Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya
Kausalya, while weeping, rebukes Dasaratha for his evil act of sending Rama to exile. She explains various difficulties being faced by Rama, Lakshmana and Seetha in their forest-life. She says that even if Rama returns to Ayodhya in the fifteenth year, he may not accept the kingdom since enjoyed by Bharata.
vanam gate dharma pare raame ramayataam vare |
kausalyaa rudatii svaartaa bhartaaram idam abraviit || 2-61-1
1. raame= (When) Rama; dharma vare= excellent in virtue; vare= excellent; ramayataam= among those causing delight; gate= having gone; vanam= to the forest; kausalyaa= Kausalya; svaartaa= herself pained; rudatii= (and) weeping; abraviit= spoke; idam= these words; bhartaaram= to her husband.
When Rama, who is excellent in virtue and outstanding among those causing delight, having left for the forest, Kausalya who was feeling pained, spoke, weeping to her husband as follows:
yadyapi triSu lokeSu prathitam te mayad yashaH |
saanukrosho vadaanyaH ca priya vaadii ca raaghavaH || 2-61-2
katham nara vara shreSTha putrau tau saha siitayaa |
duhkhitau sukha samvR^iddhau vane duhkham sahiSyataH || 2-61-3
2-3. prathitam yadyapi= despite the fame; triSu lokeSu= in the three worlds; te= of your; mahat= great; yashaH= glory; raaghavaH= (that) Dasaratha; saanukroshaH= is compassionate; vadaanyaH ca= bountiful; priya vaadii ca= and kind in his words; katham= how; tau putrau= your two sons; siitayaa saha= along with Seetha; sukha samvR^iddhau= who grew comfortably; sahiSyataH= can bear; duHkham= suffering; vane= in the forest; duHkhitau= when faced with hardships; nara vara shreSTha= O, the best among the foremost of men!
“Despite the fame in the three worlds of your great glory that Dasaratha is compassionate, bountiful and kind in his words, how your two sons along with Seetha who grew comfortably can bear suffering in the forest when faced with hardships, O the best among the foremost of men!”
saa nuunam taruNii shyaamaa sukumaarii sukha ucitaa |
katham uSNam ca shiitam ca maithilii prasahiSyate || 2-61-4
4. saa maithilii= that Seetha; taruNii= who is a young lady; shyaamaa= in the prime of Her youth; sukumaarii= and very delicate; katham= how prasahiSyate= (She) can tolerate; nuunam= really; uSNam ca= heat; shiitam ca= and cold?
“That Seetha, who is a young lady in the prime of her youth and very delicate, can really tolerate heat and cold?”
bhuktvaa ashanam vishaala akSii suupa damsha anvitam shubham |
vanyam naivaaram aahaaram katham siitaa upabhokSyate || 2-61-5
5. katham= how; siitaa= Seetha; vishaala akSii= the large-eyed; upabhokSyate= can eat; aahaaram= a good; vanyam naivaaram= prepared with wild rice; bhuktvaa= having eaten; shubham= a good; ashanam= food; suupa damsha anvitam= containing soups and snacks?
“How the large-eyed Seetha can eat a food prepared with wild rice, she having eaten here a good food containing soups and snacks?”
giita vaaditra nirghoSam shrutvaa shubham aninditaa |
katham kravya ada simhaanaam shabdam shroSyati ashobhanam || 2-61-6
6. katham; how; aninditaa=the irreproachable Seetha; shroSyati= can hear; ashobhanam= the bad; shabdam= sounds; kravya ada simhaanaam= of cruel animals and lions; shrutvaa= after hearing; shubham= the auspicious; giita vaaditra nirghoSam= sounds of singing and music?
“How that irreproachable Seetha can hear the horrid sounds of cruel animals and lions, after hearing the auspicious sounds of singing and music here?”
mahaa indra dhvaja samkaashaH kva nu shete mahaa bhujaH |
bhujam parigha samkaasham upadhaaya mahaa balaH || 2-61-7
7. kva= where; mahaabalaH= the mighty hero Rama; mahendra dhvaja samkaashaH= resplendent as Mahendra’s standard; mahaabhujaH= and the mighty armed; shete nu= is sleeping indeed; bhujam= with his arm; upadhaaya= as a pillow?
