Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya
Bharata requests Rama, giving various reasons, to accept the throne of Ayodhya. He abuses his deceased father for having transgressed the righteousness merely for a fear of wrath from Kaikeyi and requests Rama to reverse that transgression of righteousness. Bharata takes a vow not to return to Ayodhya but to continue to stay in the forest in case Rama did not heed to his request. Rama's mothers also join Bharata and urge Rama to grant his request, when they find Rama lukewarm in the matter and insistent on implementing the words of his deceased father.
evam uktvaa tu virate raame vacanam arthavat |
tato mandaakiniitiire raamam prakR^itivatsalam || 2-106-1
uvaaca bharataH citram dhaarmiko dhaarmikam vacaH |
1. raame= Rama; virate= having kept silent; evam= thus; uktvaa= (after) uttering; arthavat= (those) meaningful; vachanam= words; bharataH= Bharata; dhaarmikaH= the pious man; tataH= then; uvaacha= spoke; vachaH= (the following) words; dhaarmikam= conformable to justice; chitram= and wonderful; raamam= to Rama; prakR^itivatsalam= who was affectionate by nature; dhaarmikam= and virtuous; mandaakiniitiire= at the banks of that River Mandakini.
When Rama thus kept silent after uttering those meaningful words as aforesaid, the pious Bharata for his part addressed to virtuous Rama who was fond of people conformable to justice at the banks of that River Mandakini.
ko hi syaad iidR^isho loke yaadR^ishaH tvam arim dama || 2-106-2
na tvaam pravyathayed duhkham priitir vaa na praharShayet |
sammataH ca asi vR^iddhaanaam taamH ca pR^igcCasi samshayaan || 2-106-3
2, 3. arindama= O, annihilator of enemies!; duHkham= sorrow; na pravyathayet= does not disturb; tvaam= you; na vaa priitiH= nor pleasure; praharSayet= enraptures (you); kohi= who; syaat= is there; yaadR^ishaH= anybody whatsoever; loke= in this world; iidR^ishaH= endowed with such qualities like; tvam= you? sammataH asi= you are highly honoured by; vR^iddhaanaam= elders; pR^ichchhasi= you ask; taamshcha= them; samshayaan= you doubts;
"Who, in this world, is endowed with such qualities like you, O annihilator of enemies! Neither does sorrow disturb you nor does joy enrapture you. You are highly honoured by elders and you clarify your doubts from them.
yathaa mR^itaH tathaa jiivan yathaa asati tathaa sati |
yasya eSha budhdi laabhaH syaat paritapyeta kena saH || 2-106-4
4. kena= by what; saH paritapyeta= should he be moved; yasya= for whom; eSaH= this; buddhilaabhaH= benefit of intellect; syaat= is there; (who looks); mR^itah= the dead; jiivan= and the living; yathaa tathaa= in the same way; asati= the misfortune; sati= and the prosperity; yathaa tathaa= in the same way.
"By what should he be moved, who looks on life and death, misfortune or prosperity with an equal eye?"
paraavarajJNo yashcha syaat yathaa tvaM manujaadhipa |
sa evam vyasanam praapya na viShiiditum arhati || 2-106-5
5. manujaadhipa= O, king!; yaH= he who; paraavarajJNo= knows the totality of time; tvam yathaa= as you do; saH= such a man; na arhati= ought not; viSiiditum= to feel despndent; praapya= (even) on meeting; enam= this vyasanam= adversity.
"O, King! He who knows the totality of time as you do, ought not to feel despondent even on meeting with adversity."
amara upama sattvaH tvam mahaatmaa satya samgaraH |
sarvajnaH sarva darshii ca buddhimaamH ca asi raaghava || 2-106-6
6. mahaatmaa= O, the magnaimous; raaghava= Rama!; tvam= you; asi= are amaropama settvaH= equally strong as celestials; satyasangaraH= true to your promise; sarvajJNaH= all knowing; sarvadarshiicha= all-viewing; buddhimaamshcha= and endowed with understanding.
