Chapter [Sarga] 100


Rama gives instruction to Bharata as regards the duties of a king and the polity under an ideal monarchy under the pretext of enquiring about the welfare of his father and others.

Verse Locator

jiql< cIrvsn< ail< pitt< -uiv,
ddzR ramae dRz yugaNte -aSkr< ywa. 21001

1. raamaH= Rama; dadarsha= saw; (Bharata); jaTilam= with matted locks; chiiravasanam= wearing bark-robes; praaN^jalim= and with joined palms; patitam= lying; bhuvi= on the ground; durdarsham= incapable of being seen; bhaaskaram yathaa= as the sun; yugaante= at the end of the world-period.

Rama saw Bharata, with matted locks, wearing bark-robes and, with joined palms, lying on the ground, incapable of being seen as the sun at the time of the dissolution of the world.

Verse Locator

kw< icdi-iv}ay ivv[Rvdn< kzm!,
atr< -rt< ram> pirjah bana. 21002

2. raamaH= Rama; katham chit= with some difficulty; abhiJ^Naaya= recognized; bharatam= Bharata; vivarNa vadanam= whose face became pale; kR^isham= who was emaciated; parijagraaha= and took; bhraataram= his brother; baahunaa= by the arm.

Rama recognized with some difficulty his brother Bharata, whose face became pale and who was emaciated, and took him by the arm.

Verse Locator

Aaay ram> tm! mUiR pir:vJy c ra"v>,
ANke -rtm! AaraePy pyRp&GCAt! smaiht>. 21003

3. aaghraaya= smelling; muurdhni= the crown of his head; aaropya= placing him; an^ke= on his lap; raamaH= Rama; raaghavaH= born in Raghu dynasty; pariSvajya cha= embraced; tam bharatam= that Bharata; paryapR^ichchhat= and enquired (as follows); samaahitaH= with an absorbent mind.

Smelling the crown of his head, placing him on his lap, Rama who was born in Raghu dynasty embraced Bharata and with an absorbent mind, enquired of him as follows:

Verse Locator

Kv nu te A-Ut! ipta tat yd Ar{ym! Tvm! Aagt>,
n ih Tvm! jIvt> tSy vnm! AagNtum! AhRis. 21004

4. taata= my darling!; kvam= where; abhuut= is; te pitaa= your father; yat tvam= (that) you; aagataH= have come; araNyam= to the forest?; tasya= He; jiivitaH= being alive; tvam= you; na arhasi hi= ought not have; aagatum= to come; vanam= to the forest.

"My darling! Where is our father, that you have come to the forest? He, being alive, you ought not have to come to the forest."

Verse Locator

icrSy bt pZyaim rad -rtm! Aagtm!,
:tIkm! Ar{ye AiSmn! ikm! tat vnm! Aagt>. 21005

5. pashyaami= I see; bharatam= Bharata; chirasya= after a long time; aagatam= who comes; duuraat= from a far-off distance; duSpratiikam= wearing a mournful face; asmin araNye= into this forest; bata= Alas!; taata= My darling!; kim= why; aagataH= have you come; vanam= to the forest?.

"I see you after a long time, coming from a far-off distance, wearing a mournful face into this forest Alas! Why have you come to the forest, my darling?"

Verse Locator

kiary tat raja yvimhagt>,
ki dIn> shsa raja laekaNtr< gt>. 21006

6. taata= my dear brother!; kachchiddhaarayate raajaa= Is the king alive? yat tvam= (that) you; aagataH= have come; iha= here?; diinaH raajaa= (I hope) the miserable king; na gataH kachchit= has not indeed departed; lokaantaram= to the other world; sahasaa= all of a sudden.

"My dear brother! Is the king alive, that you have come here? I hope the miserable king has not indeed departed to the other world, all of a sudden."

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kiTsaEMy nte raJy< < balSy zatm!,
kiDuU;se tat iptr< sTyivmm!. 21007

7. saumya= O, gentle brother!; (I hope); shaashvatam= the permanent; raajyam= kingdom; na bhraSTam kachchit= has in no way suffered; te= from your; baalasya= youthful inexperience; taata= My darling!; shushruuSate kachchit= Are you rendering service; pitaram= to our father; satyavikramam= who is truly valiant?

"O, gentle brother! I hope the eternal kingdom has in a no way suffered from your youthful experience. My darling! Are you rendering service to our father, who is truly valiant?"

Verse Locator

kid dzrwae raja kzlI sTy sMgr>,
raj sUy A mexanam! AahtaR xmR iny>. 21008

8. kachchit= I hope that; raajaa dasharathaH= the king Dasaratha, kushalii= is well; satyasangaraH= he who is true to his promise; aahartaa raaja suuyaashva medhaanaam= he who performs Rajasuya and Ashvamedha sacrifices; dharma nishchayaH= and he who has a righteous resolve.

"I hope that the King Dasaratha is well, he who is true to his promise, he who performs Rajasuya and Ashvamedha Sacrifices and he who has a righteous resolve."

Verse Locator

s kid a[ae ivan! xmR inTyae mha *uit>,
#vak[am! %paXyayae ywavt! tat pUJyte. 21009

9. taata= My darling! puujyate kachchit= are you treating respectfully; yathaavat= as before; saH= that; upaadhyaayaH= preceptor; ikSvaakuuNaam= of the Ikshvakus; braahmaNaH= the one who knows the sacred scriptures; vidvaan= the learned; dhamanityaH= who constantly keeps up the virtues; mahaadyutiH= and who has a great splendour.

"My darling! Are you treating respectfully as before that preceptor of the Ikshvakus, the one who knows the sacred scriptures, the one who knows the sacred scriptures, the learned who constantly keep up the virtues and he who has a great splendour?"

Verse Locator

sa tat kic! c kaEsLya suima c javtI,
suionI kid AayaR c devI nNdit kEkyI. 210010

10. taata= My darling!; kachchit= I hope; saa kausalyaa= that Kausalya; sumitraacha= and Sumitra; prajaaratii= having good offspring; sukhinii= are happy; kachchit= I hope; aaryaa= the venerable; devii= queen; kaikeyii= Kaikeyi; nandati= is rejoicing.

"My darling! I hope that Kausalya and Sumitra having good offspring are happy. I hope the venerable queen Kaikeyi is rejoicing."

