Chapter [Sarga] 3


The scheming of the composition of epic Ramayana is described here. Whole of the epic is rendered in its quintessence, as to how Sage Valmiki scheduled the narration of important milestones of the epic.

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shrutvaa vastu samagram tat dharma ardha sahitam hitam |
vyak{}tam anveshhate bhuuyo yadvR^ittam tasya dhiimataH || 1-3-1

1. dharmaatmaa= virtue-souled one, Valmiki; dharma artha sahitam= probity, prosperity, abounding in; hitam= propitious one [too]; tat= that; vastu samagram= essence of the epic, in its entirety; shrutvaa = on hearing; = tasya dhiimataH vR^ittam= of that, dexterous [Rama's,] that which has happened; yat= that which is there; [tat= that]; vyaktam bhuuyaH anveSate = that which is known [in detail,] further, searched for.

On hearing the essence of Ramayana from Sage Narada, which is abound with probity and prosperity, and a propitious one too, that virtue-souled Valmiki started searching for further known details in the legend of that dexterous Rama. [1-3-1]

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upaspR^isya udakam samyak muniH sthitvaa kR^itaa~njaliH |
praachiina agreshhu darbheshhu dharmeNa anveshhate gatim || 1-3-2

2. muniH= that saint; praachiina agreSu = eastward, having apices; darbheSu= sacred darbha grass [and its mat]; sthitvaa= on abiding, on sitting; udakam upaspR^ishya= water, on touching; kR^ita a~njali= making palm fold in reverence; dharmeNa= yogaja dharmeNa - [dharmaakuutam]= by yogic dharma; samyak= comprehensively; anveSate gatim= is searching, for course [of Ramayana.]

Valmiki sitting on a sacred grass mat, whose apices are towards east, touched waters, and made his palms adjoined in reverence, and then by his yogic insight started to search comprehensively, for the narrative course of Ramayana. [1-3-2]

Comment: Touching/sipping waters aachamana, pariSechana , before undertaking any auspicious work, including daily meal, is customary, because water cleanses the internal system, both mind and body.

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raama lakshmaNa siitaabhiH raaj~naa dasharathena cha |
sa bhaaryeNa sa raashhTreNa yat praaptam tatra tattvataH || 1-3-3
hasitam bhaashhitam cha eva gatiryaayat cha cheshhTitam |
tat sarvam dharma viiryeNa yathaavat sa.mprapashyati || 1-3-4

3-4. raama lakshmaNa siitaabhiH= of Rama, Lakshmana and Seetha; raaj~naa dasharathena ca= by king, Dasharatha, also; sa bhaaryeNa [raameNa]= along with, wife - Rama along with his wife; sa raaSTreNa= along with, kingdom - when Rama was in State; yat praaptam= what, bechanced; tatra [yaa] gatiH= in that, [which,] course is there; yaavat ceSTitam ca= everything, [they] have done, and; hasitam bhaaSitam ca eva= their smiles, their conversations, also, thus; tat sarvam= that, entirely; tatvataH= veritably; yathaavat= as it is; dharma viiryeNa= by the power of his ascesis, or by the power given by Brahma; sam pra pashyati= wholly, clearly, seen.

Of Rama, Lakshmana and Seetha, also of King Dasharatha and his wives, and what bechanced on Rama when he was in kingdom Ayodhya; Valmiki veritably discerned all that. Their smiles, their conversations, their deeds and the succession of events as well, all of them the sage saw wholly and clearly by the yogic power conferred by Brahma...] [1-3-3-4]

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strii tR^itiiyena cha tathaa yat praaptam charataa vane |
satyasandhena raameNa tatsarvam cha anvavekshata || 1-3-5

5. strii tR^itiiyena ca= lady, as third [partner in forests,] also; vane charataa= in forests, while trekking; satya sandhena raameNa= truth-abiding, by Rama; tathaa yat praaptam= then, that which, bechanced; tat sarvam ca= all, that, also; anvavekshitam= by him discerned.