Where Rama the mighty hero, resplendent as Mahendra’s standard and the mighty armed is sleeping indeed with his arm as a pillow?”
padma varNam sukesha antam padma nihshvaasam uttamam |
kadaa drakSyaami raamasya vadanam puSkara iikSaNam || 2-61-8
8. kadaa= when; drakSyaami= shall I see; vadanam= the face; raamasya= of Rama; padma varNam= with the colour of a lotus; sukesha antam= framed with marvelous locks; padma niHshvaasam= of lotus-perfume; puSkara iikSaNam= with eyes resembling lotus-petals; uttamam= and excellent?
“When can I see the face of Rama with the colour of a lotus, framed with marvelous locks of lotus-perfume, with eyes resembling lotus-petals and excellent?”
vajra saaramayam nuunam hR^idayam me na samshayaH |
apashyantyaa na tam yad vai phalati idam sahasradhaa || 2-61-9
9. me hR^idayam= my heart; nuunam= is surely; vajra saaramayam= made fully of the solid-interior of diamond; na= no; samshayaH= doubt; yat= for which; reason; idam= this heart; na phalati vai= is not split; sahasradhaa= into thousand pieces; apashyantaaH= even in my not seeing; tam= that Rama.
There is no doubt that my heart is fully made of the solid-interior of a diamond, for which reason this heart is not shattered into a thousand pieces, even in my not seeing of that Rama.”
yattvayaa karuNam karma vyapohya mama baandhavaaH |
nirastaa paridhaavanti sukhaarhaH kR^ipaNaa vane || 2-61-10
10. vyapohya= having abandoned; karuNam= kindly; karma= action; tvayaa= by you; mana baandhavaaH= my kith and kin; sukhaarhaaH= worthy of comforts; nirastaaH= have been banished; yat= for which reason; paridhaavanti= they are wandering around; vane= the forest; kR^ipaNaaH= miserably.”
“It was not a kindly act by you that you banished my kith and kin, who were worthy of comforts to wander around in the forest in such a miserable condition.”
yadi paJNcadashe varSe raaghavaH punareSyati |
jahyaadraajyam ca kosham ca bharato nopalskhyate || 2-61-11
11. raaghavaH punareSyati yadi= even if Rama comes back; paNcadashevarshhe= in the fifteenth year; nopalakshhyete= it cannot be inferred; bharataH= that Bharata; jayaat= will abandon; raajyam ca= the kingdom and; kosham ca= the treasury.”
“Even if Rama comes back in the fifteenth year, it cannot be inferred that Bharata will abandon the kingdom and the treasury.”
bhojayanti kila shraaddhe kecitsvaneva baandhavaan |
tataH pashcaatsamiikshante kR^itakaaryaa dvijarSabhaan || 2-61-12
12. kechit= some; shraadhhe= in a ceremony in honour of dead relative; bhojayanti kila= indeed feed; svaan= their won; baandhavaan iva= relatives only; kR^itakaaryaaH= having completed the ceremony; tataH pashchaat= thereafter; samiikSante= they look for; dvijarshhabhaan= the illustrious Twice-born.
“There are those who in a ceremony in hour of dead relatives, first feed their relatives and thereafter, to fulfill their duty, remember to invite the illustrious Twice-born.
tatra ye guNavantashca vidvaamsashca dvijaatayaH |
na pashcaatte.abhimanyante sudhaamapi suropamaaH || 2-61-13
13. tatra= there; ye= which; guNavantashca= the virtuous; vidvaamsashca= and the learned dvija tayaH= Brahmanas; suropamaaH= who are like unto gods; te= they; na abhimanyante= do not accept; pashcaatt= afterwards; sudhaamapi= even ambrosia.
“The virtuous and the learned Brahmins, who are like unto gods, do not accept afterwards even food as delicious as ambrosia.”
braahmaNeSvapi tR^ipteSu pashcaadbhoktum dvijarSabhaaH |
naabhyupaitumalam praajJNaaH shR^iN^gacchedamivarSbhaaH || 2-61-14
14. tR^ipteSu= the contented; braahmaNeSvapi= even if they are Brahmanas; praaJNaaH= wise; dvijarSabhaaH= and the best of Brahmanas; naabhyupaitumalam= cannot agree; bhoktum= to eat; pashcaat= afterwards; shR^iN^gacchedamiva= as splitting of thorns; R^iSabhaaH= of a bull.
