Chapter [Sarga] 53

Introduction

Seetha denounces Ravana's misdeed and challenges him to brave her husband in a manly combat, rather than thieving her in a mousy way. She reasons with him about his propriety in abducting other's wives, in vainglory.


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kham utpatantam tam dv maithil janaka tmaj |
dukhit parama udvign bhaye mahati vartin || 3-53-1

1. janaka aatmajaa maithilii= Janaka's, daughter, Maithili; kham ut patantam tam dR^iSTvaa= on sky, up, fallen [Ravana's taking flight along with her,] him, on seeing; parama udvignaa= became highly, frantic; mahati bhaye vartinii= in highest, dismay, remaining in; duHkhitaa= she is distraught.

Maithili, the daughter of Janaka, on seeing the skyward flight of Ravana taking her along became highly frantic and remaining in highest dismay she is distraught. [3-53-1]

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roa rodana tmrk bhmkam rkasa adhipam |
rudat karuam st hriyam idam abravt || 3-53-2

2. hriyamaaNaa= while being abducted; siitaa= Seetha; rudatii= outpouring tears; roSa rodana taamraakSii= with resentment, tearful, coppery, eyed one; bhiima akSam raakSasa adhipam= terrible [gory,] eyed one, to demon's, chief; karuNam idam abraviit= piteously, this, said [poured scorn on Ravana.]

Seetha whose eyes turned coppery-red with tears and resentment, still outpouring tears while being abducted she piteously poured this scorn on that gory-eyed demon's chief, Ravana. [3-53-2]

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na vyapatrapase nca karma anena rvaa |
jtv virahitm yo mm corayitv palyase || 3-53-3

3. niica raavaNa= knave, Ravana; j~naatvaa= on knowing; vi rahitaam= without, someone - my aloneness; yaH= you who are; maam corayitvaa palaayase= me, on thieving, you took to flight; anena karmaNaa= by this, act [subterfuge]; na vyapatrapase [vi apa tarpase]= not, [very, lowly, ashamed]= are you not ashamed in the least.

"You knave Ravana, you are taking flight on thieving me after prowling about my loneliness, such as you are, are you not ashamed in the least for this subterfuge. [3-53-3]

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tvay eva nnam dutman bhru hartum icchat |
mama apavhito bhart mga rpea myay || 3-53-4

4. duSTa aatman= oh, black, hearted [fiend]; hartum icChataa= to abduct, wishful; bhiiruNaa= by coward; tvayaa eva= by you, alone; mama bhartaa= my, husband; maayayaa mR^iga ruupeNa= by trickery, in a Golden-Deer's, guise; apa vaahitaH= to side, lined - led away from hermitage; nuunam= for sure.

"You black-hearted fiend, for sure, you alone sidelined my husband in a trickish guise of Golden Deer wishful to abduct me as you are a coward. [3-53-4]

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yo hi mm udyata trtum so api ayam viniptita |
gdhra rja puro asau vaurasya sakh mama || 3-53-5

5. yaH gR^idhra raajaH= which, eagle, king; maam traatum= me, to bail [me] out; udyataH= battled against; mama shvashurasya puraaNaH sakhaa= my, father-in-law's, old, friend; saH ayam= such as he is; asau api= him, also [even he is]; vi ni paatitaH hi= verily, down, felled, indeed.

"Which king of eagles battled against you to bail me out, an old friend of my father-in-law, such as he is he is also felled, indeed. [3-53-5]

Annex: 'You have felled an old and withered eagle after a long-drawn battle... then, how long can you battle that Raghava? Does this felling of an age-old eagle adds any feather to your crown?'

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paramam khalu te vryam dyate rkasdhama |
virvya nmadheyam hi yuddhe na asmi jit tvay || 3-53-6

6. raakSasa adhama= you demon, basely; te viiryam= your, audacity; paramam dR^ishyate khalu= audacious, appearing [shown by you,] truly; naamadheyam vishraavya= [your great] name, making to listen [earbashing, ear-shattering,]; tvayaa yuddhe na jitaa asmi hi= by you, in combat, not, conquered, I am, really; [or, yuddhena asmi jitaa tvayaa hi= by combating, I am, conquered, by you - Really? Or, yuddhe naamadheyam vishraavya= in combat, you name, on announcing.]

"Ah, truly what an audacious audacity is shown by you... you basely demon... by ear-shattering your great name saying that 'I am Ravana...' I am conquered in a combat - Really?

