Chapter [Sarga] 60

Introduction

Rama laments for Seetha's separation. He starts searching for her and goes on asking every plant, tree and animal, in a kind of frenzied attitude. This chapter is too poetic to summarise, hence this much is said here.


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bham vrajamnasya tasya adho vma locanam |
prsphurat ca askhalat rmo vepathu ca asya jyate || 3-60-1

1. aa vraja maanasya= one who started coming towards [hermitage]; tasya= his; vaama= left; locanam= eye; adhaH= lower [lower eyelid and below]; bhR^isham= frequently; praasphurat ca= fluttered, also; raamaH askhalat ca= Rama, stumbled [missed his footing,] also; asya vepathuH jaayate= his, falter, bechanced [his gait faltered.]

While Rama is coming towards hermitage his lower eyelid frequently fluttered, his gait faltered, and he missed his footing. [3-60-1]

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uplakya nimittni so aubhni muhur muhu |
api kemam tu sty iti vai vyjahra ha || 3-60-2

2. saH= he, that Rama; a + shubhaani= not, auspicious; nimittaani= incidentals [forebodings]; upa aalakSya= closely, on watching; siitaayaa kSemam api tu [nu]= for Seetha, safety, even [in fact,] but, [will Seetha be safe!]; iti vyaajahaara ha= thus, [reflexly] uttered, indeed; muhur muhuH vai= again, again, really.

On closely watching those inauspicious forebodings Rama indeed uttered oftentimes reflexly thus as, 'would she be safe, in fact!' [3-60-2]

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tvaramo jagma atha st darana llasa |
nyam vasatham dv babhva udvigna mnasa || 3-60-3

3. atha= then; tvaramaaNaH= quickening himself; siitaa darshana laalasaH= Seetha, to see, with ardency; jagaama= went; shuunyam aavasatham dR^iSTvaa= empty, home, on seeing; udvigna maanasaH babhuuva= distraught, at heart, he became.

He quickened himself and went with an ardency to see Seetha, and then on seeing an empty home his heart is distraught. [3-60-3]

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ud bhraman iva vegena vikipan raghu nandana |
tatra tatra uaja sthnam abhivkya samantata || 3-60-4
dadara para lm ca stay rahitm tad |
riy virahitm dhvastm hemante padminm iva || 3-60-5

4, 5. raghu nandanaH= Raghu's, descendent, Raghava; vegena= by speed; ud bhraman= up, to fly, [flying-flutterer]; iva= like [looked like]; vikSipan= jolting [his arms and gait]; tatra tatra= there, there; uTaja sthaanam= cottage's, in places; sam antataH= all-over; abhi viikSya= towards [on keenly,] probing; tadaa= then; siitayaa rahitaam ca= of Seetha, lacking, also; such hermitage which is like; hemante dhvastaam padminiim iva= in wintry [season,] ruined [befogged,] lotus-lake, as with; shriyaa vi rahitaam= lustre, without, having [lustreless]; parNa shaalaam= straw, house of; dadarsha= he has seen.

Raghava looked like a flying-flutterer as his speed jostled his arms and gait flutteringly, and on closely probing there and there, and all-over the places of that cottage, then he saw the lustreless house of straw devoid of Seetha, alike a befogged wintry lotus-lake without lustre. [3-60-4, 5]

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rudantam iva vkai ca glna pupa mga dvijam |
riy vihnam vidhvastam santyakta vana daivatai || 3-60-6
viprakra ajina kuam vipraviddha bs kaam |
dv nya uaja sthnam vilalpa puna puna || 3-60-7

6, 7. vR^ikSaiH rudantam iva= by trees [of that woodland,] weeping / warbling / whining, as though; glaana [mlaana]= withered / weakened; puSpa= with flowers; mR^iga dvijam= with animals, with birds; shriyaa vihiinam= charm, less; vi dhvastam= utterly, shattered; sam tyakta vana daivataiH= completely, abandoned, by forest [georgic,] deities. viprakiirNa [vi pra kiirNaa]= rather, utterly, bestrewn; ajina kusham= deerskin, Kusha - sacred grass; vipraviddha [vi pra viddha]= rather, utterly, battered; bR^isii= tender-grass-seats; kaTam= [other] mats; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing; shuunya uTaja sthaanam= emptied, cottage, locale; [saH siitaa darshana laalasaH= he who wanted to see Seetha ardently, such Rama]; punaH punaH vilalaapa= over, over again, he wept.

