Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya
Bharata censures Kaikeyi saying that because of her, Dasaratha is dead and Rama is sent to exile. He abuses his mother of her greed for the kingdom and the misfortune thus brought to Kausalya, Sumitra and other mothers because of his father’s death and brother’s exile to the forest. He compares the grief of the Kausalya with the grief of Kamadhenu the mythical cow who was aggrieved of a pair of bullocks (her sons) being harassed by a plough –man. Bharata then promises that he would bring Rama back to Ayodhya and make him as a king.
t˜m tath˜ garhayitv˜ tu m˜taram bharata× tad˜ |
roÿeõa mahat˜ ˜viÿ÷a× punar eva abravŸd vaca× || 2-74-1
1. tadaa= then; bharataH= Bharata; garhayitvaa= reproaching; taam= her; tathaa= in that manner; punareva= again; abraviit= spoke; vachaH= these words; aavishhTaH= wrapped as he was; mahataaroshheNa= in great anger.
Reproaching Kaikeyi in that manner, Bharata again spoke the following words, wrapped as he was in great anger.
r˜jy˜t bhramþasva kaikeyi n®þamse duÿ÷a c˜riõi |
parityakt˜ ca dharmeõa m˜ m®tam rudatŸ bhava || 2-74-2
2. kaikeyi= O, Kaikeyi; nR^ishamse; the cruel; dushhTachaariNi= and evil mannered woman! bhramshasva= Get lost; raajyaat= from the kingdom; parityaktaa= you, having abandoned; dharmeNa= righteousness; bhava= remain; rudatii= lamenting; maa= about me; mR^itam= who will be dead.
“O, Kaikeyi! The cruel and evil–mannered woman! Get lost from this kingdom. You having abandoned righteousness, remain lamenting about me, who will be dead soon.”
kim nu te ad¨ÿayad r˜j˜ r˜ma× v˜ bh®þa dh˜rmika× |
yayo× m®tyur viv˜sa× ca tvat k®te tulyam ˜gatau || 2-74-3
3. kimnu=what; aduushhayat=discredit; te=to you; raajaa= either the king; raamovaa= or Rama; bhR^ishadhaarmikaH= the highly righteous man (have done);yayoH= to whom; mR^ityuH= death; vivaasashcha= and exile; aagatou= have come; tulyam= at once; tvatkR^ite= because of you.
“What harm king Dasaratha or the highly righteous Rama have done to you so harshly that Dasaratha’s death and Rama’s exile have occurred at one and the same time because of you?”
yat tvay˜ hi Ÿd®þam p˜pam k®tam ghoreõa karmaõ˜ |
sarva loka priyam hitv˜ mama api ˜p˜ditam bhayam || 2-74-4
4. kaikeyi=O,Kaikeyi! Praapta asi= You got; bhruuNa hatyaam= the sin of killing an embryo. Vinaashanaat= because of the destruction; asyakulasya= of this race; gachchha= go; narakam= to hell; Kaikeyi= O, Kaikeyi! Maa cha= Do not get; salokataam= residence in the same heaven; bhartuH= with your husband.
“O, Kaikeyi! You got the sin of killing an embryo because of the destruction of this race. O, Kaikeyi! Go to hell .Do not get the residence in the same heaven as your husband.”
yattvay˜ hŸd®þam p˜pam k®tam ghoreõa karmaõ˜ |
sarvalokapriyam hitv˜ mam˜py˜p˜ditam bhayam || 2-74-5
5. ghoreNa karmaNaa= by which terrific act; yat= wherefore; iidR^isham= such; paapam= a sin; kR^itam= was committed; tvayaa= by you; hitvaa= by forsaking; sarvalokapriyam= the persons beloved by all; bhayam= an awe; aapaditan= is created; mamaapi= in me also.
“You have done this terrific act and committed such a great sin. By forsaking the persons beloved by all, an alarm has been created in me also.”
tvat k®te me pit˜ v®tta× r˜ma× ca araõyam ˜þrita× |
ayaþo jŸva loke ca tvay˜ aham pratip˜dita× || 2-74-6
6. me pitaa= my father; vR^ittaH= died; tvatkR^ite= because of you; raamashcha= Rama; aashritaH= is dwelling; araNyam= in a forest; aham=I; pratipaaditaH= am caused to attain; ayashaHcha= ill fame; jiivaloke= in this world of beings; tvayaa= by you.