Or

"Am I conquered by you in a combat between my husband and you, wherein you on announcing your name to my husband and truly showing your audacious audacity defeated my husband, and thus triumphing over me - or what? Tell me, you mousy demon...

Or

"Unable to conquer my husband in a combat, but able to earbash your name to a lonely woman and abducting her, will this tantamount to your apparently audacious audacity? Thus, I am not really triumphed over by a lowly demon like you... [3-53-6]

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dam garhitam karma katham ktv na lajjase |
striy ca haraam nca rahite ca parasya ca || 3-53-7

7. niica= you knave; rahite= lonely; parasya ca= other [man's,] also [that too]; striyaaH ca= woman, also; haraNam ca= abduction, also [that too]; iidR^isham garhitam karma= this kind of, deplorable, deed; kR^itvaa= on doing [undertaking]; katham na lajjase= how, not, ashamed you are.

"A woman, that too a lonely one, that too the other man's wife, that too an abduction, but not winning or wooing her... you knave, on your undertaking such a kind of deplorable deed, how unashamed are you? [3-53-7]

Annex: 'Will not the other males deplore you for your unmasculine female stealing, for this kind of undertaking is unobserved even in animal world?'

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kathayiyanti lokeu puru karma kutsitam |
sunamsam adharmiham tava aurya mnina || 3-53-8

8. shauNDiirya maaninaH= glorious, self-admirer [self-glorification, or self-vain-glorification] tava= of yours; su nR^ishamsam= highly, inhuman; a + dharmiSTham= not, equitable [iniquitous]; kutsitam= reprovable [imputable]; karma= deed; lokeSu puruSaaH kathayiSyanti= in world, men, wish to recount.

"A self-glorifier as you are, this highly inhuman, iniquitous, imputable deed of yours will be recounted by all men in all worlds. [3-53-8]

Annex: 'For this is an unmanly action of yours, all the manly men wish to recount this as a fabulously fabled account, in dissent, for exemplification of their manliness and also to retroject your self-vainglory...'

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dhik te auryam ca sattvam ca yat tvay kathitam tad |
kula kroakaram loke dhik te critram dam || 3-53-9

9. yat= what; tvayaa tadaa kathitam= by you, then, said; te shauryam= of your, might; sattvam ca= mettle, also; dhik= be damned; loke= in world; kula aakrosha karam= to [whole of the] clan, lamentable; te iidR^isham caaritram= your, this kind of, demeanour; dhik= be damned.

"Damn with what you have said then about your might and mettle... damn with this kind of your demeanour which is lamentable to whole of your clan in this world. [3-53-9]

Annex: 'You were boastful of your triumphs and victories at the time of captivating me, damn with them... since there is not an iota of gallantry in thieving me, a lonely one in the thick of the forests... and this misdemeanour of yours which not only ruins you but becomes a lamentable affair to whole of your clan, while being burnt in the infernos of Raghava's arrows...'

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kim akyam kartum evam hi yat javena eva dhvasi |
muhrtam api tihasva na jvan pratiysyasi || 3-53-10

10. kim kartum shakyam= what, to do, possible - what can be done possibly; yat= why because; evam javena eva dhaavasi= this way, speedily, thus, you are fleeing; muhuurtam api tiSThasva= for moment, even, stay [wait, to ascertain]; jiivan na prati yaasyasi= in aliveness, not [whether,] back, you can go; hi= indeed.

"What can be done possibly... why because you are fleeing very speedily in this way... wait for a moment to ascertain whether you can go back in aliveness... [3-53-10]

Annex: 'You are fleeing as though death is haunting you... death is at your behind... wait, wait and stay... it will approach you speedily... when death nears you, let us watchfully ascertain whose is glory or whose is vainglory... between your Death similar Raghava and deadened you...'

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na hi caku patham prpya tayo prthiva putrayo |
sa sainyo api samartha tvam muhrtam api jvitum || 3-53-11

11. tayoH paarthiva putrayoH= two of their, of king's, sons [princes Rama, Lakshmana]; cakSuH patham praapya= eyesight, way [line,] on getting [coming into]; tvam sa sainyaH api= you, along with, military, even; muhuurtam api jiivitum na samarthaH hi= moment, even, to live on, not, capacitated you are, indeed.

