Chapter [Sarga] 111

Introduction

Vashishta urges Rama to grant the prayer of Bharata. Rama replies that the command given by his father cannot be disregarded. Bharata then decides to undertake a fest unto death as a last resort to exert pressure on Rama. On Rama's dubbing such a step as repugnant to the code of conduct prescribed for a kshatriya, Bharata requests Rama to allow him to remain in the forest as the latter's proxy. Rama, however, rules out this proposition also, saying that it is a matter of reproach. He reaffirms his resolve to enter Ayodhya only after implementing the pledge given to his father.


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vasiÿ÷ha× tu tad˜ r˜mam uktv˜ r˜ja purohita× |
abravŸd dharma samyuktam punar eva aparam vaca× || 2-111-1

1. uktvaa= having spoken (thus); raamam= to Rama; vasiSThastu= Vasistha; raaja purohitaH= the royal priest; tadaa= then; punareva= again; abraviit= spoke; aparam vachaH= (the following) further words; dharmasamyuktam= which were righteous.

Having spoken thus to Rama, Vasishta the royal priest added the following righteous words:

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puruÿasya iha j˜tasya bhavanti gurava× traya× |
˜c˜rya× caiva k˜kutstha pit˜ m˜t˜ ca r˜ghava || 2-111-2

2. kaakutthsa= O, Rama!; raaghava= O, Raghava!; jaatasya= from birth; trayaH= three; guravaH= spiritual instructors; puruSasya= of a man; bhavanti= are; achaaryashchaiva= his teacher; pitaa= his father; maataacha= and his mother.

"O, Kakutstha, O offspring the Raghu dynasty! From birth, the three spiritual instructors of a man are his teacher, his father and his mother."

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pit˜ hy enam janayati puruÿam puruÿa ®ÿabha |
prajn˜m dad˜ti ca ˜c˜rya× tasm˜t sa gurur ucyate || 2-111-3

3. puruSarSabha= O, the excellent among men!; pitaa= the father; janayatihi enam puruSam= gives man his life; aachaaryaH= the teacher; dadaati= instructs (him); prajJNaam= in wisdom; tasmaat= and therefore; saH= the teacher; uchyate= is said to be; guruH= the superior.

"O, excellent among men! The father of man his life. The teacher instructs him in wisdom and therefore instructs the teacher is said to be the superior!"

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se te aham pitur ˜c˜rya× tava caiva param tapa |
mama tvam vacanam kurvan na ativarte× sat˜m gatim || 2-111-4

4. paramtapa= O, Rama, the tormentator of enemies!; saH aham= that I; aachaaryaH= am the spiritual preceptor; te pituH= to your father; tavachaiva= and to you too; kurvam= In obeying; mama= my vachanam= words; tvam= you; naativartate= will not transgress; niitim= the path; sataam= of the virtuous.

"O, Rama the tormentator of the enemies! I am the spiritual Preceptor to your father and to you too. In obeying my words, you will not transgress the path of the virtuous."

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im˜ hi te pariÿada× þreõaya× ca sam˜gat˜× |
eÿu t˜ta caran dharmam na ativarte× sat˜m gatim || 2-111-5

5. taata= O, dear prince!; imaaH= these; pariSadaH= subjects; shreNayashcha= the traders and other categories of people; tathaa= and; dvijaaH= Brahmanas; te hi= are your people only; eSu= in their case; charan= while practising; dharmam= righteousness; naativartate= you will not transgress; gatim= the path; sataam= of the righteous.

"O, dear prince! These subjects, the traders, the other categories of people and Brahmana are your people only. In fulfilling your duty to them, you will not be transgressing your righteous path."

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v®ddh˜y˜ dharma þŸl˜y˜ m˜tur na arhasy avartitum |
asy˜× tu vacanam kurvan na ativarte× sat˜m gatim || 2-111-6

6. naarhasi= you ought not; avartitum= to be lacking in reverence; maatuH= to your mother; vR^iddhayaa= who is aged; dharma shiilayaaH= and of noble conduct; kurvan= by carrying out; asyaaH= her; vachanam= words; naati vartate= you will not deviate; gatim= from the path; sataam= of the virtuous.