“My father died and Rama is dwelling in a forest, because of you. You got me ill fame in this world of beings.”
m˜t® r¨pe mama amitre n®þamse r˜jya k˜muke |
na te aham abhibh˜ÿyo asmi durv®tte pati gh˜tini || 2-74-7
7. amitre= O, belligerent woman; mama meatR^iruupe= in the form of my mother! NR^ishamse= O, cruel woman; raajyakaamuke= O, woman greedy of kingdom; durvR^itte= of evil conduct; patimaatini= and who killed the husband! Aham= I; naasmi= am never; abhibhaashhyaH= to address; te= you.
“Though in appearance you are my mother, you are inimical to me. You are a cruel woman, greedy of kingdom. With evil conduct, you killed your husband. I should never speak to you.”
kausaly˜ ca sumitr˜ ca y˜× ca any˜ mama m˜tara× |
duhkhena mahat˜ ˜viÿ÷˜× tv˜m pr˜pya kula d¨ÿiõŸm || 2-74-8
8. kausalyaa= Kausalya; sumitraacha= Sumitra; mama= and my; anyaaH= other; maataraH= mothers; aavishhTaaH= are engrossed; mahataa= in a great; duHkhena= misfortune; yaaH= wherefore; praapya= by falling victim; tvaam= to you; kuladuushhiNiim= who brought disgrace to our family.
“Kausalya, Sumitra and my other mothers are engrossed in a great misfortune, by falling victim to you, who brought disgrace to our family.”
na tvam aþva pate× kany˜ dharma r˜jasya dhŸmata× |
r˜kÿasŸ tatra j˜t˜ asi kula pradhvamsinŸ pitu× || 2-74-9
yat tvay˜ dh˜rmiko r˜ma× nityam satya par˜yaõa× |
vanam prasth˜pita× duhkh˜t pit˜ ca tridivam gata× || 2-74-10
9, 10. yat= by what reason; raamah= Rama; dhaarmikaH= the righteous man; nityam satyaparaayaNaH= who is forever interested in truth; prasthaapitaH= was sent; vanam= to the forest; pitaacha= and my father; gataH= went; tridivam= to heaven; duHkhaat= because of grief; For that reason; tvaam=you; na= are not; kanyaa= the daughter; ashvapateH= of Asvapati; dharma raajasya=the pious king; dhiimataH= and a sensible man; asi= you were; jaataa= born; tatra=there; raakshhasii= as a demo ness; kulapradhvamsinii= to destroy the house; pituH= of my father
“The righteous Rama, who is forever devoted to truth, was sent to the forest. Due to grief for his son, my father went to heaven. You do not seem to be the daughter of Asvapati, the pious and sensible king. You were born there as a demo ness, to destroy the house of my father.”
yat pradh˜n˜ asi tat p˜pam mayi pitr˜ vin˜ k®te |
bhr˜t®bhy˜m ca parityakte sarva lokasya ca apriye || 2-74-11
11. yatpradhaanaasi= by which sin you are mainly having; tat= that; paapam= sin; kR^ita= has made me; pitraavinaa= father less; parityakte= abandoned; bhraatR^ibhyaam= by my brothers; mayi apriyecha= and I was disliked; sarvalokasya= by all the people.
“The aforesaid sin you have committed has made me father less. Besides, I have been abandoned by my brothers and all the people dislike me now.”
kausaly˜m dharma samyukt˜m viyukt˜m p˜pa niþcaye |
k®tv˜ kam pr˜psyase tu adya lokam niraya g˜minŸ || 2-74-12
12. paapanishchaye= O, woman having evil desires! Nirayagaamini= moving towards hell! Kam lokam= which world; praapsyase= will you attain; adya= now; kR^ityaa= after making; kausalyaam= Kausalya; dharma samyuktaam= endowed with righteousness; viyuktaam= deprived of her son?