"On your coming into the line of sight of those two princes, even if you are with whole of your military, you will be incapacitated to live on, indeed even for a moment... [3-53-11]

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na tvam tayo ara sparam sohum akta kathacana |
vane prajvalitasya iva sparam agne vihagama || 3-53-12

12. vane pra jvalitasya agneH= in forest, overly, flaring up, of wildfire; sparsham vihan gamaH iva= touch, sky, flyer [bird,] as with; tvam tayoH shara sparsham= you, their, arrows, touch; soDhum kathancana na shaktaH= to endure, in anywise, not, capable.

"Anywise it will be incapable of you to endure the touch of their arrows, as with a bird that cannot endure the overly flaring up wildfire in a forest. [3-53-12]

Annex: 'After all, birds flee by the very touch of fiery air of forest fire even it is burning distantly... thus, where is the question of your tolerating those infernos, called my husband's arrows, shot from long, long a distance... and whereby you can stop them from hitting you, or with what you can retaliate them...'

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sdhu ktv tmana pathyam sdhu mm muca rvaa |
mat pradharaa ruo hi bhrtr saha pati mama || 3-53-13
vidhsyati vinya tvam mm yadi na mucasi |

13, 14a. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; saadhu aatmanaH pathyam kR^itvaa= positively, in your soul, behove, on making [contemplate]; maam saadhu munca= me, politely, release; tvam maam na muncasi yadi= you, me, not, releases, if; mat pradharSaNa ruSTaH hi= of my, by insulting, by rancour, indeed; mama patiH= my, husband; bhraatraa saha= [his] brother, along with; [te= you]; vinaashaaya vidhaasyati= [of your] doom, devises.

"Oh, Ravana, positively contemplate in your soul and politely release me... and if you do not release me, indeed by the rancour of insulting me, my husband along with his brother devises your doom... [3-53-13, 14a]

All women, without exception, have a weapon called prathama kopam 'a preambular fury...' it is exactly not 'fury' but a sort of bewilderment and insultment meted out by their indignation. Seetha spewed out a stomachful of ire. Pausing a while, she now started to sermonise this demon with hita bodha 'moral teaching...' thinking in 'his' shoes and foreseeing 'his' annihilation. What and why does he care? And how does she bother for his well-being? These questions have their answers in mythology.

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yena tvam vyavasyena balt mm hartum icchasi || 3-53-14
vyavasya tu te nca bhaviyati nirarthaka |

14b, 15a. niica= you rogue; tvam= you; yena vyavasaayena= by which, endeavour; maam balaat hartum icChasi= me, under duress, to thieve, desirous of; te= of yours; [sah= that]; vyavasaayaH tu= endeavour, on its part; nir arthakaH= less of, meaning [meaningless, absurd]; bhaviSyati= it results as.

"You rogue! By which endeavour you are desirous of thieving me under duress, that endeavour of yours behoves absurd. [3-53-14b, 15a]

Seetha's wording should have been 'for lovemaking with me...' instead of 'endeavour' but as an urbane lady, she used a + graamya pada prayoga, 'urbane' language rather than the graamya bhaaSa 'boorish wording.' Her calculated and cultured talking indicates her staunchness in her 'husband-devoutness...'

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na hi aham tam apayant bhartram vibudha upamam || 3-53-15
utsahe atru vaag prn dhrayitum ciram |

15b, 16a. aham= I will; vibudha upamam bhartaaram= god, in simile, at husband; tam a + pashyantii= him [Rama,] by not, seeing; shatru vashagaa= enemy's, going under control of; ciram= for a long; praaNaan dhaarayitum= lives, to bear up; na utsahe hi= not, I enthuse, indeed.

"Though I am in aliveness now, but on my going under the control of an enemy and on unseeing godlike husband of mine I am indeed unenthused to bear up my lives for a long. [3-53-15]

Again she may recount her list of 'suicide programs' as related to Lakshmana after this dialogue. She prefers to use whatever means to end her life, rather than to surrender to immorality. To indicate this 'character's mood' paatra aucityam of Seetha, all her opinions about 'somebody's possessing her' were listed when Lakshmana was hastened after Rama, though at the cost of Lakshmana's steadfastness in his duty.

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na nnam ca tmana reya pathyam v samavekase || 3-53-16
mtyu kle yath martyo vipartni sevate |

16b, 17a. martyaH mR^ityu kaale= mortals, at death, time; yathaa vipariitaani sevate= as, too much [noxious, non-recuperative foodstuffs, or, quirkily behaviour,] enjoys [undertakes]; aatmanaH= in your heart; pathyam ca= nontoxic [worthwhile,] either; shreyaH vaa= beneficial, or; nuunam na sam avekSase= definitely, not, completely, you anticipate.