Verse Locator

kid ivny sMp> kl puae b ut>,
AnsUyur Anua sTkt> te puraeiht>. 210011

11. kachchit= I hope that; purohitaH= the preceptor; vinayasampannaH= who is rich in humility; kulaputraH= a son of a noble family; bahushrutaH= who has a knowledge of many scriptures; anasuuyuH= an unenvious person; anudraSTaa= and full of insight; satkR^itaH= is duly honoured; te= by you.

"I hope that the preceptor (Suyajgna the son of Vasishta); who is rich in humility, a son of a noble family, who has a knowledge of many scriptures an unenvious person and who is full of insight, is duly honoured by you."

Verse Locator

kid Ai;u te yuae ivixJnae mitman! \ju>,
tm! c hae:yma[m! c kale vedyte sda. 210012

12. kachchit= I hope that; vidhijN^aH= a brahmin who is versed in the traditions; matimaan= who is intelligent; R^iyuH= and just; yuktaH= employed; te= in your; agniSu= sacred fires; sadaa= always; vedayate= informs you; kaale= in time; hutamcha= and about a sacred fire having been; hoSyamaaNamcha= or going to be fed with oblations.

"I hope that a brahmin who is versed in the traditions, who is intelligent and just, employed in your sacred fires, always informs you in time, about a sacrificial fire having been or going to be fed with oblations."

Verse Locator

kievan! ip^n! -&TvaNgun! ipt&smanip,
v&a< tat vE*a< a[a<ai-mNyse. 210013

13. taata= My darling!; kachchit= I hope that; abhimanyase= you are holding in high esteem; devaan= the gods; pitR^iin= your ancestors; bhR^ityaan= dependents; guruun= and teachers; vR^iddhamshcha= who are aged; pitR^isamaan api= as your father too; vaidyaamshcha= the doctors; braahmanaamshcha= and the brahmins.

"My darling! I hope that you are holding in high esteem the gods, your ancestors, dependents and teachers of your father's age the doctors and the brahmins."

Verse Locator

#;u A vr sMpm! AwR za ivzardm!,
suxNvanm! %paXyaym! kit! Tvm! tat mNyse. 210014

14. taata= O, my darling!; kacchit= I hope that; tvam= you; manyase= treat with due respect; (in archery); upaadhyaayam= your teacher; sudhanvaanam= Sudhanva; ishhvastra vara sampannam= who is furnished with the most excellent arrows and darts; artha shaastra vishaaradam= well-versed in political economy.

"O, my darling! I hope that you treat with due respect; Sudhanva, your teacher in archery, who is furnished with the most excellent arrows and darts and well-versed in political economy."

Verse Locator

kid AaTm sma> zUra> utvNtae ijt #iNya>,
klIna> c #iNgtJna> c kta> te tat mi[>. 210015

15. kachchit= I hope that; mantriNaH= ministers; shuuraaH= who are valiant; aatma samaaH= like you; shrutavantaH= learned; jitendriyaaH= masters of their senses, kuliinaashcha= of noble birth; iN^gitaj^Naashcha= and and skilled in interpreting internal sentiments by external gesture; kR^itaaH= are assigned; te= to you.

"I hope that ministers who are valiant like you, learned, masters of their senses of noble birth and skilled interpreting internal sentiments by external gesture, are assigned to you."

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mae ivjy mUlm! ih raJnam! -vit ra"v,
susMv&tae m xrEr AmaTyE> za kaeivdE>. 210016

16. vijaya muulan= the source of victory; raaj^Naam= for kings; bhavatihihi= in deed coures; samvR^itaH= from a concealed; mantraH= counsel; amaatyaiH= by ministers; shaastra kovidaiH= well-versed in political sciences; mantradharaiH= and who can conceal their thoughts within themselves; raaghava= O, Bharata!.

"The source of victory for kings indeed comes from a concealed counsel by ministers, who are well-versed in political sciences and who can hide their thoughts within themselves."

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kin! ina vzm! n @i; kit! kale ivbuXyse,
kin! c Apr rai;u icNtySy! AwR nEpu[m!. 210017

17. naiSii kashchit= I hope you do not; nidraa vasham= fall a prey to excess of sleep; prabhudhyase kachchit= and wake-up; kaale= at appropriate time; chintayati kachchit= i hope you contemplate; apara raatreSu= during the later half of the night; arthanaipuNam= adroitness of an action.

"I hope you do not fall a prey to excess of sleep and do wake up at appropriate time. I hope you contemplate during the later half of the night, about the adroitness of an action."

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kin! myse n @k> kin! n bi-> sh,
kit! te mitae mae ra+m! n pirxavit. 210018

18. kachchit= I hope that; na mantrayase= you do not deliberate; ekaH= alone; na kachchit= nor indeed; bahubhissaha= together with= numerous men; kachchit= I hope; te mantraH= your decision; mantritaH= arrived at by you through deliberation; na paridhaavati= does not flow; raaSTram= to the public.

"I hope that you do not deliberate alone nor indeed with numerous men. I hope your decision arrived at by you through such deliberation does not flow to the public (even before it is carried out)".

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kid AwRm! iviniTy l"u mUlm! mha %dym!,
i]m! Aar-se ktuRm! n dI"Ryis ra"v. 210019

19. raaghava= O, Bharata!; kachchit= I hope that; aarabhase= you launch; kartam= to excente; kSipram= soon; vinishchitya= considering your interest; artham= an undertaking; mahodayam= which has great benefit; laghumuulam= with least cost; na diirghayasi= and do not delay it.

"O, Bharata! I hope considering your interest fully, you lanuch an undertaking, which has maximum benefit with minimum coast and indeed do not delay it further."

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kit! tu suktaNy! @v kt pai[ va pun>,
iv> te svR kayaRi[ n ktRVyain paiwRva>. 210020

20. kachhit= I hope that; paarthivaa= other kings; viduH= know; te= your; sarva kaaryaaNi= entire undertaking; sukR^itaanyeva= only after they have been successfully completed; punah= and; kR^ita ruupaani vaa= which have taken shape; na= and do not get to know; kartavyaani= your proposed undertakings.

"I hope the other kings know your entire undertakings only after they have been successfully completed as well as those which have taken a shape, but not your proposed undertakings."

