Book I : Bala Kanda - The Youthful Majesties
The ritual horse released by Emperor Sagara is snatched away by Indra in order to cause hindrance to the ritual. The ritual cannot proceed to culmination without the horse. Then Sagara orders his sixty thousand sons to search for that horse, asking them to dig earth to trace it, if it is not found on earth. And the princes will dig earth when they have not found the horse on earth, to the grief of beings living in netherworlds.
vishvaamitra vacaH shrutvaa kathaante raghuna.ndana |
uvaaca parama priito munim diiptam iva analam || 1-39-1
1. raghu nandana= Raghu's delight - Rama; vishvaamitra vacaH shrutvaa= Vishvamitra's, words - narration, on listening; parama priitaH= highly, rejoiced; katha ante= episode, at the end of; diiptam iva analam= glowing, like, fire; munim= to sage; uvaaca= said to.
On listening the narration of Vishvamitra, Rama, the delighter of Raghu's dynasty is highly rejoiced, and at the end of the episode he spoke to sage whose glow is fire like. [1-39-1]
shrotum icChaami bhadram te vistareNa kathaam imaam |
puurvajo me katham brahman yaj~nam vai samupaaharat || 1-39-2
2. brahman= oh Brahman; imaam kathaam vistareNa shrotum icChaami= this, episode, extensively, to listen, I am interested; te bhadram= to you, may good betide; me puurva jaH= of mine, earlier, born one - my ancestor Sagara; katham= how; yaj~nam= Vedic-ritual; samupaaharat [sam upa aaharat= well, nearly, completed] completed; vai= really.
"I am interested to listen this episode exhaustively, oh, Brahman, let good betide you, how my ancestor Sagara had completed the Vedic-ritual, really. [1-39-2]
tasya tat vacanam shrutvaa kautuuhala samanvitaH |
vishvaamitraH tu kaakutstham uvaaca prahasanniva || 1-39-3
shruuyataam vistaro raama sagarasya mahaatmanaH |
3, 4a. tasya tat vacanam= his - Rama's, that, sentence; kautuuhala samanvitaH= inquisitiveness, inclusive of; shrutvaa= on listening; vishvaamitraH tu= Vishvamitra, on his part; kaakutsthsam= to the descendent of Kakutstha; prahasan iva uvaaca= smiling, as though, said; mahaatmanaH sagarasya= of great-souled one, Sagara's; episode; vistaraH shruuyataam= vividly, may be listened; raama= oh, Rama.
On listening the words of Rama that are inclusive of his inquisitiveness, Sage Vishvamitra smilingly spoke to that descendent of Kakutstha, "oh, Rama, let the episode of the great-souled Sagara be listened vividly." Vishvamitra thus commenced to narrate that episode. [1-39-3, 4a]
sha.nkara shvashuro naama himavaan iti vishrutaH || 1-39-4
vi.ndhya parvatam aasaadya niriikSete parasparam |
4b, 5a. shankara shvashuraH= god Sankara's, father-in-law; himavaan naama= Himavanta, namely; iti vi srutaH= by name, thus, well, known vindhya parvatam aasaadya= Vindhya, mountain, [Himavan] attaining - by sight, set eyes on; nir iikSete parasparam= without, wink [stares, peers] each other - Vindhya and Himalayas look at each other.
"The father-in-law of god Shankara who is well-known by the name of Himavan sets eyes on Mt. Vindhya, which stands as loftily as Himalayas, and those two mountains peer at each other. [1-39-4b, 5a]
tayor madhye sa.mbhavat yaj~naH sa puruSottama|| 1-39-5
sa hi desho naravyaaghra prashasto yaj~na karmaNi|
5b, 6a. puruSa uttama= oh, man, the best - Rama; saH yaj~naH= that, Vedic ritual o f Sagara; tayoH madhye= of them two - between Vindhya and Himalayas mountains between; sambhavat= came to pass; nara vyaaghra= oh, manly, tiger Rama; saH deshaH= that, area; yaj~na karmaNi= for Vedic rituals; prashastaH hi= renowned, isn't it.