Then, that which bechanced on truth-abiding Rama, while he is trekking in forests, with a lady being the third partner, where Lakshmana is the lone male aide, Valmiki visualized all that. [1-3-5]

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tataH pashyati dharmaatmaa tat sarvam yogamaasthitaH |
puraa yat tatra ni.rvR^ittam paaNaava aamalakam yathaa || 1-3-6

6. tataH= then; dharmaatmaa= virtue-souled sage; yogam aasthitaH= while in yogic, exaltation; tatra= in there [in story]; puraa yat nirvR^ittam= earlier, what, has happened; tat sarvam = that, all; paaNau amalakam= in palm, citric fruit [myrobalan]; yathaa= as though; pashyati= saw.

Then that virtue-souled sage saw what all that has happened earlier, by his yogic exaltation, as though it is a citric fruit in his own palm. [1-3-6]

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tat sarvam taattvato dR^ishTvaa dharmeNa sa mahaamatiH
abhiraamasya raamasya tat sarvam kartum udyataH || 1-3-7
kaamaartha guNa sa.nyuk{}tam dharmaartha guNa vistaram |
samudram iva ratnaaDhyam sarva shruti manoharam || 1-3-8

7-8. mahaa matitiH= highly intellectual [sage]; saH= he; tat sarvam= that, all; tattvataH= in actuality; dharmeNa= by yogic prowess; dR^iSTvaa= having discerned; kaama artha guNa samyuktam= pleasures, prosperities, their qualities, abounding with; dharma artha guNa vistaram= probity [alone,] its meaning, [and its] qualities, elaborately; ratna aaDhyam= with gems, replete; samudram iva= ocean, like; sarva shruti manoharam= for all, listenable, delightfully [or by all Veda-s acceptable, or in any kind of listening, a pleasing one; abhiraamasya raamasya= one who delights all, of such a Rama; sarvam kartum udyataH= that, all, to author, pioneered

Discerning all of Ramayana in its actuality by his yogic prowess that highly intellectual Valmiki pioneered to author all of the legend of Rama, for Rama is a delighter of all in all worlds, and whose legend is abounding with the real functional qualities of earthly pleasures and prosperities, and which clearly elaborates the meaning of probity and its operative qualities, and thus this legend is like an ocean replete with such gems called thoughts, and an ear-pleasing legend, as well. [1-3-7-7-8]

Comment: The pleasures and gains of the humans are puruSaartha-s, in its axiological meaning. Hindus have four such puruSaartha -s [namely human values,] dharma probity artha prosperity, kaama pleasures, and finally moksha , blessedness. Of these four only the first three, dharma, artha, kaama are usually referred, and they are called tri-varga . The final one moksha is not often quoted. Dhrama is the driving force. chodanaa lakshaNaartho dharmaH - Jaimini. Hence dharma is the prescribed conduct, either by scriptures or by the society, and it does not entail any merit or demerit, but just an obligatory conduct or duty or, say 'categorical imperative' of Kant. And the other two, artha, kaama , are the means of dharma, and all leading to moksha. These two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are structured on these puruSaartha -s alone. Thus though Ramayana is abounding with the accounts of richness and glory of all kinds of wealth, which is secondary to human values, its main import is the virtuosity of human living. The ocean, though abounding with other less valuable items like conch shells, mother-of-pearl shells etc., its gems beneath all these peripherals are of high value. Thus this is an ear pleasing by its musical melody and heart pleasing by its meaningful wording. Further, it is pleasant for its import is in accordance with all the scriptures.

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sa yathaa kathitam puurvam naaradena mahaatmanaa |
raghu va.nshasya charitam chakaara bhagavaan muniH || 1-3-9

9. bhagavaan saH muniH= godly, he, that saint [Valmiki]; mahaatmanaa naaradena= by Divine Soul, Narada; puurvam yathaa kathitam = earlier, as to how, narrated; [in that way only]; raghu vamshasya= one who is born in Raghu's lineage - of Rama; charitam chakaara= legend, made [composed.]

That godly saint Valmiki composed the legend of Rama, the legatee of Raghu, exactly as the divine-soul Narada narrated it earlier. [1-3-9]

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janma raamasya sumahad viiryam sarvaanukuulataam |
lokasya priyataam kshaantim saumyataam satya shiilataam || 1-3-10

10. raamasya janma= Rama's, birth [incarnation]; su mahat viiryam= very, great, valour; sarva anukuulataam= to all, gracefulness; lokasya priyataam= universal, cordiality; kshaantim= perseverance; satya shiilataam= truthful, conduct; saumyataam = courteousness; [Valmiki described.]