Verse Locator

kin! n tkERr yuva va ye c APy! ApirkIitRta>,
Tvya va tv va AmaTyEr buXyte tat mitm!. 210021

21. taataH= My darling!; kachchit= I hope that; na budhyate= it is not known (by others); antritam= the discussion; yuktyaavaa= by a strategem; tarkaiH= or by enquiry; ye chaapi= or by any other strategies; aparikiirtitaa= no mentioned; tvayaa raa= by you; tava amaatyairvaa= or by your ministers.

"My darling! I hope that others are not knowing, by their enquiries or strategies or by any other approaches not mentioned, the details of discussions you make with your ministers."

Verse Locator

kit! shan! mUoaR[am! @km! #GCAis pi{ftm!,
pi{ftae ! AwR kG?e;u kyaRn! inheysm! mht!. 210022

22. kachchit= I hope; ichhasi= you solicit for; ekam= one; paN^Ditam= wise man; sahasraat= rather than for a thousand; muurkhaanaam= stupids; (for); paN^DitaH= a wise man; kuryaat= can do; mahat= a great; nishreyasam= advantageous thing; artha kR^ichchhreSu= in difficult matters.

"I hope you solicit for one wise man rather than for a thousand stupids for, a wise man can be of a great help to you in difficult matters."

Verse Locator

sha{y! Aip mUoaR[am! y*! %paSte mhI pit>,
Aw va APy! AyutaNy! @v n AiSt te;u shayta. 210023

23. yadyapi= even if; mahiipatiH= a king; upaaste= employs; sahasraaNi= thousands; athavaa= or; aayutaanyeva= tens of thousands; muurkhaaNaam= of fools; na asti= there is no; sahaayataa= helpfulness; teSu= in them.

"Even if a king employs thousands or tens of thousands of fools, they will not be helpful to him."

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@kae APy! AmaTyae mexavI zUrae d]ae ivc][>,
rajanm! raj mam! va apyen! mhtIm! iym!. 210024

24. ekaH amaatyo. api= even one minister; medhaavii= who is wise; shuuraH= valiant; dakSaH= efficient; vichakSaNaH= and sagacious; praapayet= causes to secure; mahatiim= a great; shriyam= prosperity; raajaanam= to the king; raajamaatram vaa= or to one who enjoys royal authority.

"Even one wise, valiant sagacious and efficient minister alone can cause to secure a great prosperity to the king or to one who enjoys royal authority."

Verse Locator

kin! muOya mhTsu @v mXyme;u c mXyma>,
j"Nya> c j"Nye;u -&Tya> kmRsu yaeijta>. 210025

25. kachchit= I hope that; mukhyaaH= superior; bhR^ityaaH= servants; yojitaaH= are assigned; mahatsu= superior; karmasu eva= works only; madhyamaaH= mediocre servants; madhyameSu cha= in mediocre works; jaghanyaaH tu= and inferior servants; jaghanyeSu= in inferior works.

"I hope that superior servants are assigned superior works only, mediocre servants in mediocre works and inferior servants in inferior works."

Verse Locator

AmaTyan! %pxa AtItan! ipt& pEtamhan! zucIn!,
ean! ee;u kit! Tvm! inyaejyis kmRsu. 210026

26. achchit= i hope; tvam= you; niyojayasi= are appointing; amaatyaan= (those) ministers; upadhaatiitaan= who are incorruptible; pitR^ipaitaamahaan= born of the fathers and forbears of good family; shuchiin= who are full of integrity; shreSThaan= and eminent ones; karmasu= in matters; shreSThesu= of great importance.

"I hope you are appointing those ministers, who are eminent incorruptible, born of the fathers and for bears of good family and who are full of integrity in matters of great importance."

Verse Locator

kiaee[ d{fen -&zmueijtjm!,
raJy< tvanujaniNt mi[> kEkyIsut. 210027

27. kaikeyii suta= o, Bharata!; kachhit= I hope; tava= your; mantriNaH= ministers; naanujaananti= do not watch as mere witnesses; bR^isham udvejita prajam= (while) your subjects tremble with great fear; raajyam= (in your) kingdom; ugre Na daN^Dena= by your stern scepter.

"O, Bharata! I hope your ministers do not watch as mere witnesses, while your subjects in the kingdom wielding tremble with great fear, under your inflexible wielding of the scepter."

Verse Locator

kit! Tvam! n AvjaniNt yajka> pittm! ywa,
% ithItarm! kamyanm! #v iy>. 210028

28. kachchit= I hope; yaajakaah= those who perform the sacrifice; naavajaananti= do not hold you in contempt; ugra pratigrahiitaaram= as one who accepts terrible gifts; patitam yathaa= as one who is fallen; striiyaH iva= as women; (hold); kaamayaanam= of those lustful men.

"I hope those who perform the sacrifice do not hold you in contempt, as one who accepts terrible gifts; as one who is fallen, as women hold in contempt of those highly lustful men."

Verse Locator

%pay kzlm! vE*m! -&Ty sM;[e rtm!,
zUrm! @eyR kamm! c yae n hiNt s vXyte. 210029

29. yaH= he who; na hanti= does not slay; vaidyam= a physician; upaaya kushalam= skilled in ways and means of aggravating a disease; bhR^ityu samduuSaNe ratam= a servant intent on bringing disgrace; shuuram= and a valiant warrior; aishvarya kaamam cha= seeking kingly power; saH= he (himself); hanyate= is slain.

"He, who does not slay a physician skilled in ways and means of aggravating a disease, a servant intent on bringing disgrace and a valiant warrior seeking kingly power, is *himself) slain by them."

Verse Locator

kiΉ > c zUr> c x&itman! mitman! zuic>,
klIn> c Anur> c d]> sena pit> kt>. 210030

30. kachchit= I hope; senaapatiH= an army-chief; hR^iSTashcha= who is happy man; shuurashcha= a valiant man; matimaan= a wise man; dhR^itimaan= a courageous man; shuchiH= of good conduct; kuliinashcha= one who is born in a good family; anuraktashcha= who is beloved by his subordinates; dakSaH= and one who is efficient; kR^itaH= is selected.

"I hope an army-chief, who is cheerful, wise, courageous, valiant, well-behaved, born in a good family, who is beloved by his subordinates and efficient, is selected by you."

