Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek
Rama bewails for Seetha as an ambivert, ambivalent romantic epical hero and asks Lakshmana to return to Ayodhya, as Rama is certain to perish without Seetha. He thinks his agony aloud, weighing pros and cons of his situation.
siitaam apashyan dharmaatmaa shoka upahata cetanaH |
vilalaapa mahaabaahuu raamaH kamala locanaH || 3-62-1
1. dharmaatmaa= virtue-souled one; mahaabaahuu= long armed one; kamala locanaH= lotus, eyed one; raamaH= Rama; siitaam a+pashyan= Seetha, not, being able to see; shoka upahata cetanaH= anguish, marred, sagacity; vilalaapa= bewailed.
In not seeing Seetha that virtue-souled Rama's sagacity is marred by his anguish and he bewailed with his lotus-like eyes that are reddening like a pair of lotuses, raising is long arms. [3-62-1]
Some mms use the word kaama in the compound shoka upahata cetanaH thus it becomes kaama upahata cetana and then it means 'his sagacity is marred by desire for Seetha...' and because of the adjacency of word dharmaatmaa 'righteous one...' 'a righteous desire is no sin to desire for... hence his desire for Seetha is righteous...' Then mahaabaahuu denotes that he is wailing raising his long arms, and kamala locana is indicative of redness of lotuses, thus his eyes are reddening by his wailing.
pashyan iva ca taam siitaam apashyan madana arditaH |
uvaaca raaghavo vaakyam vilaapa aashraya dur.hvacam || 3-62-2
2. madana arditaH raaghavaH= by Love-god, cowed down, Raghava; taam siitaam= at her, at Seetha; a + pashyan= [even if] not, seeing; pashyan iva= seeing, as though; vilaapa aashraya dur vacam= wail, sheltered [pampered,] badly [inarticulately,] speech [articulacy - because his speech took shelter of waling he is articulating inarticulately with a speech that is pampered by that wailing instinct; [ittham= this way]; uvaaca vaakyam= said, words [vented his heart.]
Even if Raghava is not able to see Seetha in his presence he started talking to her in a kind of inarticulate wailing, as wailing pampered his articulacy because his speech took shelter of wailing instinct, and as he is cowed down by Love-god, and thus he started to vent out his heart in this way. [3-62-2]
Here the poet is starting the sixth phase among the ten phases called manmadha avasthaaH 'phases of pangs of love,' and this one is called a + rati 'non-indulgence, the ambivalence, the ambiversion...' of the romantic hero, in romantic epical poetry.
tvam ashokasya shaakhaabhiH puSpa priya taraaa priye |
avR^iNoSi shariiram te mama shoka vivardhinii || 3-62-3
3. priye= oh, dear; tvam= you are; puSpa priya taraaa= by flowers, fascinated, very much; mama shoka vi vardhinii= [that which] to me, anguish, highly, amplifying one; ashokasya shaakhaabhiH= with Ashoka tree, branches [which are in full bloom]; te shariiram= you, body; aavR^iNoSi= veiling yourself [now.]
"Flowers fascinate you very much, my dear, hence you veil yourself with the full bloomed branches of Ashoka tree, but that alone is amplifying my anguish because you both have presently became tormentors. [3-62-3]
We may recount the idea reg. Ashoka flowers expressed at 3-60-17.
kadalii kaaNDa sadR^ishau kadalyaa sa.mvR^itaa ubhau |
uuruu pashyaami te devi na asi shaktaa niguuhitum || 3-62-4
4. devi= oh, lady; kadalii kaaNDa [sknadha] sadR^ishau= banana plant's, stalk [trunk,] that likens to; kadalyaa samvR^itaa= by banana plants [grove,] lapped in; te ubhau uuruu= your, both, thighs; pashyaami= I caught sight of; ni guuhitum= inside, cover them in; shaktaa na asi= possible, not, you are [inapt].