“O, woman having evil desires, moving towards hell! Which world will you attain now, after making Kausalya endowed with righteousness, deprived of her son?”
kim na avabudhyase kr¨re niyatam bandhu samþrayam |
jyeÿ÷ham pit® samam r˜mam kausaly˜ya ˜tma sambhavam || 2-74-13
13. kruure= O, cruel woman! kim na avabuddhyase= don’t you know ; raamam= that Rama; aatmasambhavam= the son; kausalyaayaaH= of Kausalya; niyatam= as self subdued; bandhu samshrayam= who is devoted to his relatives; jyeshhTham= the eldest brother; pitrR^isamam= and equal to the father?
“O, cruel woman! Don’t you know that Rama the son of Kausalya is a subdued man, who is devoted to his relatives and as an eldest brother, equal to a father?”
anga pratyangaja× putra× h®day˜c ca api j˜yate |
tasm˜t priyatara× m˜tu× priyatv˜n na tu b˜ndhava× || 2-74-14
14. putraH= a son; aN^ga pratyaN^gajaH=is born from primary limbs and secondary members of the body ; jaayate= and born; hR^idayaachchaapi= from the heart too; tamaat= for that reason; (he is) priyatamaH= the most beloved; maatuH= to a mother; baandhavaaH= the other relatives; priyaa evatu= are only like friends.
“A son is the most beloved to his mother as he is born from the primary and secondary limbs of her body and also from her heart. The other relatives are only like friends.”
anyad˜ kila dharmajñ˜ surabhi× sura sammat˜ |
vaham˜nau dadarþa urvy˜m putrau vigata cetasau || 2-74-15
15. anyadaa= once upon a time; surabhiH= Kamadhenu, the mythical cow of Vasista; dharmaj^Na= who knew righteousness; surasammataa= and worshipped by celestials; dadarshaka= is said to have seen; putrou= her sons; vahamaanou= dreaming having burden; urvayaam= on earth; vigatachetasou= and became unconscious.
“Once upon a time, Kamadhenu the mythical cow of Vasista, who knew righteousness and was worshipped by celestials, is said to have seen her sons, drawing a heavy burden on earth and became unconscious.”
t˜v ardha divase þr˜ntau d®ÿ÷v˜ putrau mahŸ tale |
ruroda putra þokena b˜ÿpa pary˜kula Ÿkÿaõ˜ || 2-74-16
16. dR^ishhTvaa=seeing; putrou=the sons; shraantou= fatigued with labor; ardhadivasam= for a half part of their day; mahiitale= on earth; ruroda= cried; baashhpa paryaakulekshhaNaa=with eyes full of tears; putra shokena= in grief for the fate of her sons.
“Seeing her sons (a pair of bullocks) fatigued, after toiling for half a part of their day on earth, Kamadhenu the mythical cow cried with her eyes full of tears in grief for the fate of her sons.”
adhast˜t vrajata× tasy˜× sura r˜jño mah˜tmana× |
bindava× patit˜ g˜tre s¨kÿm˜× surabhi gandhina× || 2-74-17
17. tasyaaH= that mythical cow’s; suukshhmaaH= small; bindavaH= tear drops; surabhi gandhinaH= bearing good smell; patitaH= fell; gaatre= on the limbs; mahaatmanaH= of the high soled; suraraajN^aH= Indra the god of celestials; vrajataH= who was traveling; adhastaat= in the lower region.
“Small and sweet smelling tear drops of that mythical cow fell on the limbs of the high soled Indra the lord of celestials, who was traveling below in a lower region.”
indro'pyaþrunip˜tam tam svag˜tre puõyagandhinam |
surabhim manyate d®ÿ÷v˜ bh¨yasŸm t˜m sureþvara× || 2-74-18
18. dR^ishhTvaa= seeing; tam= those; puN^yagandhinam= sweet scented; ashrupaatam= tears falling; svagaatre= on his limbs; indro api= Indra; sureshvaraaH= the lord of celestials; manyate= thought; taam= her; bhuumyasiim= to be the great; surabhim= Kamadhenu the mythical cow.