Verse Locator

blvNt> c kit! te muOya yu ivzarda>,
Apdana ivaNta> Tvya sTkTy mainta>. 210031

31. kachchit= I hope; te= those; mukhyaaH= important warriors; belaventaH= who are exceedingly strong; yuddhavishaaradaaH= skilled in war-fare; dR^iSTaapadaanaa= whose excellent actions were seen before; vikraantaaH= and the most courageous men honoured; maanitaaH= and respected; tvayaa= by you.

"I hope those warriors, who are excellent strong, skilled in war-face, whose excellent actions were seen before and the most courageous ones are duly honoured and respected by you."

Verse Locator

kicd blSy -m! c vetnm! c ywa %ictm!,
sMa kalm! datVym! ddais n ivlMbse. 210032

32. kachchit= I hope; sampraapta kaalam= at the proper time; dadaasi= you are giving; balasya= your army; bhaktam cha= the daily provisions; daatavyam= to be given; yathochitam= and suitable; vetanamcha= salary; na vilambase= without any delay.

"I hope you are regularly giving your army, the daily provisions and the suitable salary to them, without any delay."

Verse Locator

kal Aitm[e ! @v - vetnyaer -&ta>,
-tuR> kPyiNt :yiNt sae AnwR> sumhan! Sm&t>. 210033

33. kaalaatikramaNaat= (when) there is delay; bhaktavetanayoH= in giving bread and wages; bhR^itaaH= the servants; kupyanti= become incensed; bhartuH= against their master; duSyanti= and become corrupt; saH= (and) that; smR^itaaH= is said to be; sumahaan= a great; anarthaH= unfortunate occurrence.

"When there is delay in giving bread and wages, the servants become incensed against their master and become corrupt; and that is said to be a great unfortunate occurrence."

Verse Locator

kit! sveR Anura> Tvam! kl pua> xant>,
kit! a[aM> tv AweR;u sMTyjiNt smaihta>. 210034

34. kachchit= I hope; sarve= all; pradhaanataH= the foremost; kulaputraaH= descendents of your race (kshatriyas); anuraktaaH= are devoted; tvaam= to you; kachchit santyajanti= (and) do they lay down; praaNaan= their lives; tava artheSu= for your sake; samaahitaaH= steadfastly?

"I hope all the foremost descendents of your race (kshatriyas) are devoted to you and do they lay down their lives steadfastly for your sake?"

Verse Locator

kij! janpdae ivan! di][> it-anvan!,
ywa % vadI t> te ktae -rt pi{ft>. 210035

35. bharata= O, Bharata!; kachchit= I hope that; paN^DitaH= a knowledgeable man; jaanapadaH= living in the country; vidvaan= a wise man; dakSiNaH= a skilled person; pratibhaanavaan= endowed with presence of mind; yathoktavaadii= the one who knows how to speak to the point; kR^itaH= is selected; duutaH= ad an ambassador; te= by you.

"I hope that a knowledgeable man, living in your own country, a wise man a skilled person endowed with presence of mind and the one who knows how to speak to the point, is selected as an ambassador by you."

Verse Locator

kid AadzaNy! @;u Sv p]e dz pNc c,
ii-> ii-r AivJnatEr veiTs tIwaRin carkE>. 210036

36. vetsi katsit= do you get to know; tribhiH tribhiH= through three; chaarakaiH= spies; avij^NaataiH= each unacquainted with each other; aSTaadasha= the eighteen*; tiirthaani= functionaries; anyeSu= of the enemies; dasha paN^cha cha= and the fifteen functionaries; svapakSe= of your own side?

"Do you get to know throught three spies, each unacquainted with each other, about the eighteen* functionaries of the enemies and the fifteen functionaries of your own side?"

*They are: 1)the chief minister; 2) the king's family priest; 3)the crown prince; 4)the leader of the army; 5) the chief warder; 6) the chamberlain (antaHpuraaH adhyaksha); 7)the superintendent of gails (kaaraagaara adhyaksha); 8) the chancellor of the exchequer; 9)the herald; 10)the government advocate; 11) the judge; 12)the assessor; 13) the officer disbursing salaries to army men; 14) the officer drawing money from the state exchequer to disburse the workmen's wages; 15) the superintended of public works; 16) the protector of the borders of a kingdom, who also performed the duties of a forester; 17) the magistrate; 18) the officer entrusted with conservation of waters; hills, forests and tracts difficult of access.: The fifteen functionaries of one's own side are the last fifteen of this very list, omitting the first three; viz; the chief ministers, the family priest and the crown prince.

Verse Locator

kid VypaStan! Aihtan! ityataM> c svRda,
bRlan! AnvJnay vtRse irpu sUdn. 210037

37. ripusuudada= O, slayer of your Foes!; kachchit= I hope; vartase= you stay; sarvadaa= forever; anavajNaaya= not thinking lightly; ahitaan= of your foes; durbalaan= who are weak; vyapaastaan= and having been expelled; pratiyaataamshcha= return again to revenge.

"O, slayer of your Foes! I hope you do not forever think lightly of your foes, who are weak and having been expelled, return again."

Verse Locator

kin! n laekayitkan! a[aM> tat sevse,
AnwR kzla ! @te bala> pi{ft mainn>. 210038

38. kachchit= I hope; no sevasa= you are not honouring; lokaayatikaan= the materialistic; braahmaNaan= brahmins; taata= my darling!; ete= these men; anarthakushalaaH hi= are skilled in perverting the mind; baalaaH= ignorant; paN^Dita maaninaH= and thinking themselves to be learned.

I hope are not honouring the materialistic brahmins, My dear brother! These men are skilled in perverting the mind, ignorant as they are and thinking themselves to be learned."

Verse Locator

xmR zae;u muOye;u iv*mane;u buRxa>,
buiman! vIi]kIm! aPy inrwRm! vdiNt te. 210039

39. praapya= reaching to; anviikSakiim= their logical; buddhim= aeumen; durbudhaaH= these men of perverted intellect; pravadanti= speak; nirartham= bereft of meaning; vidyamaaneSu= in the presence of; mukhyeSu= eminent; dharma shaastreSu= books on righteousness.

"Reaching to their logical acumen, these men of perverted intellect preach meaninglessly, in the presence of eminent books on righteousness."