The trees of that woodland are seemingly weeping, as their flowers are witheringly weakening and their birds are weepingly warbling, and the animals are whingeingly weeping, and that woodland is charmless and utterly shattered, since its georgic deities have completely abandoned it. Rather utterly bestrewn are the deerskins and sacred grass blades, rather utterly battered are the tender-grass-seats and other mats in the compound of cottage, and he who ardently wanted to see Seetha, such a Rama, on seeing such an emptied locale and cottage, wept over, over and again. [3-60-6, 7]

By this bestrewn, battered, or shattered state of articles, it is evident that Seetha struggled a lot to get release from the clutches of Ravana, and in their tussle articles are in shambles. Hence, Ravana did not carry Seetha on a clod of earth as said in Adhyaatma Ramayana and other texts. Valmiki's Seetha is an out and out human, as of now.

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ht mt v na v bhakit v bhaviyati |
niln api athav bhru athav vanam rit || 3-60-8

8. bhiiruH= bashful lady Seetha; hR^itaa= stolen [by grudging demons]; mR^itaa =slain [by grisly demons]; vaa= or; naSTaa vaa= strayed [in gauntly forest,] or; bhakSitaa vaa= savoured [by gruesome beasts,] or; bhaviSyati= she might be; athavaa= or else; ni liinaa api= under, cover [shrouded herself, playfully,] even; athavaa= or else; vanam aashritaa= in forest, took shelter.

"That bashful Seetha might be stolen by the grudging demons, or slain by the very same grisly demons, or savoured by some gruesome beasts, or else she strayed in this gauntly forest, and even she might have playfully shrouded herself in the grimly forest, or else she must be sheltering herself in this forest which will be gruelling to locate. [3-60-8]

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gat vicetum pupi phalni api ca v puna |
athav padminm yt jala artham v nadm gat || 3-60-9

9. api vaa= or, else; puSpaaNi phalaani ca= flowers, fruits, also; vicetum= to pick up; gataa= gone; punaH= again; athavaa= or else; padminiim yaataa= to lotus-lake, gone; jala artham= water, for the sake of; nadiim gataa vaa= to river gone, or.

"Or else, she might have again gone to pick the flowers or fruits, or again gone to lotus-lake, or gone to the river for water." Thinking thus, Rama started his search for Seetha. [3-60-9]

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yatnt mgayama tu na sasda vane priym |
oka rakta kaa rmn unmatta iva lakyate || 3-60-10

10. yatnaat= effortfully; mR^igayamaaNaH tu= being searched [by Rama,] though; vane priyaam= in forest, [his] dear [Seetha]; na aasasaada= not, I have attained; shoka rakta iikSaNaH= by anguish, reddened, looks [eyes]; shriimaan= glorious one - Rama; unmatta= madman; iva= alike / as though / seems to be; lakSyate= is appearing.

Though he searched effortfully for his dear Seetha he did not get her, and as his anguish is reddening his eyes the appearance of that glorious one seems to be that of a madman. [3-60-10]

The word iva 'as though, seems to be, alike...' has some importance from the viewpoint of commentators, and some discussion is given in endnote on its usage. Because he is 'like' a madman, the translation shall also be 'like' a mad-translation, as long as he talks 'like' a madman.

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vkt vkam pradhvan sa girm ca api nad nadam |
babhrma vilapan rma oka paka arava pluta || 3-60-11

11. raamaH= Rama; vR^ikSaat vR^ikSam= from tree, to tree [shrub]; giriim ca api= from hill, also, even [to hillock]; nadii nadam= river, to rivulet; pra dhaavan= speedily, running; vilapan= on wailing over; shoka panka arNava plutaH= woe, sludge, ocean, inundated in - sludgy ocean of woes; saH= he that Rama; ba bhraama= revolved around.

Rama ran speedily from tree to shrub, from hill to hillock, from river to rivulet, and revolving around them he wailed for Seetha, as he is inundated in a sludgy ocean of woes. [3-60-11]

Whether Rama 'really wept' over Seetha's absence or it the 'playacting' of god - is a much-debated topic. As a hero of the epic, it is 'real' weeping and it is necessary to arouse pathos, but should he be god or god incarnate, is 'weeping' manifest in the qualities of Omniscient - is the dilemma. Some points are presented in the endnote.