“Seeing those sweet- scented tears falling on his limbs, Indra the Lord of celestials identified the tears to be those of the great Kamadhenu the mythical cow.”
nirŸksam˜õa× þakrast˜m dadarþa surabhim sthit˜m |
˜k˜þe viÿ÷hit˜m dŸn˜m rudatŸm bh®þadu×khit˜m || 2-74-19
19. niriikshhamaaNaH= looking; aakaashe= into the sky; shakraH= Indra; dadarsha= saw; taam surabhim= that Kamadhenu; sthitaam= standing there; vishhThitaam= with anguish; diinaam= and pitiably; rudatiim= crying; bhR^ishaduHkhitaam= with great sorrow.
“Looking into the sky, Indra saw that Kamadhenu standing there with anguish and pitiably weeping with great grief.”
t˜m d®ÿ÷v˜ þoka samtapt˜m vajra p˜õir yaþasvinŸm |
indra× pr˜njalir udvigna× sura r˜jo abravŸd vaca× || 2-74-20
20. suraraajaH= the lord of celestials; indraH= Indra; vajraH paaNiH=with a thunder bolt in his hand; dR^ishhTvaa= seeing; taam= that Kamadhenu the mythical cow; yashashviniim= a beautiful one who was tormented with grief; abraviit= spoke; praaN^jaliH= with joined palms; udvignaH= anxious as he was; vaakyam= the following words:
“Indra the lord of celestials with a thunder bolt in his hand, seeing that beautiful Kamadhenu the mythical cow, tormented with grief, spoke eagerly with joined palms to her, as follows:
bhayam kaccin na ca asm˜su kutaþcit vidyate mahat |
kuta× nimitta× þoka× te br¨hi sarva hita eÿiõi || 2-74-21
21. sarvahitaishhiNi= O, cow the well wisher of all ; na vidyate kachchit = Is there not indeed; kutashchit= from any where; mahat= a great; bhayam= panic; asmaasu= to us? Kutonimittam= for what occasion te= is your; shokaH sorrow?
“O, cow the well wisher of all! I hope there is no great panic from any quarter to us. For what occasion is your sorrow?”
evam ukt˜ tu surabhi× sura r˜jena dhŸmat˜ |
patyuv˜ca tata× dhŸr˜ v˜kyam v˜kya viþ˜rad˜ || 2-74-22
22. evam= thus; uktaa= spoken; dhiimataa= by the intelligent; suraraajena= Indra the god of celestials; dhiiraa= the prudent; surabhiH= Kamadhenu; vaakya vishaaradam= who was skilled in expressing words; tataH= then; pratyuvaacha= replied; vaakyam= the following words:
“Hearing the words of the intelligent Indra the god of celestials, the prudent Kamadhenu who was skilled in expressing words, replied as follows:
þ˜ntam p˜tam na va× kimcit kutaþcit amara adhipa |
aham tu magnau þoc˜mi sva putrau viÿame sthitau || 2-74-23
etau d®ÿ÷v˜ k®ÿau dŸnau s¨rya raþmi prat˜pinau |
ardhyam˜nau balŸ vardau karÿakeõa sura adhipa || 2-74-24
23. paapam shaantam= Heaven forefend the evil! Amaraadhiapa= O, Indra the Lord of celestials! Na= there is no; kashchit= danger whatsoever; vaH= to you; kitashchit=from anywhere; dR^ishhTvaa= seeing; etou= these; balivardou= pair of bullocks; svaputram= my sons; sthitou= who are; vishhame= in hardship; suuryarashmi prataapitou= who are being scorched by sun’s rays; kR^ishou= who became weak; ardyamaanou= being trobled; karshhakeNa=by the one who ploughs; magnou= and immersed in grief ; aham= I; diina= am pitiably; shochaami= weeping ; suraadhipa= O, Indra!