"Maybe, both your thighs liken to the stalks of banana plants, thinking so, now you have lapped them in grovy banana plants, but I can distinguish which is which, thus now I caught sight of them, oh, lady, you are inapt at least to cover them from me. [3-62-4]
karNikaara vanam bhadre hasa.ntii devi sevase |
alam te parihaasena mama baadhaavahena vai || 3-62-5
5. devi= oh, lady; bhadre= oh, glorious lady; hasantii= facetiously; karNikaara vanam sevase= Karnikaara [trees with flowers,] in boscage, you glorying in; mama baadha aavahena [aa vahena]= to me, worry, bringing, carrying [wafting]; te parihaasena alam vai= your, facetiousness, is enough, really.
"Oh, lady, you are facetiously glorying in the boscage of fully bloomed Karnikaara trees which is really wafting worry to me, rather than the fragrance of those flowers oh, glorious lady, enough, enough is this facetiousness of yours. [3-62-5]
visheSeNa aashramasthaane haaso ayam na prashasyate |
avagacChaami te shiilam parihaasa priyam priye || 3-62-6
aagacCha tvam vishaalaakshii shuunyo ayam uTajaH tava |
6, 7a: visheSeNa= especially; aashrama sthaane= [like] hermitage, in a place; ayam= this [sort of]; haasaH= raillery; na prashasyate= not, merited; priye= oh, dear; te= your; parihaasa priyam shiilam= humour, loving, disposition; avagacChaami= I am aware of [state of mind, your humour]; vishaalaakshii= oh, wide-eyed one; tvam= you; aagacCha= come on; tava ayam uTajaH shuunyaH =your, this, cottage, is empty.
"I am aware of your humour, lady, and I know that you are jocose, but in a place like hermitage unmerited is this sort of raillery, even if it is good-natured. Hence, you come back, oh, wide-eyed one, your cottage is empty. [3-62-6, 7a]
Be it a cottage or a palace, minus a housewife, it cannot be called a 'home' na g®ham g®ha iti ˜hu× g®hiõŸ g®ham ucyate | g®ham tu g®hiõŸ hŸnam araõyam sad®þamatam || Maha Bharata, 12-144-6; bh˜ry˜hŸnam g®hasthasya þ¨nyam eva g®ham bhavet | 'a house is a house when housewife is there, otherwise it amounts to a forest...' 'a house to the householder is a void, if the housewife is not there...'
su vyaktam raakshaiH siitaa bhakshitaa vaa hR^itaa api vaa
na hi saa vilapa.ntam maam upasampraiti lakshmaNa |
7b, 8a. lakshmaNa= oh, Lakshmana; siitaa= Seetha; su vyaktam= very, evidently; raakshaiH= by demons; bhakshitaa vaa= gorged up, either; hR^itaa api vaa= abducted, perhaps, or; saa= she; vilapantam maam= whiny, at me; na= not; upasampraiti [upa sam pra eti= to nearby, well, easily, coming]= returning; hi= indeed.
"Oh, Lakshmana, very evidently demons have either gorged up Seetha, or perhaps abducted her, because she is not returning to me who am whiny indeed for her. [3-62-7b, 8a]
etaani mR^iga yuudhaani sa ashru netraaNi lakshmaNa ||
sha.mshanti iva hi me deviim bhakshitaam rajaniicaraiH |
8b, 9a. lakshmaNa= oh, Lakshmana; sa ashru netraaNi= those that are - with, with tears, eyes - with tearful eyes; etaani mR^iga yuudhaani= these, deer, mobs of; me deviim= my, lady is; rajaniicaraiH= by nightwalkers; bhakshitaam= gluttonised; shamshanti iva hi= explaining, as if, indeed.
"Indeed these teary-eyed mobs of deer look as if to explain that nightwalkers have gluttonised my lady. [3-62-8b, 9a]
haa mama aarye kva yaataa asi haa saadhvi vara var.hNini ||
haa sa kaamaa adya kaikeyii devi me adya bhaviSyati |
8b, 9a. haa= ha; mama aarye= my, graceful one; adya= now; kva yaataa asi= to where, strayed, have you; haa saadhvi= ha, chastely lady; vara varNini= oh, best, complexioned one; haa= ha; me= my; devi kaikeyii= lady [queen mother, dowager,] Kaikeyi; sa kaama= with [fulfilled,] ambition; adya bhaviSyati= now, she will be.