Verse Locator

vIrEr AXyui;tam! pUvRm! ASmakm! tat pUvRkE>,
sTy namam! F aram! hSTy! A rw sMklam!. 210040
a[E> ]iyEr vEZyE> Sv kmR inrtE> sda,
ijt #iNyEr mha %TsahEr v&t AmaTyE> shz>. 210041
asadEr ivivx AakarEr v&tam! vE* jn Aaklam!,
kit! smuidtam! S)Itam! AyaeXyam! pirr]is. 210042

40, 41, 42. kachchit= I hope; parirakSasi= you preserve; ayodhyaam= the City of Ayodhya; samuditaam= furnished with everything; sphiitaam= and flourishing; puurvam= that was formerly; adhyuSitaam= inhabited; asmaakam= by our; viiraiH= heroic; puurvakaiH= ancestors; taata= O; my dear brother; satyanaanaam= that is worthy of its name; dR^iDha dvaaraam= with its fortified gates; hastvashva ratha sankulaam= its elephats, horses and chariots that fill it; vR^itaam= endowed with; braahmaNaiH= its brahmins; kSastriyaiH= warriors; vaishyaiH= and merchants; sahasrashaH= in thousands; sadaa= ever; svakarma nirataiH= engaged in their repective duties; aaryaiH= with engaged in thier respective duties; aaryaiH= with its noble citizens; jitendriyaiH= self- controlled; mahotsaahaiH= full of energy; vR^itaam= endowed iwth; praasaadaiH= its palaces; vividhaakaaraiH= in various shapes; vaidyajanaakulaam= and the learned who abound there.

"I hope you preserve the City of Ayodhya, furnished with everything and flourishing, that was formerly inhabited by our heroic ancestors, O my dear brother, that is worthy of its name, with its fortified gates, its elephant horses and chariots that fill it, with its brahmins, warriors and merchants in thousands, ever engaged in their respective duties, with its noble citizens self-controlled and full of energy, with its palaces in various shapes and the learned who abound there."

Verse Locator

kic! cETy ztEr ju> suiniv jn Aakl>,
dev SwanE> pai-> c tfagE> c %pzaei-t>. 210043
nr narIk> smaj %Tsv zaei-t>,
suk sIma pzuman! ihMsai-r Ai-vijRt>. 210044
Adev mat&kae rMy> a pdE> pirvijRt>,
pirTyae -yE> svER> oini-aepzaei-t> 210045
ivvijRtae nrE> papEmRm pUvER> suri]t>,
kij! jn pd> S)It> suom! vsit ra"v. 210046

43, 44, 45, 46, 47. kachchit= I hope that; janapadaH= the kingdom; juSTaH= adorned; chaitya shataiH= with hundreds of altars; suniviSTa janaakulaH= and abundantly filled with peaceful people; upashobhitaH= rich; devasthaanaiH= in temples; prapaabhishcha= with sheds where water is stocked for free distribution to passers-by and tanks; taTaakaishchaprahR^iSTa nara naariikaH= with happy men and women; samaajotsavashobhitaH= graced by social festivities; sukR^iSTa siimaa= with land well-tilled; pashumaan= abiding in cattle; parivarjitaH= which are totally free; himsaabhiH= from cruelties; adeva maatR^ikaH= (agricultural land) not exclusively fed by rain; ramyaH= which is beautiful; parivarjitaH= and is purged; shvaapadaiH= of beasts of prey; parityaktaH= which is rid; bhayaih= of fears; sarvaiH= completely; upashobhitaH= and is studded; khambhisheha= with mines; vivarjitaH= which is a destitute; paapaiH= of sinful; naraiH= men; surakSitaH= and well protected; purvaiH= by our forefathers; sphiitaH= is prosperous; vasati= and an abode; sukham= of happiness.

I hope that the kingdom, adorned with peaceful places rich in temples and sheds where water stored for distribution to passers-by in tanks, with happy men and women, graced by social festivities, with land well-tilled, abiding in cattle which are totally free from cruelties, the agricultural land not exclusively fed by rains, which is beautiful and is purged of beasts of prey, which is completely rid of fears, studded with mines, a destitute of sinful men, and well-protected by our fore-fathers, is prosperous and an abode of happiness.

Verse Locator

kit! te diyta> sveR ki; gae r] jIivn>,
vataRyam! siMt> tat laekae ih suom! @xte. 210047

47. te dayitaaH kachchit= are you cherishing; sarve= all; kR^iSigorakSa jiivinaH= those who live by agriculture and cattle-rearing; taata= O, dear brother!; lokaH= the people; samshritaH= living; vaartaayaam= on agriculture and cattle-rearing; edhate hi= indeed prosper; sukham= well.

"Are you cherishing all those who live by agriculture and cattle-rearing, O, dear borhter! The people living on agriculture and cattle-rearing indeed prosper well."

Verse Locator

te;am! gui prIharE> kit! te -r[m! ktm!,
rya ih raJna xmeR[ sveR iv;y vaisn>. 210048

48. kachchit= I hope; teSaam= their; bharaNam= maintenance; kR^itam= is being looked after; te= by you; bhukti pariihaaraiH= by providing what they need and eschewing what they fear; sarve= All ; viSaya raasinaH= the citizens; rakSyaaH hi= are indeed to be protected; dharmeNa= through righteousness; raajNaa= by a king.

"I hope their maintenance is being looked after by you, in providing what they need and eschewing what they fear. All the citizens are indeed to be protected by a king through his righteousness."

Verse Locator

kit! iy> saNTvyis kit! ta> c suri]ta>,
kin! n xaSy Aasam! kid gum! n -a;se. 210049

49. kachchit= I hope; saantvayasi= you are receiving well; striyaH= the women; te surakSitaaH kachchit= are they protected te= by you?; kachchit= I hope; na shraddhadhaasi= you are not believing; aasaam= the words of these women; na bhaaSase kachchit= and not telling; guhyam= secrets.

"I hope you are pacifying the women well. Are they protected by you? I hope you are not believing the words of these women and not telling them the secrets."

Verse Locator

kiagvn< gu< kie siNt xenuka>,
kic gi[kaana< kra[a< c t&Pyis. 210050

50. guptam kachchit= are you supervising; naaga vanam= the woods inhabited by elephatns? kachchit= I hope; dhenukaaH= female elephants; santi= are there; te= to you; kachchit= I hope; na tR^ipyasi= you are not simply satisfied; gaNikaashvaanam+ with (the existing number) of female elephants, horses; kuNjaraaNaam cha= and male-elephants.