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asti kaccit tvay d s kadamba priy priy |
kadamba yadi jne asa stm ubha nanm || 3-60-12

12. kadamba= oh, Kadamba tree; kadamba priyaa= Kadamba [flowers,] a lover of; priyaa= [my] ladylove; saa= she that Seetha; kaccit= someone [who is a lady]; tvayaa= by you; [api] dR^iSTaa= is seen; asti= is she [seen]; jaaniiSe yadi= you know [her,] if; shubha aananaam siitaam= about lovable, faced, Seetha; shamsa= you tell.

"Oh, Kadamba tree, seest thou someone a lady who is lover of Kadamba flowers, one with a lovable face and a love of mine, thou tellest me if thou knowest. [3-60-12]

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snigdha pallava sakm pta kaueya vsinm |
asasva yadi s d bilva bilva upama stan || 3-60-13

13. bilva= oh, Bilva tree; snigdha pallava samkaashaam= smooth [silky,] leaflet, similar to [in skin]; piita kausheya vaasiniim= yellowy-ochry, silk, dressed in; bilva upama stanii= Bilva-fruits [rotund and silky,] in simile, breasted; [kaccit= someone ]; yadi saa dR^iSTaa= if, she is, seen by you; shamsasva= you tell.

"Oh, Bilva tree, if thou seest someone who is drest in yellowy-ochry silks, whose skin likens to the silkiness of thine leaflets, breasts to thine rotund and silky Bilva fruits, thou tellest me... [3-60-13]

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athav arjuna asa tvam priym tm arjuna priym |
janakasya sut tanv yadi jvati v na v || 3-60-14

14. athavaa= otherwise; arjuna= oh, Arjuna tree; tvam= you; [yadi jaaniiSe= if, you know her]; arjuna priyaam= Arjuna [flowers,] a lover of; taam= of her; priyaam= [my] ladylove; tanvii =slender [waisted one]; janakasya sutaa= Janaka's, daughter; yadi jiivati vaa= whether, living, or; na vaa= not, or; shamsa= tell.

"Otherwise, thou Arjuna tree, if thou knowest her who is a lover of thine Arjuna flowers and the ladylove of mine, thou telleth whether that slender-waisted daughter of Janaka liveth or otherwise... [3-60-14]

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kakubha kakubha rum tm vyaktam jnti maithilm |
lat pallava pupa hyo bhti hi ea vanaspati || 3-60-15

15. eSa= this; vanaspatiH= tree; lataa pallava puSpa= with creeping plants [creepy-creepers,] tender leaves [foliole-foliage,] flowers [flowery-flowers]; aaDhyaH= is laden with; [yathaa= as to how]; bhaati hi= it is shining forth, indeed; thereby; [eSa= this]; kakubhaH= Kakubha tree; kakubha uurum= about Kakubha-tree [its trunk like,] one who has such thighs - about Seetha with thighs like Kakubha tree trunk; taam maithiliim= of her, of Maithili; vyaktam jaanaati= obviously, will be knowing.

"As to how this Kakubha tree shineth laden with creepy-creepers, foliole-foliage and flowery-flowers, this tree knowest Maithili whose thighs can be likened to the smoothish trunk of this very Kakubha tree... [3-60-15]

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bhramarair upagta ca yath druma varo hi asi |
ea vyaktam vijnti tilaka tilaka priym || 3-60-16

16. druma varaH= tree, best [among trees]; [ayam= this]; tilakaH= Tilaka tree; yathaa= as to how; bhramaraiH= by honeybees; upa giitaH ca asi hi= nearly, singing, also, it is, indeed - because honeybees are singing in chorus at its nearby, that chorus of bees is audible to the tree; thereby; eSa= this - Tilaka tree; tilaka priyaam= Tilaka tree, about the lover of - of Seetha; vyaktam vijaanaati= clearly, be knowing.

"As to how this best tree among all trees heareth the chorus of honeybees that singest around it, thereby this Tilaka tree clearly knowest Maithili, a lover of Tilaka trees, as this shouldst have heard her. [3-60-16]

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aoka oka apanuda oka upahata cetanam |
tvan nmnam kuru kipram priy sandaranena mm || 3-60-17

17. shoka apa nuda= oh, agony, away, taker - oh, remover of agony [a + shoka= alleviator of agony, name of tree etymologically]; ashoka= oh, Ashoka tree; priyaa sandarshanena= my ladylove, by showing; shoka upahata cetanam= by agony, marred, empathy [whose empathetic thinking is marred by agony]; maam= me; kSipram= readily; tvat naamaanam= yours, name after [name me after your name, make me your namesake with removed agonies]; kuru= you make [you name me.]

