Chapter [Sarga] 48

Introduction

Informed by the citizens of Rama’s departure for the forest, when they returned to Ayodhya after being unable to find out the tracks of his chariot, the wives of the citizens reproach Kaikeyi and break into lamentation.


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teÿ˜mevam viÿõõ˜n˜mpŸýit˜n˜matŸva ca |
b˜ÿpaviplutanetr˜õ˜m saþok˜n˜m mum¨rÿay˜ || 2-48-1
anugamya niv®tt˜n˜m r˜mam nagara v˜sin˜m |
udgat˜ni iva sattv˜ni babh¨vur amanasvin˜m || 2-48-2

1,2. sattvaani= the lives of; teshhaam= those; nagaram vaasinaam= citizens; evam=thus; vishha NNanaam= dejected; atiiva=greatly; piiditaanaam= hurt; baashhpa vipluta netraaNaam= having eyes filled with tears; sa shokaamaam= affected by grief; mumuurshhayaa= impatient of life; anugamya= accompanied; raamam= Rama; nivR^ittaanaam= and returned; amanasvinaam= cheerless; udgataaniiva= as though their lives are gone.

The lives of those citizens, who had returned dejected and cheerless in this way after accompanying Rama were greatly hurt, having their eyes filled with tears afflicted with grief, longing to give up their lives and appeared as though they were dead.

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svam svam nilayam ˜gamya putra d˜rai× sam˜v®t˜× |
aþr¨õi mumucu× sarve b˜ÿpeõa pihita ˜nan˜× || 2-48-3

3. aagamya= reaching, svam svam= each his own; nilayam= house; sarve= all of them; samaavR^itaaH= having been surrounded; putra daaraiaH= by their sons and wives; mumuchuH= shed; ashrooNi= tears; pihitaananaaH= their face being covered; bashhpeNa= by tears.

Reaching each his own house, all of them surrounded by their sons and wife, shed tears, their faces being covered by them.

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na ca ˜h®ÿyan na ca amodan vaõijo na pras˜rayan |
na ca aþobhanta paõy˜ni na apacan g®ha medhina× || 2-48-4

4. na chaahR^ishhyan= (they) did not make rejoice; na amodancha=did not make merry; vaNijaH=merchants; na prasaarayan= did not exhibit their wares; paNyaanicha= even their merchandise; na ashobhante= did not look charming. gR^iha methinaH= Those in charge of home; na apachan= did not cook.

None was either delightful or merry. Merchants no longer exhibited their wares, nor their merchandise looked charming. Those in charge of home did not attend to cooking.

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naÿ÷am d®ÿ÷v˜ na abhyanandan vipulam v˜ dhana ˜gamam |
putram prathamajam labdhv˜ jananŸ na abhyanandata || 2-48-5

5. na abhyanandan= none was delightful;dR^shhTam= a lost fortune; dhanaagamam vaa= or on getting wealth; vipulam= in abundance. Jananii= Mother;naabhyanandata= did not rejoice; labdhvaa= on obtaing; putram= a son; prathamajam= born for the first time.

None was delightful for instance on finding out a lost fortune, or on getting riches in abundance. No mother did rejoice even on obtaining a son born for the first time.

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g®he g®he rudantya× ca bhart˜ram g®ham ˜gatam |
vyagarhayanta× duhkha ˜rt˜ v˜gbhis totrai× iva dvip˜n || 2-48-6

6. duhkhaartaaH= oppressed with sorrow; rudantyaH=and lamenting; gR^ihe gR^ihe=(women) in every house; vyagarhayanta= heaped reproaches; bhartaaraam= on husbands; aagatam= who came; gR^iham= home; vaagbhiH= with words; dvipaan iva= like elephants; totraiH= by goads.

Oppressed with sorrow and weeping, women in every house heaped reproaches on their husbands who came home, with words as sharp as pricks of the goad which attack an elephant.