"O, the magnanimous Rama! you are equally strong as celestials. You are true to your promise, all-knowing, all-viewing and endowed with understanding."
na tvaam evam guNair yuktam prabhava abhava kovidam |
aviShahyatamam duhkham aasaadayitum arhati || 2-106-7
7. aviSahyatamam= the most fearful; duHkham= calamity; naarhati= ought not; aasaadayitum= to overcome; tvaam= you; yuktam= with evam guNaiH= such; attributes; prabhavaabhava kovidam= and recognizing the birth and end of all things.
"Even the most fearful calamity ought not to attack you, endowed as you are, with such attributes; and recognising the birth and end of all beings."
proShite mayi yat paapam maatraa mat kaaraNaat kR^itam |
kShudrayaa tad aniShTam me prasiidatu bhavaan mama || 2-106-8
8. yat= paapam= which sinful deed; kR^itam= was committed; kSudrayaa maataa= by my mean mother; matkaaraNaat= for my sake; mayi proSite= during my absence; tat= that; aniSTam= was not to the liking; me= of me; bhavaan prasiidatu= be gracious; mama= to me.
"The sinful deed, committed by my mean mother for my sake during my absence, was not to my liking. (Hence) be gracious to me."
dharma bandhena baddho asmi tena imaam na iha maataram |
hanmi tiivreNa daNDena daNDa arhaam paapa kaariNiim || 2-106-9
9. baddhaH asmi= I am bound; dharmabandhena= by the chains of morality; tena= for that reason; na hanmi= I do not kill; tiivreNa= with a severe; daNDena= punishment; imaam maataram= this mother; daN^Daarham= worthy of retribution; iha= now; paapakaariNiim= and who was perverse conduct.
"I am bound by the chanins of morality. For that reason, I do not kill iwth a severe punishment, my mother who was of perverse conduct and worthy of retribution."
katham dasharathaaj jaataH shuddha abhijana karmaNaH |
jaanan dharmam adharmiShTham kuryaam karma jugupsitam || 2-106-10
10. dasharathaajjaataH= born of Dasaratha; shuddhaabhijanakarmaNaH= of noble birth and deeds; jaanan= and conversant; dharmam= of right; adharmiSTham= and wrong; (can I); kuryaam= do; jugupsitam= a horrible; karma= deed; aadharmiSTham= the most wicked one?
"How can I, born of Dasaratha of noble birth and deeds and conversant of right and wrong, do the most wicked and horrible act?"
guruH kriyaavaan vR^iddhaH ca raajaa pretaH pitaa iti ca |
taatam na parigarheyam daivatam ca iti samsadi || 2-106-11
11. raajaa= the king Dasaratha; guruH= was my preceptor; kriyaavaan= had (several) sacrificial performances to his credit; vR^iddhashcha= aged man; pitaa= my father; daivatamcheti= and equal to a celestial; pretaH= and is dead (now); iti cha= for this reason; na parigarheyam= I do not abuse; taatam= my father; samsadi= in an assembly.
"The King Dasaratha was my preceptor, had several sacrificial performances to his credit was aged, was my father, equal to a deity and is now dead. Hence, I cannot reproach him in an open assembly."
ko hi dharma arthayor hiinam iidR^isham karma kilbiSham |
striyaaH priya cikiirShuH san kuryaad dharmajna dharmavit || 2-106-12
12. dharmajJNa= O, Rama the knower of piety!; kohi= who; dharmavit= a knower of righteousness; kuryaat= would commit; iidR^isham= such; karma= and act; hiinam= bereft; dharmaarthayoH= of duty and one's interest; kulbiSam= and improper; priyam chikiirSaH san= in order to please; striyaaH= a woman?