"Definitely and completely unanticipated in your heart are either that which is worthwhile or that which is beneficial to you, as mortals undertake a quirkily behaviour at the time of their death...

Or

"At the time of their death mortals wish to enjoy noxious and non-recuperative foods, thus definitely and completely unanticipated in your heart are either nontoxic or beneficial nourishments for your well-being. [3-53-16b, 17a]

Annex: 'Bechanced is your death-time hence you behave eccentrically and as a dying person wants to feast on with disagreeable foods, you also would like to consume a lethal poison, that is me, and on your death Yama, the Terminator, is ready to offer you a sumptuous feast with hellish edibles...'

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mumrm tu sarvem yat pathyam tat na rocate || 3-53-17
paymi iva hi kahe tvm kla pa avapitam |

17b, 18a. mumuurSuuNaam tu sarveSaam= mortals about to die [death-rattlers,] but, to all of them; yat pathyam tat na rocate= which, is recuperative, that, not, interested [unpalatable]; tvaam= you; kaNThe= at throat; kaala paasha ava paashitam iva= Time's, loop; around, looped, as if; pashyaami hi= I behold, indeed.

"But which is recuperative that is unpalatable to all of the death-rattlers, and indeed, I behold you as one around whose throat the noose of Time is looped. [3-53-17b, 18a]

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yath ca asmin bhaya sthne na bibhei danana || 3-53-18
vyaktam hiramayn hi tvam sampayasi mah ruhn |

18b, 19a. dashaanana= oh, Decahedral demon; tvam= you; asmin bhaya sthaane= in this, daunting, place [situation]; yathaa na bibheSi= as to how, not, fearing; thereby; hiraNmayaan mahii ruhaan= golden, earth, sprouted [trees]; sam pashyasi= clearly, seeing [fantasising]; vyaktam hi= clear, indeed.

"As you are dauntless in this daunting situation as for yourself, oh, Decahedral demon, indeed it is clear that you are clearly fantasising the ill-omened golden trees all around. [3-53-18b, 19a]

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nadm vaitaram ghorm rudhira ogha vivhinm || 3-53-19
khaga patra vanam caiva bhmam payasi rvaa |

19b, 20a. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; rudhira ogha vi vaahiniim= blood, streams, verily [tumultuously,] streaming; ghoraam vaitaraNiim nadiim= ghastly, Vaitarani, river; bhiimam khaDga patra vanam caiva= grisly, swords, leaved, forest, also thus; pashyasi you will see.

"Oh, Ravana, you will see the ghastly River Vaitarani which will be tumultuously streaming with blood streams, also thus you will see the grisly sword-leaved-forests in hell. [3-53-19b, 20a]

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tapta kcana pupm ca vaidrya pravara cchadm || 3-53-20
drakyase lmalm tkm yasai kaakai citm |

20b, 21a. tapta kaancana [tapta] puSpaam ca= molten, gold, [melting] flowered, also; [tapta] vaiduurya pravara cChadaam= [melting] lapis gemlike, best, shrouded [by lapis like leaves]; aayasaiH kaNTakaiH citaam= with iron, thorns, encrusted; tiikSNaam shaalmaliim= sharp, silk-cotton tress; drakSyase= you will see.

"You will see silk-cotton trees flowered with molten gold, shrouded with lapis gemlike melting leaves, and enshrouded with sharp irony thorns in hell. [3-53-20b, 21a]

Annex: Then Ravana may retort her by saying 'if such a condition comes, it comes after my death... but while living I will enjoy you and your company...' for this 'as on date enjoyment' of Ravana, she is repudiating him with her next statement... 'you have already quaffed off a venom, called Seetha... dwindled is your lifetime...'

This is a kind of punishment in a section called asi patra vana 'sword-leaved-forest...' in the Hell of Yama, namely naraka. The sinners are asked to hug a silk-cotton tree like wooden structure with golden leaves and sappharine flowers and irony thorns, where all these items will be sweltering the sinners besides pinching and piercing with thorns. This punishment is aimed at those who abduct, molest, or rape the other man's wife.

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na hi tvam dam ktv tasya alkam mahtmana || 3-53-21
dhritum aksyasi ciram viam ptv iva nirgha |

21b, 22a. nir ghR^iNaH= oh, not, merciful one; tvam= you; mahaatmanaH tasya= to that noble souled, to him - Rama; iidR^isham aliikam kR^itvaa= this kind of, misdeed, on doing; viSam piitvaa iva= venom, drunk, like; ciram dhaaritum na shaksyasi hi= for a long, to bear up [to live,] not, capable of, indeed.