"Oh, Ashoka tree, an alleviator of agony, that is thine name lingually... but practically and readily name me after thine, by showing my ladylove, as my agony has marred my empathy... [3-60-17]

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yadi tla tvay d pakva tla phala stan |
kathayasva varrohm kruyam yadi te mayi || 3-60-18

18. taala= oh, Palm tree; pakva taala phala stanii= ripened, palm, fruit [like,] breasted; tvayaa dR^iSTaa yadi= by you, seen, if; te mayi kaaruNyam yadi= to you, on me, mercy [you have,] if there; varaarohaam kathayasva= of shapely lady, you tell.

"Oh, Palm tree, if thou seest that lady breasted alike ripened-palm fruits of thine, and if thine mercy is mine, thou telleth of that shapely lady Seetha... [3-60-18]

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yadi d tvay st jambo jmbnada sama prabh |
priym yadi vijnsi niaka kathayasva me || 3-60-19

19. jambo= oh, Rose-apple tree; tvayaa siitaa yadi dR^iSTaa= by you, Seetha, if, is seen; jaambuu nada= like gold - golden complexioned; or [jaambuu phala= Rose apple like; sama prabhaa= equal, in glitter; smoothly complexioned one like Rose-apple; priyaam= of ladylove; vi jaanaa asi yadi= clearly, in the know, you are, if, [if you are clearly in the know of]; me niH shanka kathayasva= to me, less of, doubt - hesitation, tell.

"Oh, Rose-apple tree, if thou seest Seetha and thee knowest my ladylove with golden glitter, thou telleth me without hesitation...

Or

"Oh, Rose-apple tree, if thou seest Seetha and thou knowest my ladylove whose complexion is smoothish like thine Rose-apples, thou telleth me unhesitatingly... [3-60-19]

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aho tvam karikra adya pupita obhase bham |
karikra priym sdhvm asa d yadi priy || 3-60-20

20. karNikaara= oh, Karnikaara tree; tvam adya= you, now; puSpitaH= in full bloom; shobhase bhR^isham= blooming, magnificently; aho= Aha! karNikaara priyaam= Karnikaara-flowers, a lover of; saadhviim= immaculate one; priyaa= my ladylove; dR^iSTaa yadi= you have seen, if; shamsa= you tell.

"Aha! Karnikaara tree, now thou art in full bloom and blooming magnificently, if thou seest that lover of Karnikaara-flowers and an immaculate ladylove of mine, thou telleth me... [3-60-20]

Annex: 'you all might have seen when your friend was imperilled and you might have complained, or cried out with the rustle of your leaves or gestured with the swings of your branches, as humans would do with their voice and hands... and the birds and bees nestled on you also might have chorused, sadly... but those birds and bees are unable to communicate what has happened... you trees, though you may not have rushed to rescue her, as you are pegged on ground, you indicate to me, at least with your branchy gestures, what exactly has happened...

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cta npa mah sln panasn kuravn dhavn |
dimn api tn gatv dv rmo mahya || 3-60-21
bakuln atha punngn ca candannketakn tath |
pcchan rmo vane bhrnta unmatta iva lakyate || 3-60-22

21. mahaayashaaH= of high glory; raamaH= heart-stealer; raamaH= Rama; vane= in forest; cuuta= mango trees; niipa= niipa trees; mahaa saalaan= massive, saala trees; panasaan= jack-fruit trees; kuravaan= kuruva trees; dhavaan= dhava trees; atha= then; daaDimaan api= daaDima trees, even; bakulaan= bakula trees; tathaa= like that; pun naagaan ca= pannaga trees, also; candanaan= sandalwood trees; ketakaan= ketaka trees; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing - those trees; taan gatvaa= to them, having gone to trees; pR^icChan= on asking them; bhraanta= while wandering; unmatta iva lakshyate= madman, like, appearing to be.

Rama has gone on asking trees like mango, niipa, massive saala, jack-fruit, kuruva, dhava, and even around daaDima, bakula, punnaaga, sandalwood, ketaka trees, and when he is running around them that highly glorious Rama appeared like a madman. [3-60-21, 22]

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athav mga ba akm mga jnsi maithilm |
mga vipreka knt mgbhi sahit bhavet || 3-60-23

23. athavaa= or else; mR^iga= oh, deer; mR^iga shaaba akSiim= deer, fawn, eyed one; maithiliim jaanaasi= of Maithili, do you know [what bechanced to her]; mR^iga vi prekSaNii= deer-like, quick, with looks; [athavaa= or else] kaantaa= that lady; mR^igiibhiH sahitaa bhavet= herd of she-deer, along with, she will be [herded into her of deer.]