The birth of Rama as an incarnation of Vishnu, his very great valour, his gracefulness to all, his universal cordiality, perseverance, courteousness, and his truthful conduct, Valmiki described them all. [1-3-10]

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naanaa chitra kathaaH cha anyaaH vishvaamitra sahaayena |
jaanakyaaH cha vivaaham cha dhanuSaH cha vibhedanam ||1-3-11

11. anyaaH naanaa chitra kathaa ca = other, very many, amusing, stories, also; vishvaamitra ahaayena = Viswamitra, with help of; jaanakyaaH ca vivaaham ca= with Janaki, also, marriage, and; dhanuSaH ca vibhedanam= great bow's, breaking of; [are narrated.]

Narrated are very many other amusing stories, Rama's breaking the great bow; his marriage with Janaki after with the help of Sage Vishvamitra... [1-3-11]

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raama raama vivaadam cha guNaan daasharatheH tathaa |
tatha.abhishhekam raamasya kaikeyyaa dushhTa bhaavataam ||1-3-12

12. raama= Rama; raama=Parasuraama; vivaadam ca= dispute, also; guNaanaan= merits of; daasarathe tathaH=Dasharatha's son [Rama's]; tathaa= that way; tathaa abhishhekam raamasya = likewise, [preparations for ] anointing, of Rama; kaikeyyaa duSTa bhaavataam= Kaikeyi's, vicious, intentions.

Dispute of Rama and Parashurama; the merits of Rama, the son of Dasharatha; and the preparations for anointing of Rama as crown prince; Queen Kaikeyi's vicious intentions... [1-3-12]

Comment: Rama is shrii raama one who delights in shrii , where shrii is Goddess Lakshmi. Where as Parashurama delights in his axe parashu axe; and Balarama, the brother of Krishna delights in his own bala might.

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vighaatam cha abhishhekasya raaghavasya vivaasanam |
raaj~naH shokam vilaapam cha para lokasya cha aashrayam || 1-3-13

13. vighaatam ca abhishhekasya= disruption also, royal unction; raaghavasya vivaasanam= Rama's, exile; raaj~naaH shokam vilaapam ca= King Dasharatha's, grief, bewailing, and; para lokasya cha aashrayam= into other, world, also, taking shelter [demise.]

Disruption in royal unction of Raghava; his exile to forests; King Dasharatha's grief and bewailing, and thus his departing to other worlds... [1-3-13]

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prakR^itiinaam vishhaadam cha prakR^itiinaam visarjanam |
nishhaada adhipa sa.nvaadam suutopaavartanam tathaa || 1-3-14

14. prakR^itiinaam visaadam ca= of subjects, grieving, also; prakR^itiinaam visarjanam= people, leaving off; niSaada adhipa samvaadam= tribal, chief, conversing with; suuta upaavartanam tathaa= charioteer, returning of, thus.

The grief of the subjects; Rama leaving them off; his conversing with tribal chief Guha; returning the charioteer Sumantra to kingdom from forests, leaving the trio at the banks of river Ganga... all these elements are well- described. [1-3-14]

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ga~NgaayaaH cha api sa.ntaaram bharadvaajasya darshanam |
bharadvaaja abhyanuj~naat chitrakuuTasya darshanam || 1-3-15

15. ga.ngaayaaH ca =api samtaaram= River Ganga, also, even, crossing over; bharadvaajasya darshanam=of Sage Bharadwaja, seeing; bharadvaaja abhyanuj~naanaat= on Bharadwaja's advise; chitrakuuTasya darshanam= of Chitrakuta, seeing [visiting.]

Crossing over River Ganga; looking up Sage Bharadwaja; their look up at Chitrakuta on Sage Bharadwaja's advise... [1-3-15]

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vaastu karma nivesham cha bharata agamanam tathaa |
prasaadanam cha raamasya pituH cha salila kriyaam || 1-3-16

16. vaastu karma nivesham= architectural, work [construction of hermitage,] dwelling in; bharata agamanam tathaa= Bharata's, arrival, then; prasaadanam ca raamasya = for graciousness, also, of Rama; pituH salila kriyaam= to father, water, oblation.