"Oh, unmerciful one, on doing this kind of misdeed to that noble-souled Rama you are incapable to bear up life for a long time like the one who quaffed venom. [3-53-21b, 22a]

Then Ravana may say 'nonsense, these venoms, poisons, toxins... all these things can do nothing to me as I am immortalised, I take you off to a distant place, come what may...' for that Seetha is saying that 'the lasso of the Time is very long, but its noose is just throat sized and that noose is already noosed around your throat, called arm-length-sized arrow of Rama, already shot from his bowstring, called sting-like Seetha, as I am his and only his... as such, inescapable you are, anywhere you go...'

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baddha tvam kla pena durnivrea rvaa || 3-53-22
kva gato lapsyase arma bhartu mama mahtmana |

22b, 23a. raavaNa= Ravana; tvam= you; dur nivaareNa= not, preventable; kaala paashena baddhaH= by Time's, lasso, bound; mama bhartuH mahaa-aatmanaH= my, husband, from strong-willed one [uncompromising] Rama; kva gataH= to where, on going; lapsyase sharma= you get, complacency.

"You are bound by the unpreventable lasso of the Time, oh, Ravana, on going where you will get complacency from that uncompromising husband of mine? [3-53-22b, 23a]

Ravana may say: 'is it? What is the proof of his mettle basing on which you sermonise me?' For this, her reply is in the next verse.

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nimea antara mtrea vin bhrtaram have || 3-53-23
rkas nihat yena sahasri caturdaa |
katham sa rghavo vra sarva astra kualo bal || 3-53-24
na tvm hanyt arai tkai ia bhry apahriam |

23b, 24, 25a. yena= by whom; aahave= in combat; bhraataram vinaa= brother, without [brother's help]; nimeSa antara maatreNa= a minute within, just in; caturdasha sahasraaNi= fourteen thousand; raakSasaa nihataa= demons, killed; viiraH= brave one; sarva astra kushalaH= in all kinds of, missiles, expert; balii= mighty one; saH raaghavaH= he, that Raghava; iSTa bhaaryaa apahaariNam= chosen, wife's, with the stealer; tvaam= you; tiikSNaiH sharaiH= with mordant, arrows; katham na hanyaat= how, not, kills.

"By whom fourteen thousand demons are killed in war just within a minute, single-handedly without any help from his brother, how then that brave and mighty Raghava, an expert in all kinds of missiles, will not eliminate you, the stealer of his chosen wife, with his mordant arrows?" Thus Seetha poured forth her ire at Ravana. [3-53-23b, 24, 25a]

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etat ca anyat ca paruam vaideh rvaa aka g |
bhaya oka samvi karuam vilalpa ha || 3-53-25

25b, c. raavaNa anka gaa= on Ravana's, flank, [who] has gone; vaidehii= Vaidehi; bhaya shoka samaaviSTaa= dismay, distress, coalesced with; etat ca anyat ca paruSam= this much, also, other, also, sharp [saying exacting words]; karuNam vilalaapa ha= lamentably, lamented, indeed.

On saying this much and other exacting words, Vaidehi who has gone onto the flank of Ravana, indeed lamented lamentably as her dismay is coalesced with her distress. [3-53-25b, c]

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tath bha rtm bahu caiva bhim
vilalpa prvam karuam ca bhminm |
jahra ppa tarum viveatm
nptmajm gata gtra vepathum || 3-53-26

26. tathaa= in that way; bhR^isha aartaam= highly, agonised; vilalaapa puurvam= lamenting, prioritised - weeping prior to talking; caiva bhaaSiNiim= in muchness, talking [a ranter]; taruNiim= come of age; karuNam ca= pitiably, also; bahu vi veSTatiim= verily whirler [in anguish]; nR^ipa aatmajaam= king's, daughter; aagata gaatra vepathum= bechanced, bodily, spasmodic jerking; bhaaminiim= resentful lady; paapaH= sinner; jahaara= stole.

She who is highly agonised and weeping before talking, a ranter who ranted much, a resentful lady who has come of age, and a pitiable whirler in the hands of demon whose whirligig has transformed into spasmodic jerking of her body for deliverance from that sinner, and in that way that sinner stole that princess Seetha. [3-53-26]

 

iti vlmki rmyae di kvye araya ke tri paca sarga

Thus, this is the 53rd chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek : Chapter 53

 

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Sarga 53 in English Prose

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Dec, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : November 04]