"Or else, oh, deer, dost thou know what bechanced to that fawn-eyed Maithili, one with quick-looks like thee deer? Or else, hast she herded herself into the herd of she-deer of yours... [3-60-23]

Annex: 'poor trees... they cannot air their expression, hence Maithili is unsaid by them... but you deer, you can voice and gesticulate, then voice it out or gesticulate, since that Maithili is an all time playmate of you deer... and you are an expert in escaping, and you might have escaped when Maithili was in danger, does not matter, it is your nature, now tell me what exactly has happened...' [but, then that deer ran in a particular way, but Rama is now unable to decipher it... and concludes,] 'now also you are escaping expertly... leave it at that...'

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gaja s gaja nsoru yadi d tvay bhavet |
tm manye viditm tubhyam khyhi vara vraa || 3-60-24

24. gaja= oh, elephant; gaja naasa= elephant's, nose - trunk-like; uuruH= thighs - she who is having; saa= she that Maithili; tvayaa dR^iSTaa yadi bhavet= by you. seen, if, she is [if she is seen by you]; taam= of her; tubhyam= to you; viditaam= [she who is already -] familiar to you; manye= I deem; vara vaaraNa= oh, best, elephant; aakhyaahi= you tell.

"Oh, elephant, thou mightst beheld her whose thighs likens to your trunk at that problematic hour, thus methinks, and that Maithili is familiar to thee, and oh, best elephant, if thou beholdest her, thou tallest me... [3-60-24]

Annex: 'though you are a pachyderm you are keen-eyed and you can find out even a thorn in the weed, also you are around this place for a long time, thus well acquainted with all of us... hence I deem that something must have happened and somehow you might have seen... though you could not prevent it with your massive head, trunk or legs, but tell me what exactly has happened...

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rdla yadi s d priy candra nibha nan |
maithil mama visrabdham kathayasva na te bhayam || 3-60-25

25. shaarduula= oh tiger; candra nibha aananaa= Moon, similar in shine, faced one - Seetha; priyaa= my ladylove; saa maithilii= she, that Maithili; dR^iSTaa yadi= seen [by you,] if; vi srabdham= without, fear - in good faith; mama= to me; kathayasva= you speak up; te bhayam na= to you, fear, is not there.

"Fear not, oh, tiger, hast thou seen Maithili, the moonfaced ladylove of mine, if thou hast seen speak in good faith... [3-60-25]

Annex: 'I know that you are a master prowler and a brave one, these deer and elephants are somehow fearing to tell me, but you tell me because you're a brave one... did you not prowl the prowler of Maithili... I also know that equal is the fear when one sees a tiger or when a tiger sees one... now you need not lift up your fore-paw and step back on seeing me... as I cause no harm now... but tell me, whether you ran after that one who caused some harm to Seetha or not, as Seetha never harmed you, when you were on the prowl hereabouts...' But that tiger retraced its steps, because Rama is an archer with a bow and arrows, without telling him that without exception all the animals vainly ran after Ravana trying to rescue Seetha. Such as he is, an uninformed one, he starts a delirious soliloquy in imagery.

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kim dhvasi priye nnam d asi kamala kae |
vkea ccdya ca tmnam kim mm na pratibhase || 3-60-26

26. kamala iikSaNe= oh, lotus like, eyed one; priye= oh, my dear; [duure= distantly]; kim dhaavasi= why, you are running away; dR^iSTaa asi= seen, you are; nuunam= in fact; aatmaanam vR^ikSeNa aacchaadya= yourself, by trees [by leaves,] veiling [camouflaging]; maam= to me; kim na prati bhaaSase= why, not, in turn, talking [replying me.]

"Oh lotus-eyed lady, in fact I have seen you my dear, then why this running away and concealing yourself under trees, why do not you reply me... [3-60-26]

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tiha tiha varrohe na te asti karu mayi |
na atyartham hsya l asi kim artham mm upekase || 3-60-27

27. varaarohe= oh, best lady; tiSTha tiSTha= stay, stay; te mayi karuNaa na asti= to you, on me, mercy, not, is there; ati artham= too, much - unacceptably; haasya shiilaa= tease, humoured; na asi= not, you are; maam= me; kim artham upekSase= what, for, you ignore.