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kim nu teÿ˜m g®hai× k˜ryam kim d˜rai× kim dhanena v˜ |
putrai× v˜ kim sukhai× v˜ api ye na paþyanti r˜ghavam || 2-48-7

7. kim= “What purpose; teshhhaam= of theirs( will be served); ye= who; na pashyanti= do not see; raaghavam= Rama; gR^IhaiH= by their dwellings? Kim kaaryam=For what purpose; daaraih=their wives?kim=what purpose dhananivaa= by their wealth even? Kim= What purpose? PutraiH vaa= by their sons or; sukhairvaapi= even pleasures even?”

“What purpose of theirs who do not see Rama, will be served by their dwellings, wife or wealth or sons or pleasures even?”

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eka× sat puruÿo loke lakÿmaõa× saha sŸtay˜ |
yo anugaccati k˜kutstham r˜mam paricaran vane || 2-48-8

8. lakshhma NaH= Lakshmana; ekaH= alone; satpurushhaH= is a good man; loke= in this world; yaH= who; anugachchati= was following; raamam= rama; kaakutstham= belonging to Kakutstha dynasty; siitayaa saha= along with Sita; paricharam rending service; vane= in the forest.”

Lakshmana alone is a good man in this world, who was accompanying Rama belonging to Kakutstha dynasty, along with Sita ,duly rendering service to them in the forest.”

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˜pag˜× k®ta puõy˜× t˜× padminya× ca sar˜msi ca |
yeÿu sn˜syati k˜kutstho vig˜hya salilam þuci || 2-48-9

9. kR^ita puNyaaH= fortunate are; taH= such; aapagaaH= rivers; padminyaH= lotus-ponds; saraamsicha= and lakes; snaasyati= bathing; yeshhu= in whose; shuchi= sacred; salilam= waters; kaakutstha= Rama; vigaahya= plunged into;

“Fortunate too are the rivers; lotus ponds and lakes for bathing in whose sacred waters Rama entered into.”

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þobhayiÿyanti k˜kutstham a÷avyo ramya k˜nan˜× |
˜pag˜× ca mah˜ an¨p˜× s˜numanta× ca parvat˜× || 2-48-10

10. aaTavyaH= forests; ramya kaananaaH= with beautiful row of trees; mahaanuupaaH= tracks of land abounding in water; aapagaaH cha= rivers; parvataaH= and mountains; saanumantaH= with alluring peaks; shobhayishhyanti= will bring splendor to; kaakutstham= Rama.

“Forests with beautiful row of trees, tracks of land abounding in water, rivers and mountains with alluring peaks will bring splendor to Rama.”

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k˜nanam v˜ api þailam v˜ yam r˜ma× abhigamiÿyati |
priya atithim iva pr˜ptam na enam þakÿyanti anarcitum || 2-48-11

11. “yam=Which; shailam vaa= mountain; kaananamvaapi= or forest; raamaH= Rama; adhigamishhyati=will visit; na shakshhyanti= they can not; anarchitum= remain without respecting; enam= him; priyaatithim iva= like a beloved guest; praaptam= who has arrived.”

“Any mountain or forest which Rama will visit, will not fail to respect him like a beloved guest who has arrived.”

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vicitra kusuma ˜pŸý˜ bahu manjali dh˜riõa× |
ak˜le ca api mukhy˜ni puÿp˜õi ca phal˜ni ca || 2-48-12

12. nagaaH= Plants; vichitra kusuma piidaaH= with many – colored flowers as their chaplets; bahumaNjari dhaariNaH= bearing copious cluster of blossoms; bhramara shaalinaH= full of bees; darshayishhyanti= exhibit themselves; raaghavam= at Rama.”

“Plants with many –colored flowers as their chaplets, bearing copious clusters of blossoms full of bees exhibit themselves at Rama.”

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ak˜le c˜pi mukhy˜ni puÿp˜õi ca phal˜ni ca |
darþayiÿyanti anukroþ˜t girayo r˜mam ˜gatam || 2-48-13

13. giryaH=mountains; darshayishhyanti= will display; mukhyaani= principal; pushhpaaNi= flowers; phalaanicha= and fruits; raamam= to Rama; aagatam= (when) arrived; akaalechaapi= even in unseasonable ness anukroshaat= with compassion.

“Even in unseasonable ness, mountains in compassion will present principal flowers and fruits to Rama, on his arrival.”