"Are you supervising the woods inhabited by elephants? I hope female elephants are there to you in good number. I hope you are not simply satisfied with the existing population of female elephants, horses and male-elephants."

Verse Locator

kid dzRyse inTym! mnu:ya[am! iv-Ui;tm!,
%Tway %Tway pUvR Ae raj puae mha pwe. 210051

51. raajaputra= O, prince!; kachit= I hope you; vibhuuSitam= regally adorned; darshayate= appear; manuSaaNaam= before the people; utthaayotthaaya= on rising; nityam= everyday; puurvaahNe= in the forenoon; mahaapathe= on the great high way.

"O, Prince! Do you, regally adorned, appear before the people on rising each morning, on the great high way?"

Verse Locator

ki sveR kmaRNta> Ty]aSte=ivzya,
sveR va punTs&a mXyme va kar[m! 210052

52. kachchit= I hope; sarve= all; karmantaaH= your servants; te pratyakSaaH= in your presence; na avishaNkayaa= do not adopt a disrespectful attitude; vaa punaH= or on the other hand; sarve= do all of them; utsR^iSTaaH= hasten away (on seeing you)? (of course); madhyameva= a middle course only; kaaraNam= the principle ; atra= in this matter.

"I hope that all your servants, in your presence, do not adopt a disrespectful attitude or on the other hand all of them do not hasten away on seeing you. Ofcourse, a middle course only in the principle to be followed in this matter."

Verse Locator

kit! svaRi[ gaRi[ xn xaNy Aayux %dkE>,
yE> c pirpU[aRin twa iziLp xnur xrE>. 210053

53. kachichit= I hope; sarvaaNi= the entire; durgaaNi= citadels; paripuurNaani= are quite full; dhana dhaanyaayudhodakaiH= of money, grain, weapon, water; yantraishcha= and mechanical countrivances; tathaa= as well as; shilpi dhanurdharaiH= artisans and archers.

"I hope all your citadels are quite full of money, grain, weapons, water and mechanical contrivances as well as artisans and archers."

Verse Locator

Aay> te ivpul> kit! kid ALptrae Vyy>,
Apae;u n te kit! kaezae gGCAit ra"v. 210054

54. raaghava= O, Bharata! kachchit= I hope; te= your; aayaH= income; vipulaH= is abundant; kachchit= I hope; vyayaH= expenditure; alpataraH= is minimum; kachchit= I hope; te= your; koshaH= treasure; nagachchhati= does not reach; apaatreSu= undeserving people; raaghava= O, Bharata!

"I hope your income is abundant and expenditure, minimum. I hope your treasure does not reach undeserving people, O, Bharata!"

Verse Locator

devta AweR c ip! AweR a[ A_yagte;u c,
yaexe;u im vgeR;u kid gGCAit te Vyy>. 210055

55. kachchit= I hope that; te= your; vyayaH= expenditure; gachchhati= goes; devataartha cha= for the cause of divinity; pitrarthe= for manes; brahmaNa abhyaagateSu cha= for brahmins and unexpected visitors; yodheSu= soldiers; mitra vargeSu= and hosts of friends.

"I hope that your expenditure goes for the cause of divinity, manes, brahmins, unexpected visitors, soldiers and hosts of friends."

Verse Locator

kid AayaeR ivzu AaTma ]airt> caer kmR[a,
Ap&> za kzlEr n lae-ad bXyte zuic>. 210056

56. vishuddhaatmaa= despite his honesty; shuchiH= and integrity; kSaaritaH= is falsely accused; apakarmaNaa= of some offence; achchit= I hope; na vadhyate= he is not is killed lobhaat= impatiently; apR^iSTah= without enquiry; shaastra kushalaiH= by those well-versed in law-books.

"If one of noble work, despite his honesty and integrity, is falsely accused of some offence, I hope he is not killed impatiently, without enquiry by those well-versed in law-books."

Verse Locator

g&hIt> cEv p&> c kale > skar[>,
kin! n muCyte caerae xn lae-an! nr \;-. 210057

57. nararSabha= O, foremost of men!; choraH= (If) a thief; dR^iSTaH= is seen; gR^ihiitashchaiva= and even caught; kaale= at the time of his act; sakaaraNaH= on sufficient ground; pR^iSTashcha= and interrogated; na muchyate kachchit= I hope he is not released; dhana lobhaat= from greed o wealth.

"O, foremost of men! If a thief is seen and even caught at the time of his act on sufficient ground and interrogated-I hope, he is not released from greed of wealth."

Verse Locator

Vysne kid AaF(Sy gtSy c ra"v,
AwRm! ivraga> pZyiNt tv AmaTya b uta>. 210058

58. raaghava= O, Bharata!; kachichit= I hope that; tava= you; bahushrutaaH= well-educated; amaatyaaH= ministers; pashyanti= examine; artham= a case; viraagaaH= dispassionately; vyasane= in a contention; (occurs); aaDhyasya= between a rich man; durgatasya cha= and a poor man;

"O, Bharata! I hope that your well-educated ministers examine a case dispassionately when a contention occurs between a rich man and a poor man, after studying the situation carefully."

Verse Locator

yain imWya Ai-zStanam! ptNTy! Aai[ ra"v,
tain pu pzUn! iNt ITy! AwRm! Anuzast>. 210059

59. ashruuNi= the tears; patanti= fallen; yaani= from those who; mithyaabhishastaanaam= are the victims of false accusations; raagha= O, Bharata; taani= they; ghnanti= destroy; putra pashuun= their sons and herds; anushaasataH= of those who are indifferent to justice; priityartham= merely for the sake of pleasure.

"The tears fallen from those who are the victims of false accusations, O Bharata, destroy their sons and herds of those who are indifferent to justice, merely for the sake of pleasure."

Verse Locator

kid v&xaM> c balaM> c vE* muOyaM> c ra"v,
danen mnsa vaca ii-r @tEr bu-U;se. 210060

60. kachchit= I hope that; bubhuuSate= you seek to conciliate; eteH= by the following; tribhiH= three means; daanena= by gifts; manasaa= a (loving) mind; vaachaa= and (polite) words; vR^iddhaamshcha= teh aged; baalamshcha= the children; vaidya mukhyaamshcha= and the foremost physicians.