Construction of a hermitage and dwelling therein; Bharata's arrival at that place for the graciousness of Rama to take back the kingdom; Rama's denial of it; Rama's offering water oblations to his father on hearing the demise of his father... [1-3-16]

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paadukaa agrya abhishhekam cha nandi graama nivaasanam |
daNDakaaraNya gamanam viraadhasya vadham tathaa || 1-3-17

17. paadukaaH agrya abhishhekam ca= sandals [shoes,] high, enthroning, also; nandi graama nivaasanam= in Nandigrama, village, living of Bharata; dandaka araNya gamanam= Dandaka, forests, going; viraadhasya vadham tathaa= Viradha's, killing, thus.

Enthroning shoe-sandals of Rama by Bharata; Bharata's living in a village Nandigrama; Rama's going to Dandaka forests; killing the demon named Viradha... [1-3-17]

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darshanam sharabha~Ngasya sutiikshNena samaagamam |
anasuuyaa samaakhyaa cha a~Ngaraagsya cha arpaNam || 1-3-18

18. darshanam sharabha.ngasya= seeing [visiting,] Sage Sarabhanga; sutiikshNena samaagamam= with Sage Suteekshna, meeting; anasuuya samaakhyaa ca=Anasuya, the hermitic lady, smooth, speaking, also; a.nga= body; raaga= applying cream; ca= also; arpaNam=giving.

Rama's visit to Sage Sarabhanga and Suteekshna; their visiting hermitic lady Anasuuya, and her smooth speaking with Seetha and also her giving a body cream to Seetha...[by applying which cream Seetha will not wither away in the rough weather of woods. These details are incorporated with great care.] [1-3-18]

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darshanam cha api agastyasya dhanuSo grahaNam tathaa |
shuurpaNakhaaH cha sa.mvaadam viruupakaraNam tathaa || 1-3-19

19. darshanam ca api agastasya= seeing, also, even, Sage Agastya,; dhanuSaH grahaNam tathaa = a great bow, taking, likewise; shuurpaNakhaaH cha samvaadam= with Suurpanakha, also, palaver; viruupa karaNam tathaa= defacing, likewise.

Also even Rama's seeing the Sage Agastya, and likewise taking a great bow from that sage... also the palaver of Surpanakha, the demoness, and defacing her, likewise... [1-3-19]

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vadham kharaH trishirasaH utthaanam raavaNasya cha |
maariichasya vadham cha eva vaidehyaa haraNam tathaa || 1-3-20

20. vadham khara trishirasaH= killing of, Khara, Trisirasa [the demons]; utthaanam raavaNasya ca= upsurge, of Ravana, also; maariichasya vadham ca eva= of Maariicha's killing, also, thus; vaidehyaa haraNam tathaa= Vaidehi's, abduction, like that.

The killing demons like Khara, Trishirasa and the upsurge of Ravana thereby, and also killing demon Mareecha, and Ravana's abduction of Vaidehi, likewise... [1-3-20]

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raaghavasya vilaapam cha gR^idhra raaja nibarhaNam |
kabandha darshanam cha eva pampaayaaH cha api darshanam ||1-3-21

21. raaghavasya vilaapam ca= Raghava's, anguish, also; gR^idhra raaja nibarhaNam = eagle, mighty, slaying; kabandha darshanam ca eva= Kabandha, the demon, is seen, also, thus; pampaayaaH ca api darshanam= Pampa, the lake, also, thus, seeing.

Raghava's anguish at the loss of Seetha; Ravana's slaying the mighty eagle Jatayu; Rama's seeing Kabandha, and also Lake Pampa...[1-3-21]

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shabarii darshanam cha eva phala muula ashanam tathaa |
pralaapam cha eva pampaayam hanumad darshanam || 1-3-22

22. shabarii darshanam cha eva= Sabari, the hermitic lady, seeing her, also, thus; phala muula ashanam tathaa= fruits, tubers, eating, thus; pralaapam cha eva= bemoaning, also, thus [of Rama]; pampaayam hanumat darshanam= at Pampa Lake, Hanuma, sighted at.

Rama's seeing Shabari, a hermetic lady and eating fruits and tubers given by her in utmost adoration; Rama's bemoaning for Seetha; his sighting Hanuma at Lake Pampa... [1-3-22]

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R^ishhyamuukasya gamanam sugriiveNa samaagamam |
pratyayotpaadanam sakhyam vaali sugriiva vigraham || 1-3-23

23. R^ishyamuukasya gamanam ca= to Rishyamuka, going, also; sugriiveNa samaagamam= with Sugreeva, meeting; pratyaya utpaadanam sakhyam= confidence, generating, making friendship [with Sugreeva]; vaali sugriiva vigraham= Vali, Sugreeva, duel of.