"Oh, best one among men, Rama, that Vedic-ritual of Sagara came to pass in between those two mountains, namely Himalayas and Vindhya ranges, and oh, tigerly-man Rama, that area is renowned for Vedic-rituals, isn't it! [1-39-5b, 6a]
tasya ashva caryaam kaakutstha dR^iDha dhanvaa mahaarathaH || 1-39-6
a.mshumaan akarot taata sagarasya mate sthitaH |
6b, 7a. taata= oh, dear sire; kaakutstha= oh, descendant of Kakutstha; dR^iDha dhanvaa= unfaltering, bow - wielder; mahaa rathaH= top-speeded, chariot-rider; such a prince; amshumaan= Amshuman; sagarasya mate sthitaH= in Sagara's, conviction, abiding by; tasya= its - ritual's; ashva caryaam= of horse, course of action - from release to retrieval; akarot= managed - escorted.
"Oh, dear sire Rama, the grandson of Sagara and the son of exiled Asamanja is Amshuman, oh, descendant of Kakutstha, which Anshuman's bow will be unfaltering and who is a top-speeded chariot-rider, and he has escorted ritual-horse released. [1-39-6b, 7a]
Details regarding the release of horse are at Bala Kanda 1-14-1
tasya parvaNi tam yaj~nam yajamaanasya vaasavaH 1-39-7
raakSasiim tanum aasthaaya yaj~niya ashvam apaaharat |
7b, 8a. vaasavaH= Indra; raakSasiim tanum aasthaaya= demonic, form, on assuming; parvaNi= at auspicious time [ukthya, the day of sacred function]; yaj~nam yajamaanasya= ritual's, of presiding authority; tasya= his - Sagara's; tam yaj~niya ashvam apaaharat= that, Vedic-ritual's, horse, snatched away.
"And on the day of a sacred function called ukthyam, Indra assumed the form of a demon and stole the ritual horse of the chief of the ritual, namely Sagara. [1-39-7b, 8a]
hriyamaaNe tu kaakutstha tasmin ashve mahaatmanaH ||1-39-8
upaadhyaaya gaNaaH sarve yajamaanam atha abruvan |
8b, 9a. kaakutstha= oh, Rama of Kakutstha; mahaatmanaH= great-souled one's - Sagara's; tasmin ashve hriyamaaNe tu= that, horse, while being stolen; atha sarve upaadhyaaya gaNaaH= then, all, religious-teachers', congregations - of ritwiks; yajamaanam abruvan= to propitiator, then, spoke.
"While that ritual-horse of the great-souled Sagara is stolen, all the congregations of the Ritviks, the religious-teachers, then spoke to the chief propitiator, namely Sagara. [1-39-8b, 9a]
ayam parvaNi vegena yaj~niya ashvo apaniiyate ||1-39-9
hartaaram jahi kaakutstha hayaH ca eva upaniiyataam |
9b, 10a. kaakutstha= oh, decedent of Kakutstha - Sagara; parvaNi= on auspicious day; ayam yaj~niya ashvaH= this, ritual's, horse; vegena apaniiyate= hastily, being sidetracked - stolen away; hartaaram jahi= who stole it - horse's thief, you kill; hayasH ca eva upaniiyataam= horse, also, that way, be fetched.
" 'Oh, Sagara,the descendent of Kakutstha, at this auspicious time the ritual horse is hastily diverted, you kill him who stole the horse, and let that horse be fetched. [1-39-9b, 10a]
yaj~naH cChidram bhavati etat sarveSaam ashivaaya naH || 1-39-10
tat tathaa kriyataam raajan yaj~no acChidraH kruto bhavet |
10b, 11a. etat yaj~naH cChidram= this one - the happening, in Vedic-ritual, hindrance; naH sarveSaam= us, for all; a+ shivaaya= not, auspicious; bhavati= it becomes; tat= thereby raajan= oh, king; krutaH= ritual's proceedings; a + chidraH= not, faulty; yaj~naH bhavet= ritual, it will be; tatha kriyataam= that way, action may be taken.