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prasraviÿyanti toy˜ni vimal˜ni mahŸdhar˜× |
vidarþayanta× vividh˜n bh¨ya× citr˜m× ca nirjhar˜n || 2-48-14

14. “mahiidharaaH= mountains; vidarshayantaH= will show; vividhaan= various; chitraamshcha= wonderful; nirjharaan= waterfalls; bhuuyaH= again and again; prasravishhyanti= streaming forth; vimalaani= uncontaminated; toyaani= waters. ”

“Mountains will show various wonderful waterfalls again and again, duly streaming forth uncontaminated waters.”

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p˜dap˜× parvata agreÿu ramayiÿyanti r˜ghavam |
yatra r˜ma× bhayam na atra na asti tatra par˜bhava× || 2-48-15

15. “paadapaaH= trees; parvataagrashhu= on mountain -peaks; ramayishhyanti= will enrapture; raaghavam= Rama; yatra= where; raamaH= there is Rama; atra= there is ; na= neither; bhayam= fear; naasti= nor; tatra= there is ; paraabhavaH= overthrow.”

“Trees on apex of mountains will enrapture Rama. Where there is Rama, there is neither fear nor humiliation”.

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sa hi þ¨ra× mah˜ b˜hu× putra× daþarathasya ca |
pur˜ bhavati no d¨r˜t anugacc˜ma r˜ghavam || 2-48-16

16. “saH= that Rama; putraH= the son; dasarathasya= of Dasaratha; shuuraH= the hero and; mahaabaahuH= the mighty armed; puraa bhavati=will become; duurat= distant; naH= from us. Anugachhaama= Let us run after; raaghavam= Rama.”

“That Rama the son of Dasaratha, the hero and the mighty armed will come to our view not far from us. Let us run after him.”

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p˜dac c˜y˜ sukh˜ bhartus t˜d®þasya mah˜tmana× |
sa hi n˜tho janasya asya sa gati× sa par˜yaõam || 2-48-17

17. “paada chchhaayaa=The shelter of feet; bhartuH= of the Lord; mahaatmanaH= and the high-souled; taadR^ishsya= is in such a manner; sukhaa= a joy; saH= He; naatha hi= indeed is protector; asyajanasya= of these people. saH= He; gatiH= the refuge; saH= he; paraayaNam= the supreme asylum.”

“The shelter of the feet of the lord and the high–souled Rama is in itself a joy. Rama indeed is the protector of all of us, he the refuge and our supreme asylum ”

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vayam paricariÿy˜ma× sŸt˜m y¨yam tu r˜ghavam |
iti paura striyo bhart®®n duhkha ˜rt˜× tat tat abruvan || 2-48-18

18. “vayam= we; paricharishhyaamaH= shall serve; siitaam= Sita; yaayamtu= while you (serve); raaghavam= Rama.” iti= Thus; poura striyaH= the citizen’s wives; duhkhaartaaH= afflicted with agony; abruvam= spoke; tattat= this or that word; bhartR^iin= to their husbands.

“We shall serve Sita; while you attend on Rama.” Thus, the citizen’s wives, afflicted with agony, spoke in so many words to their husbands.

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yuÿm˜kam r˜ghavo araõye yoga kÿemam vidh˜syati |
sŸt˜ n˜rŸ janasya asya yoga kÿemam kariÿyati || 2-48-19

19. raaghavaH= “Rama; vidhaasyati= will secure; yoga kshhemam = the needs and interests; yushhmaakam= of yours. Siitaa= Sita; karishhyati= will secure; yogakshhemam= the needs and interests; asya janasya naarii= of these people, the women folk.

“Rama will secure the needs and interests of yours in the forest, while Sita will do the same thing with regard to us womenfolk.”

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ko nv anena apratŸtena sa utkaõ÷hita janena ca |
samprŸyeta amanojñena v˜sena h®ta cetas˜ || 2-48-20

20. “kaH nu= who will be; sampriyeta= pleased; anena vaasena= with this residence;(in this city); apratitena= which is apprehensible; sotkaNThitajanenacha= with anxious people in it; amanoG^yena= not a pleasant spot; hR^ita chetasaa= with unsettled minds?”