"Stay...stay... oh, best lady, don't you have mercy on me? You are not unacceptably tease-humoured! What for you ignore me? [3-60-27]

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pta kaueyakena asi scit vara varini |
dhvanti api may d tiha yadi asti sauhdam || 3-60-28

28. vara varNini= oh, beautifully, complexioned one; piita kausheyakena= by yellowy, silk-sari; suucitaa asi= betokened, you are; dhaavanti api= running away, even if; mayaa dR^iSTaa= by me, seen; sau hR^idam= good, will [for me]; asti yadi= is there is [you have,] if; tiSTha= you stay.

"Oh, beautifully complexioned lady, even if you are running away your yellowy silk-sari betokens you, stay, if you have goodwill for me... [3-60-28]

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na eva s nnam athav hisit cru hsin |
kcchram prptam na mm nnam yath upekitum arhati || 3-60-29

29. athavaa= otherwise; saa= she [whom I just saw]; na eva= not, thus [may not be Seetha]; caaru haasinii= cheerful, smiles [one who have them, Seetha]; nuunam= certainly; himsitaa= she is murdered; yathaa= as to how [why because]; kR^icChram praaptam= wretched-state, one who attained; maam= me; upekSitum na arhati= to avoid me, not, aptly of her - she would not avoid me; nuunam= definitely.

"Otherwise, she whom I have just seen me may not be Seetha, why because, it is unapt of her to avoid me who attained this wretched state, hence Seetha with cheery smiles is certainly murdered... [3-60-29]

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vyaktam s bhakit bl rkasai piita aanai |
vibhajya agni sarvi may virahit priy || 3-60-30

30. mayaa virahitaa priyaa= by me, without being present [in my absence,] my dear one; saa baalaa= she, who is youngish; vyaktam= obviously; sarvaaNi angaani vi bhajya= [her] all, limbs, on verily, dividing; pishita ashanaiH raakSasaiH bhakSitaa= by raw-flesh, gorgers, by demons, she is gorged.

"Obviously the raw-flesh gorgers must have gorged that youngish lady on diving all her limbs in my absence from my dear one... [3-60-30]

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nnam tat ubha danta oham sunsam ubha kualam |
pra candra nibham grastam mukham niprabhatm gatam || 3-60-31

31. nuunam= evidently; tat shubha danta oSTham= that [lady with] pretty, teethed, lipped one; su naasam= with prettily, nose; shubha kuNDalam= with prettyish, earrings; puurNa candra nibham= full, moon, similar; [tat= that]; mukham= face; grastam= when devoured; niS prabhataam gatam= without, lustre [blanched looked,] entered [obtained.]

"Her face which is similar to a full-moon with pretty teeth, prettier lips, prettily nose and with prettyish earrings, might have obtained a blanched look when being devoured... [3-60-31]

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s hi campaka vara bh grv graiveyaka ucit |
komal vilapanty tu knty bhakit ubh || 3-60-32

32. vilapantyaaH= while bewailing; kaantaayaa= lady's; campaka varNa aabhaa= campaka flower's, colour, in shine; graiveyaka ucitaa= for neck ornaments, befitting - neck; komalaa= exquisite; shubhaa= beautiful; saa griivaa tu= hers/that, neck, but; bhakSitaa hi= glutted down, indeed.

"But that exquisite and beautiful neck of that lady which shines forth in the colour of Campaka flower, befitting for any neck ornament, indeed it might be glutted down while she is bewailing... [3-60-32]

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nnam vikipyamau tau bh pallava komalau |
bhakitau vepamna agrau sa hasta bharaa agadau || 3-60-33

33. vikSipyamaaNau= when wriggling; pallava komalau= tender-leaf like, delicate; vepamaana agrau= having quivering, having ends - of arms, fingers; sa hasta aabharaNa angadau= with, hand, ornaments [bangles,] bicep-lets; tau baahuu= those two, arms; nuunam= definitely; bhakSitau= eaten - are nibbled.

"Her two arms which are delicate like tender leaves, ornamented with bangles and bicep-lets might have been definitely nibbled while they are wriggling with quivering fingers... [3-60-33]

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may virahit bl rakasm bhakaya vai |
srthena iva parityakt bhakit bahu bndhav || 3-60-34

34. baalaa= youngish - Seetha; rakSasaam bhakSaNaaya vai= for demons, as though for feast, really; mayaa vi rahitaa= by me, without presence [in my absence]; [maya pari tyaktaa iva= by me, forsaken, as though]; bahu baandhavaa= many, relatives, [though Seetha has many relatives]; saarthena parityaktaa iva == by caravan, completely forsaken [woman,] like [as worse as]; bhakSitaa= she is feasted.