Also going to Mt. Rishyamuka, meeting Sugreeva and generating confidence in Sugreeva, befriending him and the duel of Vali and Sugreeva... [1-3-23]

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vaali pramathanam cha eva sugiiva pratipaadanam |
taaraa vilaapam samayam varshha raatra nivaasanam || 1-3-24

24. vaali pramathanam chaiva= Vali, elimination, also, thus; sugriiva pratipaadanam= Sugreeva is established; taaraa vilaapanam= Tara, [wife of Vali,] grieving of; samayam varSa raatra nivaasanam = consented, rainy, nights [and days,] stopover.

Also thus Vali's elimination and establishing Sugreeva on throne of monkey kingdom, grieving of Tara, the wife of Vali and empress of that kingdom, and as consented Rama's stopover during the days of rain... [1-3-24]

Comment: This raatri usually means night. But it includes day also. When saying triraatra, dasha raatra, in conducting rituals it includes daytime also. On the whole it is total rainy season that is admirably narrated in Kishkindha Kanda.

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kopam raaghava si.mhasya balaanaam upasa.mgraham |
dishaH prasthaapanam cha eva pR^ithivyaaH cha nivedanam || 1-3-25

25. kopam raaghava simhasya= wrath of, Raghava, the lion; balaanaam upasa.ngraham = troops, foregathering; dishaH prasthaapanam ca eva= to quarters, sending, also, thus; pR^idhivyaaH ca nivedanam= earth's [topography,] also, description.

The wrath of Raghava, the lion, at the delay caused by Sugreeva, and Sugreeva's foregathering of all troops, and sending them to all quarters, and Sugreeva's description of earth's topography to monkey-troops... [1-3-25]

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a~Nguliiyaka daanam cha R^ikshsya bila darshanam |
praayopaveshanam cha api sa.mpaateH cha api darshanam || 1-3-26

26. a.nguliiyaka daanam ca= ring of his finger, giving, also; R^ikshasya bila darshanam= Riksha's cave, seeing; praayopaveshanam ca api= fasting unto death, and, even; sampaateH ca api darshanam= Sampaati, also, even, seeing.

Rama's giving his ring to Hanuma as a token for Seetha's recognition... and the monkeys thus searching see Riskha cave, bear-cave, and their fasting unto death for their quest remained unsuccessful, and their seeing Sampaati, another mighty eagle and the brother of slain Jatayu, who guides the monkeys to the destination where Seetha is held capitive. [1-3-26]

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parvata aarohaNam cha api saagarsya api la~Nghanam |
samudra vachanaat cha eva mainaakasya cha darshanam || 1-3-27

27. parvataa aarohaNam ca api= mountain [Mt. Mahendra,] climbing, also, even; saagarasya ca la.nghanam= of ocean, also, leaping out of; samudra vachanaat ca eva= Ocean's, advise of, also, thus; mainaakasya ca darshanam= of Mt. Mainaka, also, seeing.

Hanuma's climbing Mt. Mahendra to leap over the ocean, and on the advice of the Ocean, Mt. Mainaka's coming up from under waters to give rest to Hanuma, and Hanuma's seeing that mountain are depicted. [1-3-27]

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raakshasii tarjanam cha eva Chaayaa graahasya darshanam |
si.mhikaayaaH cha nidhanam la~Nkaa malaya darshanam || 1-3-28

28. raakshasii tarjanam ca eva= demoness', killing, also, thus; Chaayaa graahsya darshanam = seeing, Simhika, the capturer by shadow, seeing her; simhikaayaaH ca nidhanam= Simhika's, killing, also; la.nkaa malaya darshanam= Lanka, mountain's, seeing.