"O Rama the knower of piety! What man who knows the principles of righteousness, would commit such an improper act, bereft of one's interest and duty, in order just to please a woman?"
anta kaale hi bhuutaani muhyanti iti puraa shrutiH |
raajnaa evam kurvataa loke pratyakShaa saa shrutiH kR^itaa || 2-106-13
13. puraashrutiH= there is an ancient saying; iti= that; antakaale= at the time of death; bhuutaani= beings; muhyanti= lose their judgment; kurvataa= by acting; evam= in this manner; raajNaa= by the king; saa shrutiH= that saying; kR^itaa= is made; pratyakSaa= real; loke= (in the eyes) of the world.
"There is an ancient saying that at the time of death, beings lose their judgment. The king, acting as he did, has made this saying indeed true in the eyes of the world."
saadhu artham abhisamdhaaya krodhaan mohaac ca saahasaat |
taatasya yad atikraantam pratyaaharatu tad bhavaan || 2-106-14
14. atikraantam= this transgression (of righteousness); yat= which was done; taatasya= by our father; krodhaat= because of anger; mohaat= or infatuation; saahasaat= or over-haste; bhavaan= you; abhisandhaaya= keep in view; saadhu= the noble; artham= purpose; pratyaaharatu= and reverse; tat= that transgression.
"This transgression of righteousness was done by our father for fear of anger (of kaikeyi) or through infatuation and over-haste. You do keep in view a noble purpose and reverse that transgression."
pitur hi samatikraantam putro yaH saadhu manyate |
tad apatyam matam loke vipariitam ato anyathaa || 2-106-15
15. yaH putraH= which son; manyate= honours; saadhu= a good; samtikraantam= deviation; pituH= of a father; tat= that son alone; matam= is accepted; apatyam= as a son; loke= in this world; anyathaa= (He who acts) otherwise; ataH= than this; vipariitam= is quite reverse.
"A son who honours only a good deviation (from righteousness) of a father is accepted as a real son in this world. He who acts otherwise than this would be facing a quite reverse situation."
tad apatyam bhavaan astu maa bhavaan duShkR^itam pituH |
abhipat tat kR^itam karma loke dhiira vigarhitam || 2-106-16
16. bhavaan= you; astu= be; tat= that; apatyam= son; bhavaan= you; maastu= do not; abhipattaa= lend yourself; duSkR^itam= to the infamous; karma= act; kR^itam= committed; pituH= by our father; loke= (which) in this world; dhiiravigarhita= confident men freely condemn.
"You be that real son. Do not lend yourself to the infamous act, committed by our father, which in this world, confident men freely condemn."
kaikeyiim maam ca taatam ca suhR^ido baandhavaamH ca naH |
paura jaanapadaan sarvaamH traatu sarvam idam bhavaan || 2-106-17
17. bhavaan= you; traatu= save; kaikeyiim= Kaikeyi; maamcha= and me; taatamcha= our father; naH= our; suhR^idaH= friends; baandhavaamshcha= our relatives; sarvaan= all; paurajaanapadaan= the urbanites and the villagers; sarvam= and the entire; idam= this kingdom.
"Save Kaikeyi and me, our father, our friends, our relatives, all the urbanites and the villagers as well as the entire kingdom."
kva ca araNyam kva ca kShaatram kva jaTaaH kva ca paalanam |
iidR^isham vyaahatam karma na bhavaan kartum arhati || 2-106-18
18. kva= where is; araNyamcha= the forest and; kva= where is; kSaatram cha= the princely dignity?; kva= where is jaTaaH= the matted hair; kva= where is paalanamcha= the protection of a kingdom? bhavaan= you; na arhati= ought not; kartum= to do; iidR^isham= such; vyaahatam= a contradictory; karma= act.