"You ought not to be lacking in reverence to your mother who is aged and possessing a noble conduct. By carrying out her words, you will not deviate from the path of the virtuous."

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bharatasya vaca× kurvan y˜cam˜nasya r˜ghava |
˜tm˜nam na ativarte× tvam satya dharma par˜krama || 2-111-7

7. raaghava= O, Rama; satyadharmaparaakramaH= excelling in truth and virtue!; kurvan= by fulfilling; vachaH= the words; bharatasya= of Bharata; yaachamaanasya= who is beseeching (you); tvam= you; naativartate= will not be false; aatmaanam= to yourself.

"O, Rama excelling in truth and virtue. By fulfilling the words of the beseeching Bharata, you will not be false to yourself."

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evam madhuram ukta× tu guruõ˜ r˜ghava× svayam |
pratyuv˜ca sam˜sŸnam vasiÿ÷ham puruÿa ®ÿabha× || 2-111-8

8. uktassam= having been spoken; madhuram= sweet words; guruNaa= by his spiritual preceptor; svayam= himself; evam= thus; raaghavaH= Rama; puruSarSabhaH= the excellent among men; pratyuvaacha= replied; vasiSTham= to Vasishta; samaasiinam= who was seated there

Having heard the sweet words spoken by his spiritual preceptro himself, Rama the excellent among men replied (as follows) to Vasishta who was seated there.

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yan m˜t˜pitarau v®ttam tanaye kuruta× sad˜ |
na supratikaram tat tu m˜tr˜ pitr˜ ca yat k®tam || 2-111-9
yath˜ þakti prad˜nena sn˜pan˜c c˜danena ca |
nityam ca priya v˜dena tath˜ samvardhanena ca || 2-111-10

9, 10. vR^ittam= the good; yat= which; maataapitrau= a father and mother; kurutaH= do; yathaashakti pradaanena= by giving him whatever they can; sadaa= forever; tanaye= to their son; svaapanochchhaadanena cha= by putting him to sleep, rubbing his body with oil etc; priya vaaden= by speaking kindly to him; nityamcha= every moment; tathaa= and; samvardhanena= even by nourishing him; yat= and whatever; kR^itam= is done; maatraa= by a mother; pitraacha= and father; tat tu= that however; na suprati karam= cannot be requited.

"The good, which a father and mother do, by giving whatever they can, to their son constantly, by putting him to sleep, rubbing his body with oil etc, nay, by speaking kindly to him every moment, and even by nourishing him, can never be wholly requited."

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sa hi r˜j˜ janayit˜ pit˜ daþaratho mama |
˜jn˜tam yan may˜ tasya na tan mithy˜ bhaviÿyati || 2-111-11

11. mam= my; pitaa= father; saH= that; raajaa dasharathaH= king Dasaratha; janayitaa hi= indeed begot me; yat= that whihc; ajJNaatam= was promised; mayaa= by me; tasya= to him; tat= that; na bhaviSyati= will not become; mithyaa= false.

"The command laid upon me by king Dasaratha, my father, who begot me, cannot therefore be disregarded."

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evam ukta× tu r˜meõa bharata× pratyanantaram |
uv˜ca parama ud˜ra× s¨tam parama durman˜× || 2-111-12

12. evam= thus; uktaH= spoken; raameNa= by Rama; bharataH= Bharata; paramodaaraH= the highly generous man; parama durmanaaH= was very much anguished; uvaacha= and spoke; suutam= to Sumantra the charioteer; pratyanantaram= who was standing nearby.

Hearing Rama's words, the most generous Bharata felt very mcuh anguished and addressed the following words to Sumantra the charioteer who was standing nearby:

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iha me sthaõýile þŸghram kuþ˜n ˜stara s˜rathe |
˜ryam pratyupavekÿy˜mi y˜van me na prasŸdati || 2-111-13

13. saarathe= O, charioteer!; aastara= spread; kushaan= the Kusha grass; shiigram= soon; sthaN^Dile= on the ground; iha= here; me= for me; pratyupavekSyaami= I shall remain facing; aaryam= my illustrious brother; yaavat= till; na prasiidati me= he does not get me propitiated.