Hanuma's killing the demoness Surasa, and his seeing of Simhika, a rapacious creature of gigantic origin, which captures its prey by the shadow, and Hanuma's killing that Simhika, and his seeing the mountain of Lanka, called Mt. Trikuta, on which the state of Lanka is built, Valmiki described them all. [1-3-28]

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raatrau la.nkaa pravesham cha ekasya api vichi.ntanam |
aapaana bhuumi gamanam avarodhasya darshanam || 1-3-29

29. raatrau la.nkaa pravesham ca= in night, Lanka, entering, also; ekasya api vichintanam= lonely, even though, thinking over; aapaana bhuumi gamanam= liquor consuming, place, going to; avarodhasya darshanam= of secure place, [the palace chambers,] seeing.

In night Hanuma's entry into Lanka, for being lonely his thinking over the course to search for Seetha, and his going to the liquor consumption place, and also his seeing the palace chambers of Ravana... [1-3-29]

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darshanam raavaNasya api pushhpakasya cha darshanam |
ashoka vanikaayaanam siitaayaaH cha api darshanam || 1-3-30

30. darshanam raavaNasya api= seeing, Ravana, also; puSpakasya ca darshanam= of Pushpaka [aircraft,] also, seeing; ashoka vanikaayaanam= in Ashoka, gardens; siitaayaaH ca api darshanam= Seetha, also, even, seeing.

Hanuma's seeing Ravana, and also his seeing Pushpaka, the divine aircraft, and in Ashoka gardens, his seeing Seetha also... [1-3-30]

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abhij~nana pradaanam cha siitaayaaH cha api bhaaSaNam |
raakshasii tarjanam cha eva trijaTaa svapna darshanam || 1-3-31

31. abhij~nana pradaanam ca= credential, presenting, also; siitaayaaH ca api bhaaSaNam= with Seetha, also, even, talking; raakshasii tarjanam ca eva= demoness', scaring also, thus; trijaTaa svapna darshanam= Trijata, the demoness', dream, witnessing.

Presenting his credential, the ring of Rama, to Seetha and his talk with Seeta, and also his witnessing the demonesses scaring Seetha to oblige Ravana, and his witnessing demoness Trijata narrating her bad dream, are all narrated in the epic.] [1-3-31]

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maNi pradaanam siitaayaaH vR^iksha bha.mgam tatha eva cha |
raakshasii vidravam chaiva ki.nkaraaNaam nibarhaNam |1-3-32

32. maNi pradaanam siitaayaaH= jewel, giving, of Seetha; vR^iksha bha.ngam tatha eva ca = trees, uprooting, thereby, thus; raakshasii vidravam ca eva= demoness', fleeing, also, thus; kinkaraaNaam nibarhaNam= guards [at the gardens,] killing of.

Seetha's giving her bejeweled hairslide to be shown to Rama, Hanuma's uprooting of the trees of that beautiful Ashoka gardens, thereby the demonesses fleeing in scare, his killing the guards of that garden... [1-3-32]

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grahaNam vaayu suunoshcha la.mkaa daaha abhigarjanam |
prati plavanam eva atha madhuunaam haraNam tathaa || 1-3-33

33. grahaNam vaayusuunoH ca= capture of, son of Vayu, Air-god, also; lankaa daaha abhigarjanam= Lanka, burning of, [and his blaring at demons]; prati plavanam eva= return, flying, also; atha madhuunaam haraNam tathaa = then, honey, appropriation of, thus.

The capture of Hanuma, the son of Air-god, by the magical missile of Indrajit, son of Ravana, and also Hanuma's burning down Lanka, and his blaring at the demons, also his return flight from Lanka... and on his way back Hanuma's seeing a honey garden, and the appropriation of honey... [1-3-33]

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raaghava aasvaasanam chaiva maNi niryaatanam tathaa |
sa.ngamam cha samudreNa nala setoH cha bandhanam || 1-3-34

34. raaghava ashvaasanam ca eva= Rama, solaced, also, thus; maNi niryaatanam tathaa= jewel, presenting, thus; sangamam samudreNa ca= meeting, with Ocean, also; nala sethoH ca bandhanam=by Nala, bridge, also, building.

Hanuma's action in presenting the jewel sent by Seetha solaces Raghava, and thus the meeting of Rama with the Ocean, and Nala's building the bridge on ocean... [1-3-34]

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prataaram cha samudrasya raatrau la.mkaa avarodhanam |
vibhiishhaNena sa.nsargam vadhopaaya nivedanam || 1-3-35

35. prataaram ca samudrasya= crossing over, also, ocean; raatrau la.nka avarodhanam= in night, Lanka, seizure of; sansargam vibhiiSaNena vadha upaaya nivedanam=meeting, with Vibheeshana, killing, scheme, telling.

