa raatrau ca kaa.ncanaaH || 4-42-39
tvayi ye ca api vatsyanti deva gandharva daanavaaH |
te bhaviSyanti bhaktaaH ca prabhayaa kaa.ncana prabhaaH || 4-42-40
39, 40. shaila indraH= unique, mountain - Mt. Saavarni Meru; tena= by him - by Sun; evam uktaH= this way, said; tvat aashrayaaH= by you, sheltered; sarva eva= all of the - [whatever trees, boulders, brooks,] thus; divaa raatrau ca= by day, by night, also; mat prasaadaat= by my, beneficence; kaancanaaH bhaviSyanti =[transmute into] golden [in hue,] they become; ye= which of those; deva gandharva daanavaaH= gods, gandharva-s, demons; tvayi= in you [on you]; vatsyanti= will be residing; te ca api= they, also, even; bhaktaaH ca= votaries [of mine, i.e., the Sun,] also; prabhayaa= by resplendence; kaancana prabhaaH= in golden, glitter; bhaviSyanti= they will become.
"The Sun said to that unique Mt. Meru Saavarni in this way, 'by my beneficence whatever that is sheltered by you, say trees, climbers, rapids, boulders, all of them will transmute into golden hue, either by day or by night. Even those that reside on you, say gods, gandharva-s, or demons, they too shall thrive as my votaries and as far as their resplendence is concerned they will be glittering like gold, i.e., in the ochry golden hue of the eventide. [4-42-39, 40]
vishvedevaaH ca vasavo marutaH ca diva okasaH |
aagatya pashcimaam sa.ndhyaam merum uttama parvatam || 4-42-41
aadityam upatiSThanti taiH ca suuryo abhipuujitaH |
adR^ishyaH sarva bhuutaanaam astam gacChati parvatam || 4-42-42
41, 42. vishvedevaaH ca= Vishvedeva-s, also; vasavaH= Vasava-s; marutaH ca= Marut-s, and; diva okasaH= heaven, dwellers - other celestials; pashcimaam sandhyaam= at vesperal time; uttama parvatam merum= unique, mountain, to Mt. Meru; aagatya= having come; aadityam= at Sun; upa tiSThanti= nearby, sit tight - as in seated worship - they will worship; suuryaH taiH abhipuujitaH= Sun, by them, well worshipped; sarva bhuutaanaam= for all, beings; a + dR^ishyaH= un, seen - sun becomes - evanishes; astam parvatam gacChati= to dusking, mountain [Astagiri,] he goes.
"On their coming to that unique mountain Mt. Meru Saavarni at vespers Vishvedeva-s, Vasava-s, Marut-s, and the other celestials will bide their time for the dusking Sun, and when they all have worshipped him, the Sun goes to the Mt. Astagiri, the Dusking Mountain, and evanishes for all beings for that day. [4-42-41, 42]
The above list may not mention others but it is construed to be inclusive of ekaadasha rudra-s, who are twenty-one in number, while the vishvedevaaH are thirteen, vasavaaH are eight, maruts are seven, aadityaa-s 'the other Suns in other galaxies...' are twelve.
yojanaanaam sahasraaNi dasha taani divaakaraH |
muhuurta ardhena tam shiighram abhiyaati shila uccayam || 4-42-43
43. divaakaraH= day, maker [Sun]; muhuurta ardhena= hour, and half; yojanaanaam= of yojana-s; taani= those; dasha sahasraaNi= ten, thousand, [ten thousand yojana-s]; shila uccayam= towards mountain, highest, [Mt. Astagiri, Mt. Dusk]; shiighram abhi yaati= quickly, towards, goes.