"I hope that you seek to conciliate by the following three means, viz. gifts, a loving mind and polite words- the aged, the children and the foremost physicians."

Verse Locator

kid guM> c v&aM> c tapsan! devta AitwIn!,
cETyaM> c svaRn! is AwaRn! a[aM> c nmSyis. 210061

61. kachchit=I hope; mamasyasi= you greet; guruushcha= your teachers; vR^iddhaamshcha= the elderly; taapasaan= the ascetics; devataatithiin= the deities and unexpected visitors; chaityaamshcha= as well as the trees standing at cross roads; sarvaan= and all; braahmaNaamshcha= the brahmins; siddhaarthaan= of auspicious life and conduct.

"I hope you greet your teachers, the elderly, the ascetics, the deities; the unexpected visitors, the trees standing at cross roads and all the brahmins of auspicious life and conduct."

Verse Locator

kid AweRn va xmRm! xmRm! xmeR[ va pun>,
%-aE va Iit lae-en kamen n ivbaxse. 210062

62. kachchit= i hope; na baadhase= you do not abrogate; dharmam vaa= virtue; arthe= (by your excessive devotion) to wealth; arthamvaa punaH= or your earthly interests; dharmeNa= by (your over emphasis on) religion; ubhau= or both your religious and secular interests; priiti lobhena= by your self-indulgence in pleasure greed; kaamena= and gratification of the senses.

"I hope you do not abrogate virtue by your excessive devotion to wealth or your excessive devotion to wealth or your earthly interests by your over-emphasis on religion or both your religious and secular interests by your self-indulgence in pleasure, greed and gratification of the senses."

Verse Locator

kid AwRm! c xmRm! c kamm! c jytam! vr,
iv-Jy kale kalJn svaRn! -rt sevse. 210063

63. kachchit= I hope; sevasa= you pursue; artham cha= wealth; dharmam cha= religion; kaamamcha= and the delights of the sense; sarve= all; vibhajya= dividing them; kaale= according to time; vara= O, Jewel; jayataam= among the victorious!; kaalajNa= O, the one who is conversant with the proper time; varada= and O, the bestower of boons!.

"I hope your pursue wealth, religion and the delights of the sense dividing them all according to time, O Jewel among the victorious, the one who is conversant with the proper time and O, the bestower of boons!"

Verse Locator

kit! te a[a> zmR svR za AwR kaeivd>,
AazMsNte mha aJn paEr janpdE> sh. 210064

64. mahaa praajNa= O, the one who is endowed with great wisdom! braahmaNaaH kachchit= I hope that brahmins; sarva shaastraartha kovidaaH= versed in the tradition of all the scriptures; paura jaana padaissaha= and the inhabitants of town and country; aashansante= pray; te= for your; sharma= happiness.

"O, the one who is endowed with great wisdom! I hope that brahmins versed in the knowledge of the scriptures, the inhabitants of town and the country pray for your happiness."

Verse Locator

naiStKym! An&tm! aexm! madm! dI"R sUtam!,
AdzRnm! Jnanvtam! AalSym! pNc v&itam!. 210065
@k icNtnm! AwaRnam! AnwRJnE> c m[m!,
initanam! AnarM-m! mSy Apirl][m!. 210066
mNglSy Ayaegm! c TyuTwanm! c svRz>,
kit! Tvm! vjRySy! @tan! raj dae;aM> ctur dz. 210067

65, 66, 67. tvam varjayasi kachchit= do you eschew; etaan= the following; chaturdasha= fourteen; raaja doSaan= failings of kings; naastikyam= viz. atheism; anR^itam= falsehood; krodham= anger; pramaadam= carelessness; diirgha suutratam= procrastination; adarshanam= disregarrd; JNaanavataam= of the wise; aalashya= sloth; paNcha vR^ittitaam= bondage to the five senses; eka chintanam= devoting thought alone; arthaanaam= to the affairs of the state (without consulting the ministers); mantraNam= taking counsel; anarthajNaiH= with those of perverted insight; anaarambham= failure to launch; nischitaanaam= the projects already decided; aparirakSaNam= failure to keep; mantrasya= secrets; aprayogamcha= failure to utter; maNgaalasya= auspicious words; pratyutthaanamcha= an rising from one's seat (in discriminately); sarvataH= (to receive) all

Do you eschew the following fourteen for of kings -viz. atheism, falsehood, anger carelessness, procrastination, disregard of the wise, sloth, bondage to the five senses, himself alone devoting thought to the affairs of the state (without consulting the ministers); taking counsel with those of perverted insight; failure to undertake the projects already decided, failure to keep secrets, failure to utter auspicious words (at the beginning of an undertaking); and rising from one's seat (indiscriminately) to receive all.

Verse Locator

dzp<cctuvRgaRn! svg c tvt>,
AvgRm! ivg c iv*aiSt ra"v 210068
#NЉiya[a< jy< bu(< ;afgu{y< dEvmanu;m!,
kTy< iv<zitvg c twa kitm{fl<. 210069
yaad{fivxan< c iyaenI s<ixivhaE,
kiCDdetan! mhaa} ywavdnumNyse 210070

68, 69, 70. mahaapraajNaH= O, the very wise; raaghavaH= Bharata!; buddhvaa kachchit= Have you understood; etaan= the following; anumanyasi= and do you deal them; yathaavat= properly; dasha= the ten evils; pancha= the five kinds of fortifications; four expedients, sapta vargamcha= the seven limbs of state; aSTavargam= the eight evils; trivargamcha= the three objects of human pursuit; trisraH= the three vidyaaH cha= branches of learning; jayam= subjugation; indriiyaaNaam= of the senses; SaaDguNyam= the six strategic expedients; kR^ityam= adversity brought about; daiva= by divine agencies; maanuSam= and by human agencies; vimshati vargamchaa= the twenty types of monarchs; tathaa= and; prakR^iti maNDalam= the entire population of kingdom, yaatraadaNDavidhaanamcha= setting forth on an expedition; drawing up an army in battle array; dviyonii= the two bases, sandhivigrahau= peace and war.

"O, the very wise Bharata! I hope you understand the following and deal them properly the ten evils(1); the five kinds of fortifications(2); the four expedients(3); the seven limbs of state(4); the eight evils (born of anger) the three objects of human pursuit(5); the three branches of learning(6) subjugation of the senses, the six strategic expedients(7); adversity brought about by divine agencies(8); and by human agencies(9); the twenty types of monarches(10); and the entire population of the kingdom, setting about an an expedition, drawing up an army in a battle-array and the two bases viz, peace and war.