"Ha! My graceful lady, to where you have strayed now... Ha! Chastely and best complexioned lady, now the ambition of my queen mother Kaikeyi will be fulfilled, as I breath my last owing to your straying... [3-62-8b, 9a]
siitaayaa saha niryaato vinaa siitaam upaagataH || 3-62-10
katham naama pravekshyaami shuunyam antaH puram mama |
9b, 10a. siitaayaa saha nir yaataH= with Seetha, along, out, I came - to exile; vinaa siitaam upa aagataH= without, Seetha, towards, arriving - go back to Ayodhya; shuunyam= empty; mama antaH puram= my, inside, palace [palace-chambers]; katham= how; naama= [in all but] name; pravekshyaami= enter [step in.]
"I have come to forests with Seetha and have to go back to Ayodhya without Seetha. How, in all but name, can I step into an oblivion called my palace-chambers? [3-62-9b, 10a]
nir.hviirya iti loko maam nir.hdayaH ca iti vakshyati ||
kaataratvam prakaasham hi siitaa apanayanena me |
10b, 11a. lokaH maam= populace, of me; nir viirya iti= [a person] without, vigour, thus as; nir dayaH ca= without, pity, also; iti vakshyati= thus, they say [denounce]; siitaa apa nayanena= in Seetha's, away, leading - regarding abduction; me= my; kaataratvam= timidity [ineptitude]; prakaasham hi= will be self-evident, indeed.
"People will denounce me as a vigourless and pitiless person, and my ineptitude will indeed be self-evident, for Seetha is led away from me by some tactical being... [3-62-10b, 11a]
nivR^itta vana vaasaH ca janakam mithila adhipam || 3-62-12
kushalam paripR^icChantam katham shakshe niriikshitum |
11b, 12a. nivR^itta vana vaasaH ca= on completing, forest, living, also; kushalam paripR^icChantam= wellbeing [of all,] one who asks after [me]; mithila adhipam= Mithila's, king; janakam= to Janaka; niriikshitum= to gaze at [have the face]; katham shakshe= how, I am capable [how can I stand.]
"When the king of Mithila Janaka asks after the wellbeing of all the three of us after the completion of forest living, how do I have the face to stand him? [3-62-11b, 12a]
videha rajo nuunam maam dR^iSTvaa virahitam tayaa || 3-62-13
sutaa vinaasha sa.mtapto mohasya vasham eSyati |
12b, 13a. videha rajaH= Videha's, king; tayaa virahitam= her [Seetha,] without; maam dR^iSTvaa= me, on seeing; sutaa vinaasha santaptaH= daughter, by perishing, distraught; mohasya vasham eSyati= of perplexity, preponderance, goes under; nuunam= it is definite.
"On seeing me without Seetha the king of Videha will be distraught by the perishing of his daughter, and he defiantly goes under the preponderance of perplexity... [3-62-12b, 13a]
athavaa na gamiSyaami puriim bharata paalitam || 3-62-14
svargo api hi tayaa hiinaH shuunya eva mato mama |
13b, 14a. athavaa= instead; bharata paalitam puriim= by Bharata, ruled, to city [Ayodhya]; na gamiSyaami= not, I prefer to go; tayaa hiinaH= her, without; svargaH api= heaven, even; mama= to me; shuunya eva hi= void, thus, indeed; mataH= [is my] belief.
"Instead, I prefer not to go to the city Ayodhya that is ruled by Bharata, because it must be comforting to one and all under his rulership, but not to me as Seetha will not be with me... else if, that end of my life occurs now and if I were to go to heaven, even that heaven will be a void to me without her... I believe so... [3-62-13b, 14a]
tat maam utsR^ijya hi vane gacCha ayodhyaa puriim shubhaam
na tu aham taam vinaa siitaam jiiveyam hi katha.mcana |
14b, 15a. tat= hence; maam vane utsR^ijya= me, in forest, forsaking; shubhaam ayodhyaa puriim gacCha= to auspicious, city, to Ayoidhya, [you Lakshmana] you go back; aham tu= I, on my part; taam siitaam vinaa= her, that Seetha, without; kathamcana= in anyway; na jiiveyam hi= not, I live on, isn't it.