"The Sun courses across those ten thousand yojana-s from Mt. Meru Saavarni to Mt. Astaadri in one and half hours, and quickly reaches Mt. Astagiri, or Mt. Dusk. [4-42-43]
shR^i.nge tasya mahat divyam bhavanam suurya sa.nnibham |
praasaada gaNa sa.mbaadham vihitam vishvakarmaNaa || 4-42-44
44. tasya shR^inge= on its, pinnacle, [Mt. Astagiri's pinnacle]; praasaada gaNa sambaadham= building with stories, multi, compacted with; suurya sannibham= Sun, similar [in shine]; mahat= a supreme; divyam= a heavenly; bhavanam= manor-house; vishvakarmaNaa vihitam= by Vishvakarma, arranged - is there.
"On the pinnacle of Mt. Astagiri, or the Mt. Dusk, there is a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine will be similar to Sun and which is arranged by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect. [4-42-44]
shobhitam tarubhiH citraiH naanaa pakSi samaakulaiH |
niketam paasha hastasya varuNasya mahaatmanaH || 4-42-45
45. citraiH= with amazing ones; naanaa pakSi sam aakulaiH= with diverse, birds, well [musically,] twittering; tarubhiH shobhitam= with trees, brightened with; mahaa aatmanaH= great-souled one; paasha hastasya= tether, in hand [wielder of]; varuNasya niketam= Rain-god Varuna's, villa - is there.
"That villa is brightened by amazing trees, on which diverse birds will be twittering musically, belongs to the great-souled Varuna, the Rain-god, who wields a tether. [4-42-45]
antaraa merum astam ca taalo dasha shiraa mahaan |
jaataruupamayaH shriimaan bhraajate citra vedikaH || 4-42-46
46. merum astam ca= Mt. Meru, Mt. Astaadri [Mt. Dusk,] also; antaraa= in between; dasha shiraa= ten, headed [ten leaved]; jaataruupamayaH= completely golden; shriimaan= glorious one; citra vedikaH= with marvellous, podium; mahaan taalaH= gigantic, Date-palm-tree; bhraajate= shines forth.
"In between Mt. Meru and Mt. Astaadri there is a gigantic ten-leaved Date-palm-tree, which is completely golden and shines forth with a marvellous podium. [4-42-46]
This area must be the present day Arabian and the ancient Persian province, because the Date-palm tree is the highly respected tree at there or even throughout south East Asia. The three kinds of Dates trees are called as dry-grass-palm trees, as said in Amara Kosha. kharjuura, ketakii, talii, kharjuurii ca tR^iNa drumaa: amara kosha 'Date, Pandamus odara tissimus, Corypha Talliera and Wild Date are dry-grass-palms, and these grow in abundance around oases.
teSu sarveSu durgeSu sarassu ca saritsu ca |
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-47
47. sarveSu= in all of them; teSu= in those; durgeSu sarassu ca saritsu ca= mountains, lakes, also, rivers, also; tataH tataH= there, there; vaidehyaa= Vaidehi; saha raavaNaH= together with, Ravana; maargitavyaH= shall be searched.
"On all those mountains, lakesides and riversides Vaidehi shall be searched together with Ravana, far and wide. [4-42-47]
yatra tiSThati dharmaj~naH tapasaa svena bhaavitaH |
meru saavarNir iti eSa khyaato vai brahmaNaa samaH || 4-42-48
48. dharmaj~naH= virtue knower; svena tapasaa bhaavitaH= by his own, asceticism, an enlightened one; brahmaNaa samaH= to Brahma, selfsame; eSa= who is; merusaavarNiH iti= Sage Merusaavarni, thus; khyaataH= is renowned; yatra tiSThati vai= where, he abides, indeed - that place is this Mt. Meru Saavarni.
"This is where the virtue-knower, an enlightened one by his own asceticism, a selfsame personality to Brahma and one renowned as Sage Merusaavarni indeed resides. [4-42-48]
praSTavyo merusaavarNiH maharSiH suurya sa.nnibhaH |
praNamya shirasaa bhuumau pravR^ittim maithiliim prati || 4-42-49
49. suurya sannibhaH= Sun, similar in shine; maharSiH merusaavarNiH= great-sage, Merusaavarni; shirasaa bhuumau praNamya= with head-bent, onto ground, venerating - prostration yourself before him; maithiliim prati= of Maithili, about - tidings about Maithili; pravR^ittim praSTavyaH= her whereabouts, he can be asked.