“Who will be highly pleased with this residence in the city, which is apprehensible, with anxious people in it and not being a pleasant spot with unsettled minds?”

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kaikeyy˜ yadi ced r˜jyam sy˜t adharmyam an˜thavat |
na hi no jŸvitena artha× kuta× putrai× kuta× dhanai× || 2-48-21

21. syaadyadi= If it were; raajyam= rule; kaikeyyaaH= by Kaikeyi; adharmyam= it will not be in consonance with righteousness; anaathavat= with no protector; na hi= indeed, no; arthaH= use; jiivitena= by life; naH= to us. KutaH= much less; putraiH=by sons;kutaH=much less;dhanaiH= by riches.

“If it were to be the rule of Kaikeyi, it will not be in consonance with righteousness, with no protector and indeed with no use for our lives, mush less for our sons and riches.”

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yay˜ putra× ca bhart˜ ca tyakt˜v aiþvarya k˜raõ˜t |
kam s˜ parihared anyam kaikeyŸ kula p˜msanŸ || 2-48-22

22. saa Kaikeyi=”That Kaikeyi, yayaa= by whom; putrascha= her son; bharataacha= and her husband; tyaktaa= were forsaken; aishvarya kaaraNaat= for the sake of power;kula paamsanii= (and)who brought disagrace to her family; kam anyam= whom else; pari haret=she will not abandon?”

“Whom else Kaikeyi will not abandon? --that Kaikeyi, by whom her son and her husband were forsaken for the sake of power and who brought disgrace to her family.”

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kaikeyy˜ na vayam r˜jye bh®tak˜ nivasemahi |
jŸvanty˜ j˜tu jŸvantya× putrai× api þap˜mahe || 2-48-23

23. kaikeyyaaH= (while) Kaikeyi; jiivantyaaH= is surviving ; vayam= we ;jaatu=ever; na nivasemahi= will not inhabit; raajye= this kingdom; bhR^itakaaH=as (Kaikeyi’s) servants; jiivityaaH=(as long as we are) living; shapaamahe= we swear even; putrairapi=even by our sons.”

“We swear even by our sons that while Kaikeyi is surviving and as long as we live, we will never inhabit this kingdom as Kaikeyi’s servants!”

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y˜ putram p˜rthiva indrasya prav˜sayati nirgh®õ˜ |
ka× t˜m pr˜pya sukham jŸved adharmy˜m duÿ÷a c˜riõŸm || 2-48-24

24. “kaH= who; jiivet= can live; sukham= happily; praapya= on having obtained; taam= her; yaa= who; nirjhR^I Naa= without pity; pravaasayati= banished; putram= the son; paarthivendrasya= of king; adharmyaam= the impious woman; dushhTachaariNiim= of wicked conduct?”

“Who can live happily on having obtained (as one’s ruler) that impious woman of wicked conduct, who banished the son of the king without any pity?”

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upadrutamidam sarvaman˜lambaman˜yakam |
kaikeyy˜ hi k®te sarvam vin˜þamupay˜syati || 2-48-25

25. idam sarvam= “ the whole of this kingdom; upadrutam= visited by calamities; anaalambam= having no support;anaayakam= without any leader; upayaasyati=will meet with;vinaasham=ruin;kaikeyyaaH kR^ite= through Kaikeyi’s fault.”

“The whole of this kingdom, without any leader, having no support and visited by calamities, will meet with ruin because of Kaikeyi’s fault.”

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na hi pravrajite r˜me jŸviÿyati mahŸ pati× |
m®te daþarathe vyaktam vilopa× tat anantaram || 2-48-26

26. raame=Rama; pravrajite= having gone to exile; mahiipatiH= the monarch; na jiivishhyati hi= will indeed not survive! mR^ite= After the death; dasharathe= of Dasaratha; vilaapaH= utter moaning sounds; tadanantaram= thereafter; vyaktam= It is certain.

“For, Rama having gone into exile, the monarch will not survive and when Dasaratha is dead, utter regrets will remain thereafter. It is certain!”