" 'This hindrance in Vedic-ritual will become inauspicious for all of us, thereby, oh, king, action may be taken as to how there can be no fault in proceedings of the ritual.' The religious-teachers of Sagara have advised him in this way. [1-39-10b, 11a]
so upaadhyaaya vacaH shrutvaa tasmin sadasi paarthivaH ||1-39-11
SaSTim putra sahasraaNi vaakyam etat uvaaca ha |
11b, 12a. paarthivaH= that king - Sagara; upaadhyaaya vacaH shrutvaa= he Sagara, religious-teachers, words, on hearing; tasmin sadasi= in that, religious-council; SaSTim putra sahasraaNi= to sixty, sons, thousands; etat vaakyam uvaaca ha= this much, sentence, spoke to, indeed.
"On hearing the words of religious-teachers that king Sagara indeed spoke this much to his sixty thousand sons in that religious-council. [1-39-11b, 12a]
gatim putraa na pashyaami rakSasaam puruSarSabhaaH ||1-39-12
ma.ntra puutaiH mahaabhaagaiH aasthito hi mahaakratuH |
12b, 13a. puruSarSabhaaH= oh, best ones among men; putraaH= oh, sons; rakSasaam gatim na pashyaami= for demons, approaching [here,] not, I envisage; mahaa kratuH= glorious, Vedic-ritual; mantra puutaiH mahaa bhaagaiH= by hymns, sanctified, by holy, sanctifiers; aasthitaH hi= presided over - being conducted, isn't it.
" 'Oh, sons, I do not envisage any way in for demons into this ritual, since oh, best ones among men, holy-sanctifiers who themselves are sanctified by the Vedic-hymns are conducting this glorious Vedic-ritual, isn't it. [1-39-12b, 13a]
tat gacChata vicinvadhvam putrakaa bhadram astu vaH ||1-39-13
samudra maaliniim sarvaam pR^ithiviim anugacChata |
13b, 14a. putrakaaH= oh, sons; tat= therefore; vicinadhvam= for the purpose of searching - horse and its thief; gacChata= you may proceed; vaH bhadram astu= to you all, safety, there will be; samudra maaliniim= with ocean, garlanded - encompassed by oceans; sarvaam= entire; pR^ithiviim anugacchata= earth, you follow - you search.
" 'Oh, sons, you may therefore proceed to search for the horse and its thief on entire earth as far as it is garlanded by the ocean, and safety betides you all. [1-39-13]
eka ekam yojanam putraa vistaaram abhigacChata || 1-39-14
yaavat turaga sa.ndarshaH taavat khanata mediniim |
tam eva haya hartaaram maargamaaNaa mama aaj~nayaa ||1-39-15
14b, 15. putraaH= oh, sons; eka ekam yojanam= one [each prince,] one, yojana - area of earth; vistaaram abhigacChata= square area, you advance - allocate for yourself; mama aaj~nayaa= by my, order; tam haya hartaaram= him, horse, stealer; maargamaaNaa= while searching; turaga samdarshaH yaavat= horse's, appearance, until; taavat mediniim khanata= till then, earth, you dig out.
" 'Oh, sons, let each prince advance searching one square yojana of earth, by my order you dig up the earth until the appearance of the horse, while searching for the stealer of that horse. [1-39-14b, 15]
diikSitaH pautra sahitaH sa upaadhyaaya gaNaH tu aham |
iha sthaasyaami bhadram vo yaavat turaga darshanam ||1-39-16
16. diikSitaH aham tu= under vow, I, for my part; such as I am; pautra sahitaH= grand son [Amshuman,] along with; sa upaadhyaaya gaNaH= along with, religious-teachers, congregation; yaavat turaga darshanam= till, horse, appears; iha sthaasyaami= here, I will stay; vaH bhadram= to you all, safe betides.