"Where is the forest and where is the princely dignity? Where is the matted hair and where is the protection of a kingdom? You ought not to do such a contradictory act."
eSa hi prathamo dharmaH kSatriyasyaabhiSechanam |
yena shakyam mahaapraajJN prajaanaaM paripaalanam 2-106-19
19. mahaapraaajJNu= O, the highly enlightened hero!; eSaH hi= this indeed is; prathamaH= the first; dharmaH= duty; kSatriyasya= of a warrior; abhiSechanam= is to be crowned; yeSaH= by which; eSaH paripaalanam= this protection; prajaanaam= of the subjects; shakyam= is possible.
"O, the highly enlightened hero! The first duty of a warrior is indeed to get crowned, so that he may then protect his subjects."
kashcha pratyakSamutsR^ijya saMshayasthamalakSaNam |
aayatisthaM chareddharmam kSatrabandhuranishchitam 2-106-20
20. kaH= which; kSatra bandhuH= man of warrior-caste; utsR^ijya= setting aside; pratyakSam= his manifest duty; samshayastham= that is doubtful; alakSaNam= which does not promise happiness; aayatistham= which has a mental restraint; anishchitam= and which is uncertain?
"Which man of warrior-caste would set aside his manifest duty and prctise a virtue that gives doubtful result, which does not promise happiness, which has a mental restraint and which is uncertain?"
atha kleshajam eva tvam dharmam caritum igcCasi |
dharmeNa caturo varNaan paalayan klesham aapnuhi || 2-106-21
21.atha= or; tvam ichchhasi yadi= if you desire; charitum= to fulfil; dharmameva= the duty alone; kleshajam= (even though) born of pain; aapnuhi= take; klesham= pain; paalayan= in protecting; chaturaH= the four; varNaan= castes; dhameNa= as per tradition.
"If you desire to pursue a virtue alone; although born of pain, then take pains while protecting the four castes as per tradition, by recourse to righteousness."
caturNaam aashramaaNaam hi gaarhasthyam shreShTham aashramam |
paahur dharmajna dharmajnaaH tam katham tyaktum arhasi || 2-106-22
22. dharmajJNa= O, Rama the knower of righteousness!; dharmajJNaaH= the knower of what is right; praahuH hi= tell indeed (that); gaarhasthyam= the life of a house- holder; shreSTham= is the noblest; chaturNaam= of the four; aashramaaNaam= stages of life; katham= how; arhasi= can you; tyaktum= leave; tam= it?
"O, Rama the knower of righteousness! The knower of what is right indeed tell that the life of a house-holder is the noblest of all the four* stages of life. How can you abandon it?"
*Four Stages of life Brahmacherya (student-life); Garhasthya (life of a house-holder); Vanaprastha (life of a hermit); Sannyaasa (Life of an ascetic).
shrutena baalaH sthaanena janmanaa bhavato hy aham |
sa katham paalayiShyaami bhuumim bhavati tiShThati || 2-106-23
23. aham= I; baalaH hi= am indeed younger; bhavataH= than you; shrutena= in learning; sthaanena= Situation; janmanaa= and by birth; katham= how; saH paalayiSyaami= should I that very person rule; bhuumim= the earth; bhavati= (while) you; tiSThati= are still living.
"I am indeed junior to you in the point of learning, situation and by birth. How should I rule the earth, while still you are living?"
hiina buddhi guNo baalo hiinaH sthaanena ca apy aham |
bhavataa ca vinaa bhuuto na vartayitum utsahe || 2-106-24
24. aham= I; baalaH= a mere child; hiina buddhiguNaH= who am devoid of intelligence and virtuers hiinaH api= and even in an inferior; sthaanena cha= position; na utsahe= would not be able; vartayitum= to exist; vinaabhuutaH= without; bhavataa= you.