(1). Ten evils attendant on royalty to be eschew. Hunting, gambling, sleeping during the day, lustfulness, inebriation, pride, calumny, lounging about idly or aimlessly, diversions such as singing and dancing. (2). Five kinds of fortifications: By moat, high bank, trees thickly planted, a space destitute of grain or provisions, the turning of waters. (3) Four expedients:- Making peace, liberality, sowing dissension, chastisement. (4) Seven limbs of state king, ministers, friends, treasure, territory, forts and an army. (5) Three objects of human pursuit: Religious merit, material wealth and sensuous enjoyment or the three kinds of power (viz. energy, power of dominion, power of counsel) (6) Three branches of learning: the three Vedas, the knowledge relating to agriculture, commerce and other vocational pursuits and political science. (7) Six strategic expedients: Coming to terms with the enemy, waging war against him, marching against him, biding one's time to seek a favourable opportunity, causing dissension in the enemy's ranks, seeking protection of a powerful ally. (8) Adversity brought about by divine agencies: Fire, water in the shape of excessive rains or floods, epidemic or endemic diseases, famine and pestulence, earthquakes and Tsunamis. (9) Adversity brought about by human agencies: officials, thieves, enemies, king's favourites and king himself, when acutated by greed. (10)Twenty types of monarchs (who are not worth-negotiating with):1. a king who is yet a child. 2. Aged. 3. Who has been ailing for a long time. 4. who has been ostracised by his own kith and kin. 5. ho is characterized by a cowardly attitude. 6. who is surrounded by cowards. 7. who is greedy. 8. has greedy associated. 9. who has estranged his ministers and others. 10. who confers with fickle-minded persons 11. who speaks ill of divine begins and brahmins; 12. who is extremely indulged in sensuous pleasures and luxuries; 13. who is ill-fated; 14. a fatalist (who believes that all things are pre-determined or subject to fate); 15. who is afflicted by famine and; 16. by military reverses; 17. who (mostly) remains away from home; 18. who has numerous enemies; 19. who is in the clutches of adverse times and; 20. who is not devoted to truth and piety.

Verse Locator

mii-STv< ywaeiEtui-Rii-rev va,
kiTsmStEVyRStE m< myse imw>. 210071

71. kachchit= I hope that; tvam= you; mantrayate= consult with; chaturbhiH= four; tribhireva vaa= or three; mantribhiH= ministers; mantram= a proposal yathoddiSTaiH= as mentioned in scriptures; samastaiH= collectively; vyastaishcha= and singly; mithaH= in secret

"I hope that you consult with three or four ministers as mentioned in scriptures any proposal collectively and singly with each of them in secret."

Verse Locator

kie s)la veda> kie s)la> iya>,
kie s)la dara> kie s)l< utm!. 210072

72. saphalaaH kachchit= do you find advantages; te= in you; vedaaH= study of Vedas?; kachchit te kriyaaH= are your acts; saphalaaH= productive of fair results?; saphalaaH kachchit= do you benefit; te daaraaH= from the company of your consorts?' te shrutam kachchit= Has your learning; saphalam= been fruitful?

"Do you find advantages in your study of Vedas? Are your acts, production of fair results? Do you benefit from the company of your consorts? Has your learning been fruitful?"

Verse Locator

kide;Ev te buiyRwaea mm ra"a,
Aayu:ya c yzSya c xmRkamawRs<ihta. 210073

73. raaghava= O, Bharata!; kachchit= I hope that; te buddhiH= your conviction; eSaiva= is the same; yathaa uktaa= as mentioned (in the foregoing verses) mama= by me; samhitaa= which is conducive; aayuSyaa= to long life; yashasyaacha= fame; dharma kaamaartha= religious merit, enjoyment and wealth.

"O, Bharata! I hope that your conviction, is the same as mentioned by me in the foregoing verses, which is conducive to long life, fame, religious merit, enjoyment and wealth."

Verse Locator

ya< v&i< vtRte ratae ya< cn> iptamha>,
ta< v&i< vtRse ki*ac sTpwga zu-a 210074

74. vartase kachchit= Do you follow; taam= that; vR^ittam= common practice; yaam= which; taataH= our fore father; vartate= follows; yaam= and which; naH= our; prapitaamahaaH= forefathers observed; yaacha= and which; satpathagaa= is in accord with the path of the virtuous; shubhaa= and which is distinguished (in itself).

"Do you follow the common practice, which our fore fathers observed and which is in accord with the path of the virtuous and which is distinguished in itself."

Verse Locator

kit! Sva kt< -aeJymekae naais ra"v,
kidaz<smane_yae ime_y> sMyCDis 210075

75. raaghava= O Bharata!; kachchit= I hope that; ekaH naashnaapi kaschit= you alone do not eat; svaadukR^itam= nicely made; bhojyam= eatable; samprayachchasi= and do you give (it); mitrebhyaH= to your friends; aasham samaanebhyaH= who wish to receive the same.

"I hope you do not eat by yourself nicely made eatable and do you share it with your friends, who seek it?"

Verse Locator

AvaPy kTa< vsuxa< ywav,
idtZD(ut> SvgRmupEit ivan!. 210076

76. raajaatu= A king; mahaa matiH= who is very wise; vidvaan= and learned; avaapya= having obtained, kR^itsnaam= the entire; vasudhaam= earth; daN^DadharaH= a administering justice; prajaanaam= to the people; paalayitvaa= and having ruled; dharmeNa= by righteousness; yathaavat= properly; chyutaH= when detached; itaH= from this mortal body; upaitihi= and indeed obtains; svargam= heaven.

"A wise and learned king, having obtained and ruled the entire earth, properly by righteousness and by administering justice to the people, indeed ascends to heaven when detached from the mortal body."


#Tya;eR Imamay[e AaidkaVye AyaeXyaka{fe zttm> sgR

Thus completes 100th Chapter of Ayodhya Kanda of the glorious Ramayana of Valmiki, the work of a sage and the oldest epic.

Verse Locator for Book II : Ayodhya Kanda - Book Of Ayodhya : Chapter 100


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Sarga 100 in English Prose


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January 2005, K. M. K. Murthy