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te viÿam pibata ˜loýya kÿŸõa puõy˜× sudurgat˜× |
r˜ghavam v˜ anugaccadhvam aþrutim v˜ api gaccata || 2-48-27

27. te= you, as such; pibata= drink; vishham= poison; aaloDya= duly stirred up; kshhiiNa pu NyaaH= since your merits are exhausted; sudurgataaH= and you are marked out by ill fortune; anugachchhadhvam vaa= or follow; raamam= Rama (to the forest); gachchhati= or reach; ashrutim vaa= (the land where the name of Kaikeyi) may not reach your ears.”

“So, drink poison duly stirred up, since your merits are exhausted and you are marked out by ill fortune. Otherwise, follow Rama to forest or reach a place where even the name of Kaikeyi may not reach your ears.”

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mithy˜ pravr˜jita× r˜ma× sabh˜rya× saha lakÿmaõa× |
bharate samniÿ®ÿ÷˜× sma× saunike paþavo yath˜ || 2-48-28

28. raamaH= “Rama; pravraajitaH= has been sent to exile; sa siitaH= with Sita; saha lakshhmaNaH=and with Lakshmana; mithyaa= deceit fully; smaH= we have been;sannisR^ishhTaaH=handed over; bharata= to Bharata; sounike yathaa= like to a slaughterer; pashavaH= the beasts.”

“Rama has been sent to exile along with Sita and Lakshmana deceitfully. We have been handed over now to Bharata, like the beasts in the hands of a slaughterer.”

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p¨rõacandr˜nana× þy˜mo g¨ýhajatrurarindama× |
˜j˜nub˜hu× padm˜kÿo r˜mo lakÿmanap¨rvaja× || 2-48-29
p¨rv˜bhibh˜ÿŸ madhura× satyav˜dŸ mah˜bala× |
saumya× sarvasya lokasya candravatpriyadarþana× || 2-48-30
n¨nam puruÿaþ˜rd¨lo mattam˜taðgavikrama× |
þobhayuþyatyaraõy˜ni vicaran sa mah˜ratha× || 2-48-31

29,30,31. raamo=Rama; puurNa chandraananaH= whose face is like the full moon, shyaamo= dark brown of complexion; guuDha jatraH= whose collar bone is invisible (because it is covered with flesh) arindamaH= conquerer of his foes; aajaanubaahuH= whose arms descend to the knees; padmaakshho= whose eyes resemble lotuses; lakshhmaNa puurvajaH= the elder brother of Lakshmana; puurvaabhibhaashhii=who takes initiative in speaking; satyavaadii= speaking with candor; madhuvaH= and sweetness; mahaabalaH= very strong; soumyaH= benevolent; sarvasya lokasya= to all people; chandravat priyadarshanaH= charming sight as the moon; purusha shaarduulo= tiger among men; matta maataN^ga vikramaH= as mighty as an elephant in rut; sa mahaarathaH= that great car- warrior; nuunam =surely; shobhayishjyati= will adorn; araNyaani= the woods; vicharam= while roaming (through them).”

“Rama, whose face is like the full moon, of dark brown complexion, whose collar-bone is invisible (because of its being covered with flesh), a conqueror of foes, whose arms descend to his knees, whose eyes resemble lotuses, the elder brother of Lakshmana, who takes initiative in speaking and expresses with sweetness, truthful of speech and possessed of extra ordinary strength, is benevolent to all, delightfully charming as the moon, that tiger among men, as mighty as an elephant in rut, that great car-warrior, will surely adorn the woods, while roaming through them..”

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t˜stath˜ vilapantyastu nagare n˜garastriya× |
cukruþurdu×khasamtapt˜m®tyoriva bhay˜game || 2-48-32

32. taaH= those; naagara striiyaH=wives of citizens; nagare= in the city (of Ayodhya); vilapantyaH= lamenting; tathaa= in that manner; chukrushuH= cried; bhayaagame iva= as though fear has cropped up; mR^ityoH= for death.

Those wives of citizens in the city of Ayodhya, lamenting as aforesaid, began weeping, as though fear has cropped up for a forth-coming death.