“Heaven forefend that evil! O, Indra the lord of celestials! There is no danger whatsoever to you from any quarter. Seeing these pair of bullocks, my sons, who are in hardship, being scorched by sun’s rays, becoming weak, being troubled by the man who ploughs the land and being immersed in grief, I am pitiably weeping O, Indra!”
mama k˜y˜t pras¨tau hi duhkhitau bh˜ra pŸýitau |
yau d®ÿ÷v˜ paritapye aham na asti putra sama× priya× || 2-74-25
25. Dr^ishhTvaa=by seeing; you=whom; bhaarapiiDitou= that are afflicted with burden; duHkhitou= and aggrieved; aham= I; paritapye= am anguished; (they) prasuutaaH hi= are indeed born; mama= from my; kaayaat= body; naasti= there is no; priyaH= dearest; putraa samah= equal to a son.
“By seeing them who are afflicted with the burden and aggrieved, I am greatly anguished. They are indeed born of my body. There is no dearest one equal to a son indeed!”
yasy˜× putra sahastraistu k®tsnam vy˜ptamidam jagat |
t˜m d®ÿ÷v˜ rudatŸm þakro na sut˜nmanyate param || 2-74-26
26. dR^ishhTvaa= seeing; taam= such a sacred cow; rudatiim= weeping; yasyaaH= whose; putrashataiH= hundreds of sons; vyaaptam= pervaded; idam jagat= throughout this world; shakraH= indra ; na manyate= reckoned none; param= as more than; sutaat= a son(to a mother).
Seeing such a sacred cow weeping, whose hundreds of sons pervaded the entire world, Indra reckoned none whosoever as more than a son (to a mother) .
sad˜'pratimav®tt˜y˜ lokadh˜raõak˜myay˜ |
þrŸmaty˜ guõanity˜y˜× svabh˜vapariceÿ÷ay˜ || 2-74-27
yasy˜× putrasahasr˜õi s˜pi þocai k˜madhuk |
kim punar y˜ vin˜ r˜mam kausaly˜ vartayiÿyati || 2-74-28
27. saa= such; kaamadhuk api= Kamadhenu even; loka dhaaraNa kaamyayaa= who is desirous of maintaining the world; sadaa= and always; apratimavR^ttaayaaH= having unequalled conduct; shriimatyaaH= the venerable one; svabhaavaparicheshhTayaa= by its nature functioning ; guNa nityaayaaH= forever with good qualities; yasyaaH= to whom; putrasahasraaNi= there are thousands of sons; shochati= is lamenting; kimpunaH= how much more; yaa= indeed; kausalyaa= Kausalya; vartayishhyati= will drag her existence; raamam vinaa= without Rama?
“Such a Kamadhenu the sacred cow, which is desirous of maintaining the world always having unequalled behavior, the venerable one, by its very nature functioning forever with good qualities and to whom there are thousands of sons, is lamenting, how much more indeed Kausalya will drag her existence, without Rama?”
eka putr˜ ca s˜dhvŸ ca vivats˜ iyam tvay˜ k®t˜ |
tasm˜t tvam satatam duhkham pretya ca iha ca lapsyase || 2-74-29
29. iyam=she; ekaputraacha= who has only one son; saadhviicha= and who is a holy woman; kR^itaa= has been made; vivitsaa= without a child; tvayaa= by you; tasmaat= therefore; tvam= you; lapsyase= will obtain; duHkham= grief; satatam= forever; pretyacha= after death; ihacha= and even on earth.”
“She, who has only one son and who is a holy woman, has been made without a child by you. Thereafter, you will obtain grief forever after your death or even here while living.”
aham hi apacitim bhr˜tu× pitu× ca sakal˜m im˜m |
vardhanam yaþasa× ca api kariÿy˜mi na samþaya× || 2-74-30
30. aham= I on my part; karishhyaami= shall toil; imaam= for this; sampuurNaam= complete; apachitam= compensation ; bhraatuH= for my brother; pitushcha= and my father; yashasaH= and for their glory; vardhanam= and prosperity ; na samshayaH= there is no doubt.
“I for my part, shall toil for the complete reinstatement of my brother and complete the obsequial rites due to my father as well as for their prosperity and glory. There is no doubt.”