"I, a mere child, who am devoted of intelligence and virtues besides placed in an inferior position, cannot even live without you."
idam nikhilam avyagram pitryam raajyam akaNTakam |
anushaadhi svadharmeNa dharmajna saha baandhavaiH || 2-106-25
25. dharmaJNa= O, Rama the knower of righteousness!; anushaadhi= rule; idam- this; nikhilam= entire; raajyam= kingdom; pitrayam= belonging to your father; avagryam= without any distraction; akaN^Takam= without hindrance; svadharmeNa= according to the code of conduct prescribed for you; baandhavaiH saha= along with your relatives.
"O, Rama the knower of righteousness! Rule this entire kingdom belonging to your father, without distraction, without hindrance and as per the conduct prescribed for you along with your relatives."
iha eva tvaa abhiShincantu dharmajna saha baandhavaiH |
R^itvijaH savasiShThaaH ca mantravan mantra kovidaaH || 2-106-26
26. sarvaaH= (Let) all; prakR^itayaH= the Kings's ministers; savasiSThaaH= along with Vasishta; saha= with; R^itvijashcha= the priests; mantrakovidaaH= well-versed in sacred formulas; ihaiva= here itself; abhiSiN^chastu= crown; tvaa= you; mantravat= the knower of sacred texts.
"Let all the king's ministers along with Vasishta and other priests well-versed in sacred formulas, crown you, the knower of sacred texts, here itself."
abhiShiktaH tvam asmaabhir ayodhyaam paalane vraja |
vijitya tarasaa lokaan marudbhir iva vaasavaH || 2-106-27
27. tvam= you; abhiSiktaH= having been crowned; vraja= proceed; ayodhyaam= to Ayodhya; asmaabhiH= along with us; paalane= to rule it; vaasavaH iva= like Indra the Lord of celestials; vijitya= having conquered; lokaan= the worlds; tarasaa= by his night; marudbhirava= along with celestials.
"You, having been crowned thus, may proceed to Ayodhya along with us to rule it, like Indra the Lord of celestials, having conquered all the worlds with his might, proceeds to his kingdom along with celestials."
R^iNaani triiNy apaakurvan durhR^idaH saadhu nirdahan |
suhR^idaH tarpayan kaamaiH tvam eva atra anushaadhi maam || 2-106-28
28. apaakurvan= you shall discharge; triiNi= the three; R^iNaani= obligations; nirdahan= subdue; saadhu= well; durhR^idaH= the enemies; tarpayan= gratify; kaamaiH= the wishes; suhR^idaH= of your friends; tvameva= and you alone; anushaadhi= rule; maam= me; atra= in Ayodhya.
"You shall discharge the three obligations subdue all the enemies, gratify the wishes of all your friends and you alone rule me in Ayodhya."
Three obligations to the Gods, the Ancestors and Brahmins.
adya aarya muditaaH santu suhR^idaH te abhiShecane |
adya bhiitaaH paalayantaam durhR^idaH te disho dasha || 2-106-29
29. aarya= O noble brother!; te= (May) your; suhR^idaH= friends; santu= be; muditaaH= rejoiced; adya= today; abhiSechane= at your enthronement; te durhR^idaH= (May) your enemies; bhiitaaH= full of terror; palaayantaam= flee; dasha dishaH= to ten quarters; adya= today.
"O, noble brother! May your friends rejoice today at your enthronement. May your enemies, full of terror, flee today to the ten quarters."
aakrosham mama maatuH ca pramR^ijya puruSha R^iShabha |
adya tatra bhavantam ca pitaram rakSha kilbiShaat || 2-106-30
30. puruSarSabha= O, excellent among men!; pramR^ijya= wipe off; mama= my; maatuH= mother's; aakrosham= curse; adya= today; rakSa= and protect; tatrabhavantam= our venerable; pitaramcha= father; klbiSaat= from his sin.