"O, charioteer! Spread speedily the Kusha grass on the ground here for me. I shall remain facing my illustrious brother till he gets propitiated (and grant my request)."

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an˜h˜ro nir˜loko dhana hŸno yath˜ dvija× |
þeÿye purast˜t þ˜l˜y˜ y˜van na pratiy˜syati || 2-111-14

14. sheSye= I shall remain lying down; purastaat= in front; shaalaayaaH= of Rama's hut; anaahaaraH= withou food or drink; niraalokaH= and depriving myself of light; yaavat= until; na pratiyaasyati= he does not return to Ayodhya; dvijaH yathaa= like a brahmana; dhana hiinaH= who is destitute (likes down at the door of his creditor).

"I shall remain lying down in front of Rama's hut without food or drink and depriving myself of light until he returns to Ayodhya, like a brahman who is a destitute (lies down at the door of his crditor)."

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sa tu r˜mam avekÿantam sumantram prekÿya durman˜× |
kuþa uttaram upasth˜pya bh¨m˜u eva ˜starat svayam || 2-111-15

15. prekSya= seeing; sumantram= Sumantra; avekSantam= who was gazing at; raamam= RAma; (for his command); sa tu= that Bharata; durmanaaH= with low spirits; svayameva= on his own; upasthaapya= brought; kushottaram= a heap of Kusha grass; aastarat= and spread it; bhuumau= on the floor.

Seeing Sumantra who was gazing at Rama waiting for his command, the low-spirited Bharata, on his own, brought a heap of Kusha grass and spread it on the floor.

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tam uv˜ca mah˜ tej˜ r˜mo r˜ja ®ÿi sattam˜× |
kim m˜m bharata kurv˜õam t˜ta pratyupavekÿyasi || 2-111-16

16. raamaH= Rama; mahaatejaaH= of great splendour; raajarSi sattamaH= and the excellent among royal sages; uvaacha= spoke; tam= to him (as follows); bharata= O, Bharata; taataH= my dear brother!; kim kurvaaNam taataH= what wrong have I done; pratyupavakSyasi= that you lie=down; maam= before me?

Rama of great splendour and the best among royal sages spoke to Bharata as follows: "O Bharata my dear brother! What wrong have I done that you lie down before me?"

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br˜hmaõo hy eka p˜rþvena nar˜n roddhum iha arhati |
na tu m¨rdh˜ avasikt˜n˜m vidhi× pratyupaveþane || 2-111-17

17. braahmaNaH= A brahman; arhati hi= can indeed; ekapaarshvena= lie down on one; roddhum= in order to obstruct; naraan= men; iha= in this world; na= there is no; vidhiH= rule; muurdhaabhiSiktaanaam tu= for a warrior-class; pratyupaveshane= to lie down, obstructing men.

"A brahmana may lie down on one side in order to obstruct a willful debtor in this world. But, it is not befitting for a warrior-class.

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uttiÿ÷ha nara þ˜rd¨la hitv˜ etad d˜ruõam vratam |
pura vary˜m ita× kÿipram ayodhy˜m y˜hi r˜ghava || 2-111-18

18. raaghava= O, Bharata; narashaarduulaH= Tiger among men!; hitvaa= giving up; etat= this; daaruNam= formidable; vratam= resolve; uttiSTha= rise up; yaahi= proceed; kSipram= speedily; ayodhyaam= to Ayodhya; puravaryaam= the excellent of cities; itaH= from here.

"O Bharata, Tiger among men! Giving up this formidable resolve, rise up proceed speedily to Ayodhya the best of cities, from here."

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˜sŸna× tu eva bharata× paura j˜napadam janam |
uv˜ca sarvata× prekÿya kim ˜ryam na anuþ˜satha || 2-111-19

19. aasiinastveva= still sitting like that; bharataH= Bharata; prekSya= looking at; janam= the people; paura jaanapadam= the citizens and the rural folk; sarvataH= on all sides; uvaacha= and asked; kim= why; naanushaasatha= they are not entreating; aaryam= his venerable brother (to return)

Still sitting in the same posture, Bharata looked at the citizens and rural folk around on all sides and asked them why they were not entreating his venerable brother to return.