“The best of Brahmins in their wisdom, will not accept what remains of the food of which other Brahmins have partaken, regarding it as a bull shorn of its horns.”
evam kaniiyasaa bhraatraa bhuktam raajyam vishaam pate |
bhraataa jyeSThaa variSThaaH ca kim artham na avamamsyate || 2-61-15
15. viSaampate= O, King! Nakimartham= why not; jyeSThaaH= the eldest; variSThashca= and the best; bhraataa= brother; avamamsyate= refuse; raajyam= the kingdom; bhuktam= enjoyed; kaniiyasaa= by younger; bhraatraa= brother?”
“O, king! Why not the eldest and the best brother refuse to accept the kingdom enjoyed by the younger brother?”
na pareNa aahR^itam bhakSyam vyaaghraH khaaditum icchati |
evam eva nara vyaaghraH para liiDham na mamsyate || 2-61-16
16. vyaaghraH= a tiger; necchati= does not wish; khaaditum= to eat; bhakSyam= a food; ashitam= eaten; vareNa= by another animal; evam eva= in the same manner; naravyaaghraH= a tiger among men; na manyate= does not accept; paraliiDham= that which has been enjoyed by another.
“A tiger does not wish to share a part of food eaten by another animal. In the same manner, Rama the tiger among men may not accept that which has been enjoyed by another.”
havir aajyam puroDaashaaH kushaa yuupaaH ca khaadiraaH |
na etaani yaata yaamaani kurvanti punar adhvare || 2-61-17
17. haviH= oblations; aajyam= clarified butter; puroDaashaaH= leaving of an offering in a sacrifice; kushaaH= sacred grass; yuupaashcha= sacrificial posts; khaadiraaH= made of trunk of Khadira tree; yaatayaamaani= used once; etaani= these; na kurvanti= are not used; punaH= again; adhvare= in a sacrifice.
“Oblations, clarified butter, leavings of an offering, sacred grass and sacrificial posts made of trunk of Khadira tree, once used, are not put to use again in a sacrifice.”
tathaa hi aattam idam raajyam hR^ita saaraam suraam iva |
na abhimantum alam raamaH naSTa somam iva adhvaram || 2-61-18
18. tathaa= thus; raamaH= Rama; naalam= cannot; abhimantum= accept; idam raajyam= this kingdom; attam= taken away by others; suraamiva= as an ambrosia; hR^itasaaram= whose essence has been taken away; adhvaramiva= and as in a sacrifice; naSTa somam= when the stalks of Soma plant (from which a beverage called Soma is prepared) are lost.
“Thus, Rama cannot accept the kingdom taken away by other, as those not accepting an ambrosia whose essence has been taken away or as in a sacrifice, stalks of Soma plant (from which a beverage called Soma is prepared) are lost.”
na evam vidham asatkaaram raaghavo marSayiSyati |
balavaan iva shaarduulo baaladher abhimarshanam || 2-61-19
19. raaghavaH= Rama; na marSayiSyati= will not go through; evam vidham= such a type; astakaaram= of dishonour; avamarshanam iva= as touching; vaaladhe= of the tail; balavaan= by a strong; shaarduulaH= tiger.
“Rama will not go through such a type of dishonour, as a strong tiger does not endure even touching of its tail.”
naitasya sahitaa lokaa bhayam kuryurmahaamR^idhe |
adharmam tviha dharmaatmaa lokam dharmeNa yojayet || 2-61-20
20. lokaaH = even if the worlds; sahitaaH= get together; mahaa mR^idhe= in a great battle; nakuryuH= they cannot stir up; bhayam= fear; etasya= in him; dharmaatma= the virtuous minded Rama; yojayat= will provide; dharmeNa= righteousness; lokam= to people; adharmam=with unrighteousness.
“Even if all the worlds combine together in a great battle, they cannot stir up fear in him. The virtuous minded Rama will provide righteousness to the people with unrighteousness.”
nanvasau kaaJNcanairbaaNairmahaaviiryo mahaabhujaH |
yugaanta iva bhuutaani saagaraanapi nirdahet || 2-61-21
21. asau= this Rama; mahaaviiryaH= with great prowess; mahaabhujaH= and with mighty arms; nanu nirdahet= can surely burn up; bhuutaani= all beigns; saagaraanapi= and even the ocean; kaancanaiH baaNaiH= like at the time of destruction of the world.