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ityeva vilapantŸn˜m strŸõ˜m veþmasu r˜ghavam |
jag˜m˜stam dinakaro rajanŸ c˜bhyavartata || 2-48-33

33. dinakaraH=the sun; jagaama= sank; astam= below the horizon; rajaniicha= and the night; abhyavartata= fell; striiNaam=( while) the women; veshmasu= in the houses; vilapantiinaam= were weeping; ityevam= in the way; raaghavam= about Rama.

The sun sank below the horizon and the night fell, while the women in the houses were weeping in that manner about Rama.

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naÿ÷ajvalanasamp˜t˜ praþ˜nt˜dhy˜yasatkath˜ |
timireõ˜bhilipteva tad˜ s˜ nagarŸ babhau || 2-48-34

34. saa nagarii= That city of Ayodhya, nashhTa jvalana sampataa= in which kindling of fires had ceased; prashantaadhyaaya satkathaa= chanting of Vedas and narration of sacred stories died out; babhou= looked; abhilipteva= as though coated; timireNa= with darkness; tadaa= at this time.

The city of Ayodhya, in which the kindling of fires had ceased and the chanting of Vedas and narration of sacred stories died out, looked as though it was coated with darkness at that time.

Verse Locator

upaþ˜ntavaõikpaõy˜ naÿ÷aharÿ˜ nir˜þray˜ |
ayodhy˜ nagarŸ c˜sŸnnaÿ÷at˜ramiv˜mbaram || 2-48-35

35. ayodhyaa nagarii=The city of Ayodhya; upashaanta vaNikpaNyaa= in which the business of the trading class had come to a stand-still; nashhTa harshhaa= in which joy had faded out; niraashrayaa= which had become support less; aasiit= became; ambaramiva= like a sky; nashhTa taaram= in which the stars had disappeared.

The city of Ayodhya, in which the business of the trading class had come to a stand-still, in which joy had been faded out, which had become (now) support less, looked dim as though stars had disappeared in the sky.

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tath˜ striyo r˜ma nimittam ˜tur˜ |
yath˜ sute bhr˜tari v˜ viv˜site |
vilapya dŸn˜ rurudur vicetasa× |
sutai× hi t˜s˜m adhiko hi so abhavat || 2-48-36

36. striyaH= the women; vichetasaH= whose minds became sick; yathaa= as one would feel on; sute= (one’s own) son; bhraatarivaa=or brother; vivaasite= having been sent into exile; aaturaaH= cried; raama nimittam= on account of Rama; diinaH= miserably; vilapya= lamented; ruruduH=(and) wept. taasaam= To them; saH= that Rama; abhavat hi= indeed became; adhikaH= more than; sutaaH= their sons.

The women whose minds became sick on account of Rama, as one would feel on one’s own son or brother having been sent into exile, cried miserably expressing their grief in various ways. To them, Rama was dearer than their very sons!

Verse Locator

praþ˜ntagŸtotsava n®ttav˜dan˜ |
vyap˜staharÿ˜ pihit˜paõoday˜ |
tad˜ hyayodhy˜ nagarŸ babh¨va s˜ |
mah˜rõava× samkÿapitodako yath˜ ||2-48-37

37. saa=that;ayodhyaa nagari=city of Ayodhya; prasaanta giitotsava nR^tta vaadanaa= in which singing,rejoicing and instrumental music had been completely set at rest;ivyapaasta harshhaa= whose joy had departed; pihitaa pa Nodayaa= whose shops had been closed; tadaa= then; babhuuva= became; mahaarNavaH yathaa= like a great ocean; samkshhapitodakaH= whose waters had dried up.

That city of Ayodhya, in which singing, rejoicing, dancing and instrumental music had been completely set at rest, when jpy had departed forever and whose shops had been closed, looked at that time like a grat ocean whose waters had dried up.

 

iti v˜lmŸki r˜m˜yaõe ˜di k˜vye ayodhya k˜õýe aÿ÷acatv˜riÕþa× sarga×

Thus completes 48th chapter in the AyodhyaKanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.


Verse Locator for Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya : Chapter 48

 

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Sarga 48 in English Prose

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© Sept 2002, K. M. K. Murthy