"Hence, Lakshmana, you go back to that auspicious city Ayodhya forsaking me in forests, because I have no existence without Seetha, isn't it! [3-62-14b, 15a]
gaaDham aashliSya bharato vaacyo mat vacanaat tvayaa ||
anuj~naato asi raameNa paalaya iti vasu.ndharaam |
15b, 16a. bharataH gaaDham aashliSya= Bharata, [on your] tightly, hugging [him]; mat vacanaat tvayaa= my, according to word, by you; vaacyaH= is tellable - Bharata is to be said this; vasundharaam paalaya iti= the earth, you reign, thus; raameNa anuj~naataH asi= by Rama, authorised, you are.
"On tightly hugging Bharata you shall tell him these words as I have said, 'Rama authorises you to reign the earth...' [3-62-16]
a.mbaa ca mama kaikeyii sumitraa ca tvayaa vibho || 3-62-17
kausalyaa ca yathaa nyaayam abhivaadyaa mama aj~nayaa |
rakshaNiiyaa prayatnena bhavataa saa ukta kaariNaa || 3-62-18
17b, 18. vibho= oh, efficacious Lakshmana; mama ambaa= my, mother; kaikeyii sumitraa ca kausalyaa ca= Kaikeyi, Sumitra, also, Kausalya, also; tvayaa= by you; mama aj~nayaa= by my, order; yathaa nyaayam= as per, justification [justifiably]; abhivaadyaa= you on revering them; you tell them my good bye; ukta kaariNaa= one who does whatever said to him - by Rama, namely Lakshmana; such a you are you say; bhavataa= by you; prayatnena= effortfully; saa= she [Kausalya]; rakshaNiiyaa= is to be protected.
"Oh, efficacious Lakshmana, on revering my mothers Kaika, Sumitra, and Kausalya justifiably you tell them my good bye, and you as the one who effectuates whatever is assigned to you, you have to effortfully protect my mother Kausalya by doing whatever she says. [3-62-17b, 18]
siitaayaaH ca vinaasho ayam mama ca amitra suudana |
vistareNa jananyaa vinivedya tvayaa bhavet || 3-62-19
19. a + mitra suudana= un, friendly, subjugator of; siitaayaaH ca= Seetha's, also; mama ca= mine, also; ayam= this; vinaashaH= perish; tvayaa= by you; jananyaa= to mothers; vistareNa= in detail; vi nivedya= clearly, be informed; bhavet= it shall be.
"Oh, the subjugator of unfriendly, Lakshmana... you shall clearly inform in detail about this perish of Seetha, also that of mine, to our mothers. [3-62-19]
iti vilapati raaghavo tu diino
vanam upagamya tayaa vinaa su keshyaa |
bhaya vikala mukhaH tu lakshmaNo api
vyathita manaa bhR^isham aaturo babhuuva || 3-62-20
20. diinaH= dejected one; raaghavaH= Raghava; vanam upagamya= forest, on nearing [searchingly he neared every corner of forest]; su keshyaa= with good, tresses - lady with best hair-locks; tayaa vinaa= her, without - missing from him; iti vilapati= thus, bewailing; lakshmaNaH api= Lakshmana, even; bhaya vi kala mukhaH= by fear, without, lustre, faced [whey-faced]; vyathita manaa= frantic, hearted; bhR^isham aaturaH babhuuva= highly, overwrought, he became.
Thus Raghava, the dejected, neared every corner of the forest in his search, and bewailed because that lady with best plaits, Seetha, is not found and missing from him. Even Lakshmana became whey-faced, frantic-hearted, highly overwrought, by the fear of uncertainty looming large on them. [3-62-20]
iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye araNya kaaNDe dvi SaSTitamaH sargaH
Thus, this is the 62nd chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.
© Mar, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : December 04]