“Rama with great prowess and with his mighty arms can surely burn up all beings and even the ocean itself by his golden arrows; like at the time of destruction of the world.”
sa taadR^ishaH simha balo vR^iSabha akSo nara R^iSabhaH |
svayam eva hataH pitraa jalajena aatmajo yathaa || 2-61-22
22. saH naraSabhaH= that excellent man; taadR^iS\shaH= of such; simhabalaH= strength of a lion; vR^iSabhaakSaH= and with eyes like those of a bull; hataH= was mined; pitraa iva= indeed by father; svayam= of his own; aatmajoyathaa= like (killing) its child; jalajena= by a fish.
“That excellent man with such a lion’s strength and with eyes like those of a bull was ruined indeed by his own father, like killing its child-fish by an adult fish.”
dvijaati caritaH dharmaH shaastra dR^iSTaH sanaatanaH |
yadi te dharma nirate tvayaa putre vivaasite || 2-61-23
23. putre= a son; dharma nirate= who is devoted to righteousness; nirvaasite= being sent to exile; tvayaa= by you; dharmaH yadi= is it a right thing; shaasradR^iSTah= as seen by scriptures; te= for you; sanaatanaH= or an eternal thing; dvijaaticaritaH= practised by the Twice born?
“A son, who is devoted to righteousness, has been sent to exile by you. Is it a right thing for you, as seen by scriptures or is it an eternal conduct as practiced by the Twice born?”
gatir evaak patir naaryaa dvitiiyaa gatir aatmajaH |
tR^itiiyaa j~naatayo raajamH caturthii na iha vidyate || 2-61-24
24. raajan= O, king; patiH= husband; ekaa= is a chief; gatiH= refuge; naaryaaH= for a womn; dvitiiyaa gatiH= her second refuge; aatmajaH= is a son; tR^iiyaa= the third refuge; j~naatayH= is a near relative; na vidyate= there is no; chaturdhii= fourth one; iha= here.
“O, king! A husband is a chief refuge for a woman. Her second refuge is a son. The third refuge is her near-relative. There is no fourth one here.”
tatra tvam caiva me na asti raamaH ca vanam aashritaH |
na vanam gantum icchaami sarvathaa hi hataa tvayaa || 2-61-25
25. tatra= in those three refuges; tvam= you; naiva asi= do not indeed exist; raamastu= Rama on his part; aashritaH= took refuge; vanam= in a forest; na icchaami= I do not wish; gantum= to go; vanam= to the forest; nihataa= I have been mined; sarvathaa= in all ways; tvayaa= b you.
“Among those three refuges, you do not indeed exist. Rama on his part took refuge in a forest and I do not wish to go there. Thus, I have been ruined in all ways, by you.”
hatam tvayaa raajyam idam saraaSTram |
hataH tathaa aatmaa saha mantribhiH ca |
hataa saputraa asmi hataaH ca pauraaH |
sutaH ca bhaaryaa ca tava prahR^iSTau || 2-61-26
26. idam= this; raajyam= kingdom; saraaSTram= along with neighbouring states; hatam= have been ruined; tvayaa= by you; tathaa= and; aatmaa= you yourself; mantribhiH saha= along with ministers; hataaH= have been ruined; saputraasmi= I along with my son; hataa= are ruined; puraashcha= citizens too; hataaH= have got ruined; tavaa= your; sutashcha= son and; bhaaryaa= your wife Kaikeyi= prahR^iSTaa= delight.
“This kingdom along with neighboring states has been ruined by you. You yourself along with ministers have been ruined. I along with my son are ruined. Citizens too are ruined. Your son Bharata and your wife Kaikeyi only are delighted.”
imaam giram daaruNa shabda samshritaam |
nishamya raajaa api mumoha duhkhitaH |
tataH sa shokam pravivesha paarthivaH |
svaduSkR^itam ca api punaH tadaa asmarat || 2-61-27
27. nishamya= hearing; imaam= this; giram= voice; daaruNa shabda samshritaam= consisting of cruel words; raajaapi= the king also; duhkhitaH= being distress; mumoha= became; disillusioned; tataH= thereafter; paarthivaH= the king; tadaa= then; s,ara,= remembering; smaraH= again; svaduSkR^itam= his own evil act; pravivesha= was entangled in; shokam= grief.
Hearing the aforesaid voice of Kausalya, consisting of her cruel words, the king also being distressed, became disillusioned. Thereafter, the king then looking back on his own evil act, was entangled in grief
ityaarSe shriimadraamaayaNe aadikaavye ayodhyaakaaNDe ekaSaSTitamaH sargaH
Thus completes 61st Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.
© June 2003, K. M. K. Murthy