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te tam ¨cur mah˜tm˜nam paura j˜napad˜ jan˜× |
k˜kutstham abhij˜nŸma× samyag vadati r˜ghava× || 2-111-20

20. te jaanaaaH= tose people; paurajaanapadaaH= the inhabitants of town and country; uuchuH= replied; mahaatmaanam= to high souled; tam= Bharata (as follows); abhijaaniiya= we know well; kaakutthasam= Rama; raaghavaH= Rama; vadati= is speaking; samyak= rightly.

Those people, the inhabitants of town and country replied to the magnanimous Bharata as follows: "We know Rama very well. He is speaking rightly."

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eÿo api hi mah˜ bh˜ga× pitur vacasi tiÿ÷hati |
ata eva na þakt˜× smo vy˜vartayitum anjas˜ || 2-111-21

21. eSaH= this; mahaabhaagaH= Rama of exalted merit; tiSThati hi= is indeed standing; pituH= on his father's; vachasi= words; ata eva= for that reason; na smaH= we are not; shaktaaH= able; vyaavartayitum= to make him return; aJNjasaa= indeed.

"This Rama of exalted merit is indeed standing on his father's words. Hence, we are not able to convince him to return to Ayodhya."

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teÿ˜m ˜jn˜ya vacanam r˜mo vacanam abravŸt |
evam nibodha vacanam suh®d˜m dharma cakÿuÿ˜m || 2-111-22

22. aajJNaaya= understanding; teSaam= their; vachanam= words; raamaH= Rama; abraviit= spoke; (as follows); nibodha= reflect on; vachanam= the words; suhR^idaam= of your friends; dharma chakSuSaam= who see rightly; evam= thus.

Hearing their words, Rama said to Bharata: "Reflect on the words of your companions, who see rightly."

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etac ca eva ubhayam þrutv˜ samyak sampaþya r˜ghava |
uttiÿ÷ha tvam mah˜ b˜ho m˜m ca sp®þa tath˜ udakam || 2-111-23

23. mahaabaaho= O, the mighty armed; raaghava= Bharata!; shrutvaa= hearing; etat= these; ubhayam chaiva= two (my words and their words); sampashya= and reflecting on them; samyak= well; tvam= you; uttiSTha= rise up; spR^iha= and touch; maamcha= me; tathaa= and udakam= (drink) water.

"O the mighty armed Bharata! Having listened to their testimony and mine, reflect on the matter carefull. Rise and touch me and drink water."

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atha utth˜ya jalam sp®ÿ÷v˜ bharato v˜kyam abravŸt |
þ®õvantu me pariÿado mantriõa× þreõaya× tath˜ || 2-111-24

24. atha= thereafter; bharataH= Bharata; utthaaya= rose; spR^iSTvaa= touched; jalam= water; abraviit= and spoke; vaakyam= (the following) words; pariSadaH= (Let) the audience; mantriNaH= ministers; tathaa= and; shrNayaH= the guild of traders; shruNvantu= hear; me= me.

Thereafter, Bharata rose, touched water and spoke as follows: "Let the audience, including ministers and the guild of traders hear me also."

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na y˜ce pitaram r˜jyam na anuþ˜s˜mi m˜taram |
˜ryam parama dharmajnam abhij˜n˜mi r˜ghavam || 2-111-25

25. na yaache= I never asked; pitaram= my father; raajyam= for the kingdom; naanushaasaami= nor did I counsel; maataram= my mother (to enthrone me); naanujaanaami= I never gave my approval; (for the exile of ); raaghavam of Rama; aaryam= the venerable man; paramadharmajJNam= who knows his duty very well.

"I never asked my father for the kingdom, nor did I counsel my mother to enthrone me. I never gave my approval for the exile of Rama, the venerable hero, who knows his duty very well."

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yadi tu avaþyam vastavyam kartavyam ca pitur vaca× |
aham eva nivatsy˜mi caturdaþa vane sam˜× || 2-111-26

26. avashyam yadi= If it is absolutely essential; vastavyam= (that one of us_ should remain here; vachaH= and the command (of our father); kartavyamcha= be executed; ahameva= (then) it is I; nivatsyaami= who will live; vane= in the forest; chaturdasha samaaH= for fourteen years.