"O, excellent among men! Wipe off my mother's curse today and protect our venerable father from his sin."
shirasaa tvaa abhiyaace aham kuruShva karuNaam mayi |
baandhaveShu ca sarveShu bhuuteShu iva mahaa iishvaraH || 2-106-31
31. aham= I; abhiyaache= request; tvaa= you; shirasaa= (by bowing) my head; kuruSva= show; karuNaam= compassion; mayi= me; sarveSu= all; baandhaveSu= our relatives; maheshvaraH iva= as Lord shiva ( the supreme Deity); bhuuteSu= on all beings.
"I request you by bowing my head before you. Show compassion on me and on all our relatives as Lord Shiva ( the Supreme Deity) on all beings."
atha vaa pR^iShThataH kR^itvaa vanam eva bhavaan itaH |
gamiShyati gamiShyaami bhavataa saardham apy aham || 2-106-32
32. atha= else if; bhavaan= you; pR^iSThataH kR^itvaa= disregard; etat= my entire request; gamiSyati= and move; vanameva= to the forest only; itaH= from here; ahamapi= I also; gamiSyaami= shall go; bhavataa saardham= along with you.
"Else if you disregard my entire request and move again into the forest form here, I too will go along with you."
tathaapi raamo bharatena taamyata |
prasaadyamaanaH shirasaa mahii patiH |
na caiva cakre gamanaaya sattvavaan |
matim pituH tad vacane pratiShThitaH || 2-106-33
33. prasaadyamaanaH= (Even while) being propitiated; bharatena= by Bharata; tahtaa= as above; shirasaa= by bowing his head; taamyataa= sinking in his spirit; raamaH= Rama; sattvavaan= the illustrious; mahiipatiH= Lord of the earth; pratiSThitaH= was abiding; tadvachane= in those words; pituH= of his father; na chakre= and did not fee; matim= inclined; gamanaaya= to return (to Ayodhya).
Even while being propitiated by Bharata as above, by bowing his head duly sinking in his spirit, the illustrious Rama, the Lord of the earth was still abiding in the words of his father and did not feel inclined to return to Ayodhya.
tad adbhutam sthairyam avekShya raaghave |
samam jano harSham avaapa duhkhitaH |
na yaaty ayodhyaam iti duhkhito abhavat |
sthira pratijnatvam avekShya harShitaH || 2-106-34
34. avekSye= seeing; adbhutam= the wonderful; tat sthairyam= that firmness; raaghave= in Rama; janaH= the people (of Ayodhya); duHkhitaH= felt sorrowful; samam= and at the same time; avaapa= experienced; harSam= joy; abhavat= (they) became; duHkhitah= distress; iti= that; nayaati= he was not going; ayodhyaam= to Ayodhya; harSitaH= and felt rejoiced; avekSya= to see; sthira pratijJNatvam= his firmness of resolve.
Seeing that wonderful staunchness in Rama, the people of Ayodhya felt sorrowful and at the same time, experienced joy. They became distressed that he was not going to Ayodhya and felt rejoiced to see his firmness of resolve.
tam R^itvijo naigama yuutha vallabhaaH |
tathaa visamjnaa ashru kalaaH ca maataraH |tathaa bruvaaNam bharatam pratuShTuvuH |
praNamya raamam ca yayaacire saha || 2-106-35
35. R^itvijaH= the priests; naigama yuuthavallabhaaH= Citizens and elders of that multitude; maataraH= as well as the mothers; visamjNaashrukalaaH= distracted and weeping bitterly; pratuSTuvuH= acclaimed; tam bharatam= that Bharata; bruvaaNum= who was speaking; tadaa= then; tathaa= thus; praNamya= and prostrating himself; raamam= before Rama; saha= and added; yayaa chire cha= their supllikcations to his.
The priests, citizens and elders of that multitude as well as Queens, distracted and weeping bitterly, acclaimed Bharat who was then speaking thus, duly prostrating himself before Rama and added theri supplications to Rama.
ityaarSe shriimadraamaayaNe aadikaavye ayodhyaakaaNDe SaDuttarashatatamaH sargaH
Thus completes 106th Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.
© July 2005, K. M. K. Murthy