" 'As for myself, I will stay here only along with my grandson, namely Amsuman, and with the congregation of religious-teachers till the horse appears, as I am under vow of the ritual.' Thus Sagara instructed to his sixty thousand sons and stayed back at the ritual place. [1-39-16]
te sarve hR^iSTamanaso raaja putraa mahaabalaaH |
jagmur mahii talam raama pitur vacana ya.ntritaaH ||1-39-17
17. raama= oh, Rama; [iti uktaaH= thus, who are addressed - the sons]; mahaa balaaH= great, mighty ones; raaja putraa= king's, sons - princes; hR^iSTa manasaH= gladdened, at heart - enthusiastically; pituH vacana yantritaaH= of father, words, amimated by; te sarve= they, all; mahii talam jagmuH= on earth's, surface, proceeded.
"Animated by their father's words those great-mighty princes enthusiastically proceeded onto earth's surface in the preliminary round of search. [1-39-1]
gatva tu pR^ithiviim sarvam adR^iShTaa tam mahabalaaH |
yojanaayaam avistaaram ekaiko dharaNii talam |
bibhiduH puruSavyaaghra vajra sparsha samaiH bhujaiH ||1-39-18
18. puruSa vyaaghra= oh, man, the tiger, Rama; mahaa balaaH= great mighty ones; sarvam pR^ithiviim gatva tu= entire, earth, having gone, but; tam a+ dR^iShTaa= that - horse, not, seen; eka ekaH= each, every - prince; yojana= one yojana; aayaama vistaaram= length, breadth - square; dharaNii talam= earth, surface; vajra sparsha samaiH diamond, touch, similar to; bhujaiH [nakhaiH]= with arms - with nails; bibhiduH= they hollowed out.
"But, oh, tigerly-man Rama, on going round the earth in its entirety those great-mighty princes did not find that horse, then as said by their father they mapped the earth to a unit of one square yojana for each of them, and each of them hollowed out each and every area on the surface of earth with their arms that have the touch of the diamonds. [1-39-18]
shuulaiH ashani kalpaiH ca halaiH ca api sudaaruNaiH |
bhidyamaanaa vasumatii nanaada raghuna.ndana ||1-39-19
19. raghunandana= oh, legatee of Raghu, Rama; ashani kalpaiH shuulaiH ca= thunderbolt, similar, with spears, also; su daaruNaiH halaiH ca api= very, gruelling, with ploughs, also, even; bhidyamaanaa vasumatii nanaada= being ruptured, mother earth, bewailed.
"Mother Earth bewailed while she is ruptured with spears also that are similar to thunderbolts, besides with very gruelling ploughs. [1-39-19]
naagaanaam vadhyamaanaanaam asuraaNaam ca raaghava |
raakSasaanaam ca durdharSaH sattvaanaam ninado abhavat ||1-39-20
20. raaghava= oh, Raghava; vadhyamaanaanaam [mathyamaanaanaam] naagaanaam= being killed [while being battered,] of serpents; asuraaNaam ca= of asura-s, also; raakSasaanaam ca= of demons, also; sattvaanaam= of other beings; durdharSaH ninadaH abhavat= unbearable [unstoppable,] rumpuses, emerged.
"Oh, Raghava, there emerged an unbearable rumpus from the serpents, asura-s, demons, and other beings living underneath the surface of earth, while they are killed during hollowing the earth. [1-39-20]
yojanaanaam sahasraaNi SaSTim tu raghuna.ndana |
bibhidur dharaNiim raama rasaa talam anuttamam ||1-39-21
21. raghu nandana= oh, legatee of Raghu's dynasty; raama= oh, Rama; yojanaanaam SaSTim sahasraaNi tu= yojana-s, thousand, sixty, thus; dharaNiim= of earth; they dug to make it as the; an+uttamam= unsurpassed; rasaa talam= as sixth, subterranean field; bibhiduH= hollowed.