"And that sage Merusaavarni who is Sun-similar in his shine can be asked, only on your prostration before him in veneration, about the tidings of Maithili, and her whereabouts. [4-42-49]
etaavat jiiva lokasya bhaaskaro rajanii kSaye |
kR^itvaa vitimiram sarvam astam gacChati parvatam || 4-42-50
50. bhaaskaraH= Illuminator - Sun; jiiva lokasya= of mortal, world; etaavat= up to here; rajanii kSaye= night, decline of - in day; vi timiram= without, darkness; kR^itvaa= on making - effacing; astam parvatam gacChati= to Astagiri, mountain [Mt. Dusk,] goes to.
"On effacing the utter darkness of all the mortal world up to here, the illuminator of mortal world and the decliner of night, namely the Sun, will go to the Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-50]
etaavat vaanaraiH shakyam gantum vaanara pu.ngavaaH |
abhaaskaram amaryaadam na jaaniimaH tataH param || 4-42-51
51. vaanara pungavaaH= oh, vanara-s, the best; etaavat= up to there; vaanaraiH gantum shakyam= by vanara-s, to go, it is possible; a +bhaaskaram= without, sun [sunless]; a + maryaadam= not, with boundaries [boundless realms]; about them; tataH param= there, after - far and beyond; na jaaniimaH= not, we know - I do not know.
"It is possible for the vanara-s to go only up to there, oh, best vanara-s, and we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond. [4-42-51]
In 'The Ancient Geography of India' K. Basu records: 'the reader should notice here that Valmiki makes mention of a few places only, most of which are mountains in the west and ends with the poetic land of the setting Sun. This shows that little was known at that time of the famed nations of the west, in spite of the great antiquity claimed by Egypt, Assyria, and Greece and one might be led to the thinking that these nations had not yet risen to power in the time of Valmiki, or if they existed at all, communication was not yet opened between them and the Indian Aryans...'
The words a bhaaskaram, a + maryaadam are also taken in the sense, 'without, enlightenment; without, proper conduct, i.e., propriety...' 'Those places are with primitives who are unenlightened and with impropriety, that are incongruous with Ancient Indian principle of living...' Thus, these cultures west to Persia are held as pre-Babylonian or pre-Assyrian cultures. Moreover, it is assumed that Sugreeva has said this way: 'because Ravana is a highly educated and cultured demon, in his own way, he too despises those lowly cultures despite of his obstinacy. For sure, he will not be there with Seetha, and hence Seetha need not be searched in those countries.'
avagamya tu vaidehiim nilayam raavaNasya ca |
astam parvatam aasaadya puurNe maase nivartata || 4-42-52
52. vaidehiim= about Vaidehi; raavaNasya nilayam ca= of Ravana, residency, also; avagamya tu= on knowing, but; astam parvatam aasaadya= Dusk, mountain, on reaching; maase puurNe= month, while completing [within a month]; nivartata= you shall come back.
"You shall return within a month on knowing about Vaidehi and also about the residency of Ravana, or on your reaching Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-52]
uurdhvam maasaan na vastavyam vasan vadhyo bhaven mama |
saha eva shuuro yuSmaabhiH shvashuro me gamiSyati || 4-42-53
53. maasaat uurdhvam na vastavyam= than a month, above [more than,] not, to stay away; vasan= if stayed; mama vadhyaH bhavet= to me, executable, [he] becomes - I have to exercise coup de grace; yuSmaabhiH saha eva= you, along with, thus; me shuuraH shvashuraH= my, valorous, father-in-law; gamiSyati= will proceed.