"This is as though I have forsaken this youngish Seetha really as a feast for the demons in my absence, and though Seetha has many relatives she has become as worse as a lonesome woman who is completely forsaken by her caravan who is lonesomely ready for the feast of highwaymen, and demons have feasted on her. [3-60-34]

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h lakmaa mahbho payase tvam priym kvacit |
h priye kva gat bhadre h ste iti puna puna || 3-60-35

35. mahaabaahaH= oh, dextrous one; haa lakSmaNa= ha, Lakshmana; tvam= you; kvacit= anywhere; priyaam= my ladylove; pashyase= are you seeing; bhadre= oh, auspicious lady; haa priye= ha, dear; kva gataa= where, you have gone; haa siite= ha, Seetha; iti punaH punaH= thus, again, again; [rudan= while bewailing] - he serched.

"Ha, Lakshmana... oh, dextrous one... have you seen my ladylove anywhere... ha, dear, where have you gone... oh, auspicious lady... ha, Seetha..." thus Rama lamented again and again in his search. [3-60-35]

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iti evam vilapan rma paridhvan vant vanam |
kvacit ud bhramate vegt kvacit vibhramate balt || 3-60-36
kvacit matta iva bhti knt anveaa tatpara |

36, 37a. raamaH= Rama; iti evam= thus, this way; vilapan= on bewailing; vanaat vanam= from wood, to wood; pari dhaavan= on overly, rushing; kvacit= somewhere; vegaat= by forcefulness [of delusion]; ud bhramate= highly, delusional [he becomes]; kvacit= somewhere else; balat= by powerfulness [of allusion]; vi bhramate= verily, [he is] alluded; kvacit= else where; kaantaa anveSaNa tatparaH= ladylove, in search of, impassioned one; matta iva [unmatta iva]= mad [madman,] like; aabhaati= shining forth [he is nitid.]

On bewailing in this way and on overly rushing from wood to wood, somewhere Rama has become highly delusional by the forcefulness of delusion and spots forest stuff as Seetha, though none of them have any resemblance to Seetha, and somewhere else, marking creepers, plants or slender shrubs and suchlike delicacies as Seetha he has become really alluded by the powerfulness of allusion, and elsewhere, he is not discriminating paths or pathless routes for his trekking as an impassioned one in the search of his ladylove, and thus he is nitid like a madman. [3-60-36, 37a]

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sa vanni nad ailn giri prasravani ca |
knanni ca vegena bhramati aparisasthita || 3-60-37

37. saH= he, Rama; vanaani nadiiH shailaan= woods, rivers, hills; giri prasravaNaani ca= mountain, rapids, also; kaananaani ca= thick forests, also; aparisamsthitaH [a pari sam sthitaH= not, completely, well, stable one]= restlessly; vegena bhramati= speedily, he roves.

Rama is on the rove around woods, rivers, hills, mountain-rapids and thicketed forests, speedily and restlessly. [3-60-37]

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tad sa gatv vipulam mahat vanam
partya sarvam tu atha maithilm prati |
anihita a sa cakra mrgae
puna priyy paramam pariramam || 3-60-38

38. saH= he that Rama; vipulam mahat vanam= to vast, great, forest; tadaa= that way; gatvaa= on going round; sarvam pariitya= everywhere, on searching; maithiliim prati= Maithili, towards; an + iSThita aashaH= not, tangible, hope [hope became intangible]; saH= he; atha= then; punaH= again; priyaayaaH= of ladylove; maargaNe= in searching; =; paramam parishramam= extreme, effort - over-strenuous effort; cakaara= he made.

On going round the vast of great forest in that way and on searching for Maithili, his hope became intangible, but again he undertook the search for his ladylove, over-strenuously. [3-60-38]

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Did Rama actually weep?

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Maheshvara Tiirtha says that, 'the word iva 'alike, seemingly, as though' is to be ellipted to all the expressions given by Rama, as god incarnate Rama did not 'really' weep over...' As such the expressions will become: shokaat paripluta iva, shokaat pradhaavan iva, vilapan iva etc., and they mean 'as though he is inundated in sea called lamentation... as though he wept... as though he ran after...' and the like. For this the viSNu puraaNa, umaa samhita is cited as reference, where Vishnu himself says: aham darathi btv hanmi rvaam have | r mad rma avatre asmin ajavat kriyate mama | tatra ank na kartavy sarvajena api myay | mat my mohitam rako manuyam mm avekyati | anyath tasya s nnam na bhavet atra kutracit 'I on becoming Dasharatha's son will eliminate Ravana in combat... though Omniscient I conduct myself in the incarnation of Rama as a commoner by my Maya... thereby no doubt be nurtured by any... believing me a human Ravana will be mislead, as there is no other way for his elimination...' thus Tiirtha says that Rama did not actually 'weep or wail...'