"Oh, Rama, the legatee of Raghu's dynasty, thus sixty thousand square yojana-s of the earth is dug over, so as to make the earth's outermost plane as the unsurpassed rasaa tala, the sixth subterranean and the nethermost plane. [1-39-21]
evam parvata sa.mbaadham jambuu dviipam nR^ipaatmajaaH |
khananto nR^ipashaarduula sarvataH paricakramuH ||1-39-22
22. nR^ipa shaarduula= oh, tigerly king, Rama; nR^ipa aatmajaaH= king's, sons; parvata sam baadham= with mountains, verily, congested; jambuu dviipam= Jambu Island [plateau]; evam khanantaH= this way, while digging; sarvataH paricakramuH= everywhere, they endeavoured.
"Oh, the kingly tiger Rama, the sons of Sagara have endeavoured everywhere digging over the Jambu Island which is verily congested with mountains in this way. [1-39-22]
The jambu dwiipa is a continent according to Hindu mythology where the total continents listed are seven. jambØ plak’hya dvpau žlmali× ca aparo dvija | kuža× kraunca× tath žaka× pu’kara× ca eva ca saptama× the seven continents are jambu- plaksha - shaalmali- kusha - kraunca - shaaka - puSkara, and jambu dwiipa is one among them.
tato devaaH sa ga.ndharvaaH sa asuraaH saha pannagaaH |
sa.mbhraa.nta manasaH sarve pitaamaham upaagaman ||1-39-23
23. tataH= then; sa gandharvaaH= along with, gandharva-s; sa asuraaH saha pannagaaH= with asura-s, and with, reptiles; devaaH= gods; sarve sambhraanta manasaH= all are, distraught, at heart - for the plight of earth; pitaamaham upaagaman= to Forefather, Brahma, neared - approached.
"All the gods along with gandharva-s, asura-s, and reptiles who are distraught at heart for the plight of earth have approached the Forefather, Brahma. [1-39-23]
te prasaadya mahaatmaanam viSaNNa vadanaaH tadaa |
uucuH parama sa.mtrastaaH pitaamaham idam vacaH ||1-39-24
24. parama sam trastaaH= who are very, highly, scared; viSaNNa vadanaaH= with despondent, faces - chap-fallen; te= they, the gods; tadaa=then; mahaatmaanam pitaamaham prasaadya= of great-souled, Forefather - Brahma, getting the grace of; idam vacaH uucuH= this, sentence, they spoke.
"They the gods who are very highly scared, and who are chap-fallen, then spoke this sentence to the great-souled Forefather Brahma on gaining his grace. [1-39-24]
bhagavan pR^ithivii sarvaa khanyate sagara aatmajaiH |
bahavaH ca mahaatmaano vadhyante jala caariNaH ||1-39-25
25. bhagavan= oh, god Brahma; sarvaa pR^ithivii= entire, earth; sagara aatmajaiH khanyate= by Sagara, sons, being dug; jala caariNaH [tala vaasinaH, rasaa tala vaasinaH]= water, moving [aquatic beings, dwellers in netherworlds]; bahavaH ca mahaatmaanaH vadhyante= many, great souled beings, also, are being destroyed.
" 'Oh, god Brahma, the sons of Sagara are digging entire earth, thus aquatic beings and many great-souls are being destroyed. [1-39-25]
ayam yaj~na haro asmaakam anena ashvo apaniiyate |
iti te sarva bhuutaani hi.msanti sagara aatmajaH ||1-39-26
26. ayam= this one is; [naH= our]; yaj~na haraH= ritual, stealer - hinderer; anena= by this one; asmaakam ashvaH apaniiyate= our, [ritual] horse, is carried off; iti= thus - thinking thus; te sagara aatmajaH= those, Sagara's, sons; sarva bhuutaani himsanti= all, living beings, they are torturing.
" 'This one is the destroyer of our ritual... this one has carried off our ritual horse...' thinking thus and suspecting everyone those sons of Sagara are torturing all the living beings.' Thus all the gods have appealed to Brahma." So said Sage Vishvamitra to Rama and others. [1-39-26]
iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye baala kaaNDe ekona catvaari.mshaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 39th chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.
© July, 2002, Desiraju Kumari [Revised : September 04]