"And none shall stay behind for more than a month, and if anyone stays, I have to exercise coup de grace in his respect. By the way, my valorous father-in-law, namely Sushena, is proceeding along with you. [4-42-53]
shrotavyam sarvam etasya bhavadbhiH diSTa kaaribhiH |
guruH eSa mahaabaahuH shvashuro me mahaabalaH || 4-42-54
54. diSTakaaribhiH= by the achievers ordered tasks; bhavadbhiH= by you; etasya= his [Sushena's orders]; sarvam shrotavyam= all [orders,] give ear to - give heed to; mahaabaahuH= highly dextrous; mahaabalaH= great-mighty one; eSa me shvashuraH= he is, my, father-in-law; guruH= a venerable one.
"As achievers of ordered tasks you shall give heed to all of the orders given by him. He who is highly dextrous and great mighty such a Sushena is my father-in-law, thus he is a venerable to me, as well as to you. [4-42-54]
bhavantaH ca api vikraantaaH pramaaNam sarve eva hi |
pramaaNam enam sa.msthaapya pashyadhvam pashcimaam disham || 4-42-55
55. vikraantaaH= triumphant ones; sarve bhavantaH ca api= all of, you, also, even; pramaaNam eva hi= archetypes [by yourselves,] thus, indeed; enam pramaaNam samsthaapya= him, as archetype, on instituting; pashcimaam disham pashyadhvam= western, direction, you shall see - search.
"Even all of you are triumphant ones and indeed archetypes by yourselves, but instituting him as your archetype you shall search the western direction. [4-42-55]
dR^iSTaayaam tu narendrasyaa patnyaam amita tejasaH |
kR^ita kR^ityaa bhaviSyaamaH kR^itasya pratikarmaNaa || 4-42-56
56. amita tejasaH= of unlimited, vitality; nara indrasya patnyaam= humans, king's, wife; dR^iSTaayaam= while being seen - if located; tu= only then; kR^itasya prati karmaNaa= what has been done [for us,] in turn, by doing [by reciprocating]; kR^itakR^ityaa bhaviSyaamaH= fulfilled, we all will become.]
"We all fulfil ourselves in reciprocating him who has done good to us, only if we can locate Seetha, the wife of the king of humans whose vitality is unlimited, namely Rama. [4-42-56]
ato anyat api yat kaaryam kaaryasya asya priyam bhavet |
sa.mpradhaarya bhavadbhiH ca desha kaala artha sa.mhitam || 4-42-57
57. asya kaaryasya= this, work; ataH= more than; anyat api= other one, even; yat priyam bhavet= which, conducive to, will be; desha kaala artha sam hitam= place, time, purpose, verily, which will be conducive to; that task; bhavadbhiH sampradhaarya ca= by you all, on deciding, also; kaaryam= it may be done.
"Even if any other task than this is there, that which shall be conducive to this task, and which shall also be conducive to time, place and purpose, you shall undertake that task also on deciding about it among yourselves." Sugreeva spoke thus to the monkeys going to western direction. [4-42-57]
tataH suSeNa pramukhaaH plava.ngamaaH
sugriiva vaakyam nipuNam nishamya |
aama.ntrya sarve plavagaadhipam te
jagmur disham taam varuNa abhiguptaam || 4-42-58
58. tataH= then; suSeNa pramukhaaH plavangamaaH= Sushena, [other] important, fly-jumpers; sugriiva vaakyam nipuNam nishamya= Sugreeva's, sentence, sedulously, on hearing; te sarve= they, all of them; plavaga adhipam= from fly-jumpers, king - Sugreeva; aamantrya= taking leave; varuNa abhi guptaam= by Varuna - Rain-god, verily, cloistered; taam disham jagmuH= to that [west,] direction, they proceeded.
On hearing the sentences of Sugreeva sedulously, then Sushena and the other important fly-jumpers took leave of the king of fly-jumpers, namely Sugreeva, and proceeded along with their individual troops to that western direction which is well cloistered by Varuna, the Rain-god. [4-42-58]
iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye kiSkindha kaaNDe dvi catvaarimshaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 42nd chapter in Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.
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© Sept, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : October 04]