˜n˜yayitv˜ tanayam kausaly˜y˜ mah˜ dyutim |
svayam eva pravekÿy˜mi vanam muni niÿevitam || 2-74-31
31. kausalyaah tanayam= Rama the son of Kausalya ; mahaabalam= of great prowess; aanaayayitvaa= will be brought back; svayameva= and I myself; pravekshhyaami= will enter; vanam= the forest; muninishhevitam= frequented by the sages.
“Rama the son of Kausalya, of great prowess will be brought back to Ayodhya and I, myself will go to the forest inhabited by the sages.”
na hyaham p˜pasamkalpe p˜pe p˜pam tvay˜ k®tam |
þakto dh˜rayitum paurairaþrukaõ÷hai rnirŸkÿita× || 2-74-32
32. paape= O, wretched one! Paapasamkalpe= O, the evil minded one! PouraiH=the citizens; niriikshhitaH= being seen; ashrukaN^ThaiH= with their throats filled with tears; nashaktaH hi= I am not indeed able; dhaarayitum= to endure; paapam= the inequity; kR^itam= done; tvayaa= by you.
“O, wretched and evil minded woman! By seeing the sorrow stricken citizens, I am indeed not able to bear the inequity done by you.”
s˜ tvamagnim praviþa v˜ svayam v˜ daõýak˜nviþa |
rajjum badh˜na v˜ kaõ÷he na hi te'nyatpar˜yaõam || 2-74-33
33. saa tvam= as for you; pravisha= enter; agnimvaa= the fire or; visha= enter; svayam= yourself; daNdakaaranyaa= into the forest of Dandaka; vaa= or; badhaana= bind; rajjum= a rope; kaNThe= around your neck; nahi= There is indeed no; anyat= other; paraayaNam= way of recourse; te= to you.
“As for you, enter the fire or you yourself go to forest of Dandaka.or fasten a rope around your neck. There is no other recourse for you.”
ahamapyavanim pr˜pte r˜me satyapar˜krame |
k®tak®tyo bhaviÿy˜mi viprav˜sitakalmaÿa× || 2-74-34
34. (After) raame= Rama; satyaparaakrame= the truly mighty man; praapte= obtains; avanim= his native land; ahamapi= I even; bhavishhyaami= will become; kR^itakR^ityaH= an accomplished man; vipravaasita kalmashhaH= with my sins duly washed away.
“After Rama the truly mighty man, obtains his native land, I will even become an accomplished man, with my sins duly washed away.”
iti n˜gaiva araõye tomara ankuþa codita× |
pap˜ta bhuvi samkruddho nihþvasann iva pannaga× || 2-74-35
35. naagaH iva= as an elephant; araNye= in a forest; choditaH= pricked with a javelin and a goad; pannaH iva= and as a serpent; niHshvasan= hissing; (Bharata); samkR^iddhaH= was enraged; iti= after speaking in this manner; papaata= and fell; bhuvi= on the ground.
As an elephant in a forest pricked with a javelin and a goad and as a hissing serpent, Bharata was enraged and fell on the ground.
samrakta netra× þithila ambara× tad˜ |
vidh¨ta sarva ˜bharaõa× paramtapa× |
babh¨va bh¨mau patita× n®pa ˜tmaja× |
þacŸ pate× ketur iva utsava kÿaye || 2-74-36
36. tadaa= then; samraktanetraH= his eyes inflamed; shithilaambaraH= his clothes in disarray; vidhuutasarvaabharaNaH= his all ornaments discarded; nR^ipaatmajaH=Bharata, the prince; paramtapaH= the tormentor of foes;patitaH= lay; bhuumou= on the earth; babhuuva= was ; keturiva= like a banner; shachiipateH= of Indra; utsavakshhaye= raised at the end of a ceremony.
His eyes inflamed, his clothes in disarray, and his all ornaments discarded, Bharata the prince and the tormentor of foes, lay on the earth, like a banner of Indra raised at the end of a ceremony**
ity˜rÿe þrŸmadr˜m˜yaõe ˜dik˜vye ayodhy˜k˜õýe catu×saptatitama× sarga×
Thus completes 74nd Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.
© February 2003, K. M. K. Murthy