But this is contradicted and said by later commentators, 'though Rama is Supreme Being he took up human incarnation and he conducted himself as a human. Hence there is no need to ellipt ellipses for many a time and portray him as a 'direct' god on earth. Valmiki has said this more than once through Rama's words that he is just a 'human...' aatmaanam aham maanuSam manye 'I for myself am a human...' etc., and here also Valmiki used this word iva only at a few places like unmatta iva, udbhraanta iva Even if Rama were to be 'god' on earth, for his fate of taking a human incarnation he is fated to behave as a human, and gets involved in human emotions, according to situations and his mental conditions. In such conditions, for he is 'god' he can 'evoke' an emotion as he evoked rancour many times when eliminating demons as in the episodes of Aranya when he was eliminating Khara, Dushana, and others. There is roSam aahaarayat tiivram... 'rancour, evoking, unusual...' 'and then evoking an unusual rancour to eliminate Khara in war, he eliminated Khara...' as at 3-30-19. Here when the word roSam is replaced with shokam and if it be said as shokam aaharayet tiivram... it suffices all contradictions. And in many other places, we see him aaharayet 'getting' wrath or sadness, or other humanly emotion. When he can 'evoke' one human emotion 'wrath', why not evoke other emotions like 'love, sadness, pity, kindness' and the like. Again, there are some subhuman emotions like greed, avarice, hate, jealousy etc., which are unbefitting to humans themselves, hence the question of Rama's evoking them for his activities, does not arise.

Then 'is this playacting of god, of hoodwinking of man called Rama in the name of Ravana...' is the connective question. The answer is 'neither...' for it is maya of Vishnu. In other way, it is not hoodwinking of Rama but it is the bewailing of god/Rama caused by the suffering of his adherents/devotee/subjects - particularly for Seetha, who is not just a devotee or adherer, but his own altar ego. Particularly when that god alone, through the so-called destiny, karma, fate etc, causes that suffering. Rama admits at verse 34 of this chapter 'this is as though I have forsaken this Seetha...' because of his passion for hunting, either the deer or the demon, thus bechanced is an ill fate on Seetha.

If Rama were to be god, he is not an 'featureless' god of advaita tenet, a nirguNa but he is saguNa 'featured' god and some of his many features are: svabhaavika anavadhika atishaya, j~naana, bala, aishvarya, viirya, shakti, tejaH, saushiilya, maardava, aarjava, sauhaardra, saumya, kaaruNya, maadhuryam, gaambhiirya, audaaryaadi aneka kalyaaNa guNa sampanna... of which we are concerned with kaaruNya, maardava features, 'pity and sheltering...' as Shudarshanaacaarya defined maardavam as aashrita viraha a-sahatvam maardavam 'impatience for the separation from his adherers...' and Rama wept with this pity and impatience for Seetha's separation from him.

However delinquent the children be, they do not know or care to know what their parents feel about their delinquency, because they themselves are thinking that they are not at all delinquent. But their parents, though they are aware of their children's delinquency, but unable to mend them, they suffer silently or blatantly. Here too it is the same predicament for Rama, though it is not parent-child relation, but it is man-wife relation, worthier enough for more suffering. His anguish is for the 'soul' called Seetha, going to be captivated in the 'body' called Lanka, and her deliverance is possible only on the annihilation of that body or holder of that body, namely Ravana, in the karmic cycle of birth-death. And none has a real glimpse or knowledge of that god or soul, but all go on assuming on their own as Bhagavad Gita says at7-24: avyaktam vyaktim pannam manyate mm a-buddhaya | param bhvam ajnanto mama avyayam anuttamam | gita Which deem th' Unmanifested manifest, / Not comprehending Me in my true Self! / Imperishable, viewless, undeclared, - Sir Edwin Arnold. Hence, Rama really wept for Seetha and in fact, gods really weep even for us, madly and sadly, but we do not care, or wish to care.

 

iti vlmki rmyae di kvye araya ke aitama sarga

Thus, this is the 60th chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek : Chapter 60

 

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Sarga 60 in English Prose

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Feb, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : December 04]