"If it is absolutely essential that one of us should remain here and the command of our father be executed, then it is I who will reside in the forest for fourteen years."

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dharma ˜tm˜ tasya tathyena bhr˜tur v˜kyena vismita× |
uv˜ca r˜ma× samprekÿya paura j˜napadam janam || 2-111-27

27. dharmaatmaa= The high souled; raamaH= Rama; vismitaH= was surprised; tathyena vaakyena= by sincere words; tasya= of that; bhraatuH= brother; samprekSya= and by looking at; paurajaanapadam= the inhabitants of town and country; vuaacha= spoke (as follows)

The high-souled Rama was surprised by the sincere words of his brother and by looking at the inhabitants of town and country, spoke (as follows):

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vikrŸtam ˜hitam krŸtam yat pitr˜ jŸvat˜ mama |
na tal lopayitum þakyam may˜ v˜ bharatena v˜ || 2-111-28

28. vikriitam= the disposal; aahitam= the pledge; kriitam= and the come by; yat= which; (were given); pitraa= by my father; jiivataa= while he was alive; tat= that; na shakyam= cannot be; lopayitum= broken; mayaa vaa= either by me; bharatena vaa= or by Bharata.

"The disposal, the pledge and the come-by which he was alive, cannot be broken either by me or by Bharata."

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upadhir na may˜ k˜ryo vana v˜se jugupsita× |
yuktam uktam ca kaikeyy˜ pitr˜ me suk®tam k®tam || 2-111-29

29. upadhiH= my consent to the substitute; vanavase= in respect of the sojourn in the forest; na kaaryaH= cannot be done; mayaa= by me; jugupsitaH= which is a distasteful thing; uktam= what was advised; kaikeyyaa= by Kaikeyi; yuktam= was property; kR^itam= and what was done; me pitraa= by me father; sukrutam= was a righteous deed.

"I cannot accede to the substitute in respect of the sojourn in the forest and it is distasteful thing. What was advised by Kaikeyi was proper and what was done by my father was a righteous deed."

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j˜n˜mi bharatam kÿ˜ntam guru satk˜ra k˜riõam |
sarvam eva atra kaly˜õam satya samdhe mah˜tmani || 2-111-30

30. jaanaami= I am aware; (that) bharatam= Bharata; kSaantam= has patience; gurusatkaara kaaraNam= and devotion for the elders; sarvameva= all will be kalyaaNam= propitious; atra= in the case of this Bharata; satya sandhe= who is true to his promise; mahaatmani= and magnanimous.

"I am aware that Bharata has necessary patience and due devotion for the elders. All will be propitious in the case of this magnanimous Bharata, who is true to his promise."

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anena dharma þŸlena van˜t praty˜gata× puna× |
bhr˜tr˜ saha bhaviÿy˜mi p®thivy˜× patir uttama× || 2-111-31

31. pratyaagataH= after returning; punaH= again; vaanaat= from the forest; bhaviSyaami= I shall become; uttamaH= an excellent; patiH= king; pR^ithivyaah= of the earth; anena bhraatrena saha= along with my brother; dharmashiilena= who is of virtuous nature.

"After returning from the forest, I shall rule the earth, assisted by my virtuous brother."

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v®to r˜j˜ hi kaikeyy˜ may˜ tad vacanam k®tam |
an®t˜n mocaya anena pitaram tam mahŸ patim || 2-111-32

32. raajaa= the king Dasaratha; vR^ito hi= was indeed prevailed upon; kaikeyyaa= by Kaikeyi; tadvachanam= that promise; kR^itam= was fulfilled; mayaa= by me; anena= for this reason; mochaya= relieve; mahiipatim= the emperor; tam pitaram= and that father; anR^itaat= from blame.

"The king Dasaratha was indeed solicited for a boon by Kaikeyi. That word of the king has been fulfilled by me. Hence, relieve our father, the emperor from the blame."

 

ity˜rÿe þrŸmadr˜m˜yaõe ˜dik˜vye ayodhy˜k˜õýe ek˜daþottaraþatatama×
sarga×

Thus completes 111th Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.


Verse Locator for Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya : Chapter 111

 

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© August 2005, K. M. K. Murthy