Crossing over the ocean by the boulder bridge built by Nala, and seizure of Lanka in night, and Vibheeshana, the younger brother of Ravana, whom Ravana banished, comes to meet Rama, and his telling the scheme to kill Ravana to Rama... [1-3-35]

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kumbhakarNasya nidhanam meghanaada nibarhaNam |
raavaNasya vinaasham cha siitaavaaptim areH pure || 1-3-36

36. kumbhakarNasya nidhanam= Kumbhakarna, destruction of; meghanaada nibarhaNam = Meghanada, elimination of; raavaNasya vinasham ca= Ravana's, annihilation, also; siitaa avaaptim areH pure= Seetha, restitution of, in enemy's, city.

Destruction of Kumbhakarna, another brother of Ravana, and the elimination of Meghanatha, the valiant fighter and son of Ravana, and the annihilation of Ravana, and also retrieval of Seetha in enemy's city, [which is a kind of disgrace to Rama and a successive event follows thereon,] all these are narrated in the epic. [1-3-36]

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vibhiishhaNa abhishhekam cha pushhpakasya cha darshanam |
ayodhyaayaaH cha gamanam bharadvaaja samaagamam || 1-3-37

37. vibhiiSaNa abhishhekam cha= Vibheeshana's, crowning; puSpakasya ca darshanam= Pushpaka, aircraft, seeing it; ayodhyaayaaH ca gamanam= to Ayodhya, also, going; bharadvaaja samaagamam= Sage Bharadvaja, meting with.

Crowning of Vibheeshana as the king of Lanka, after the demise of Ravana, and also Rama's seeing Pushpaka, the divine aircraft, and returning to Ayodhya in that aircraft... and Rama's meeting Sage Bharadvaja on his way back... [1-3-37]

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preSaNam vaayu putrasya bharatena samaagamam |
raama abhishheka abhyudayam sarva sainya visarjanam |
sva raashhTra ra.njanam cha eva vaidehyaaH cha visarjanam || 1-3-38

38. preSaNam vaayu putrasya= sending of, Air-god's son, [Hanuma]; bharatena samaagamam = with Bharata, meeting; raama abhishheka abhyudayam= Rama's, coronation, festival; sarva sainya visarjanam= all, military, disbandment; sva raaSTra ra~njanam ca eva= own, kingdom, to the delight of State; vaidehyaaH ca visarjanam= Seetha, too, desolation of.

Sending Hanuma to meet Bharata, for he avowed to self-immolate if Rama were not to come in time; the coronation festival of Rama; disbandment of all military troops of monkeys; Rama's ruling his kingdom to the delight of his subjects, and the desolation of Vaidehi too... are described by Valmiki. [1-3-38]

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anaagatam cha yat ki.nchid raamasya vasudhaa tale |
tat chakaara uttare kaavye vaalmiikiH bhagavaan R^ishhiH || 1-3-39

39. bhagavaan vaalmikiH R^iSiH= godly, Valmiki, the sage; raamasya yat kimchit= of Rama, whatever, minutely; vasudhaa tale= on earth's, surface; anaagatam ca = futuristic, also; tat= that; uttare= in later [parts of, coming chapters]; kaavye= of epic; chakaara= composed.

The godly sage Valmiki composed the futuristic legend of Rama while on the surface of earth, and whatever that is there, that is composed in all its minuteness, in the coming chapters of this epic. [1-3-39]

Comment: In this verse, some take the word uttare as Uttara Ramayana, the events occurring after his crowning, Seetha's departure to forest, birth of Lava and Kusha, the sons of Rama and a battle between father and sons etc., are ascribed to Valmiki. But to some commentators, as per the format of this chapter, which surveys what Valmiki has scheduled to write, it is unacceptable since the word uttare occurs for only one occasion, hence cannot mean next canto. Thus, they say, Uttara Ramayana cannot be ascribed to Valmiki. Hence the word uttare here is taken to mean henceforth, hereinafter of the epic.


iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavtye baala kaaNde tR^itiiyaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 3rd chapter in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book I : Bala Kanda - Book Of Youthful Majesties : Chapter 3


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1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised - March 04]