Chapter [Sarga] 42

Introduction

On travelling by the aircraft like chariot Ravana and Maareecha enter Dandaka forest and arrive at the threshold of Rama's hermitage. Then at the insistence of Ravana Maareecha assumes the form of an amazing golden Deer, and Seetha catches a sight of that deer.


Verse Locator

@vm! %va tu p;m! marIcae rav[m! tt>,
gCDav> #it AvIt! dInae -yat! raim! cr -ae>. 3421

1. tataH= then; maariicaH evam paruSam uktvaa tu= Maareecha, in this way, curtly, said, but; raatrim cara prabhoH= of night, walkers, king - Ravana; bhayaat diinaH= for fear, self-pityingly; gacChaavaH iti= we will go, thus; raavaNam= to Ravana; abraviit= said.

Maareecha though curtly said in that way, then afraid of the king of night-walkers he became self-pitying, and said to Ravana, 'let us go.' [3-42-1]

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a> c Ahm! pun> ten zr cap Ais xair[a,
mxae %*t ze[ ivnm! jIivtm! c me. 3422

2. aham= I; shara caapa asi dhaariNaa= arrow, bow, sword, by the wielder of; mat vadhaH udyata shastreNa= for my, killing, [if he with] upraised, [his] weapon; tena= by him [Rama]; punaH dR^iSTaaH= again, I am seen [if seen]; me jiivitam vi naSTam= my, life, is verily lost.

"If he who wields a bow, arrows and a sword, and who brandishes a weapon to only kill me happens to see me again, deem my life is verily lost, without his shooting any arrow. [3-42-2]

Verse Locator

n ih ramm! praMy jIvn! it invtRte,
vrtte it pae AsaE ym d{f htSy te. 3423

3. raamam paraakramya= at Rama, to affront - make so bold; jiivan= while living; na= will not; prati nivartate= returns [resurrects]; hi= isn't it; yama daNDa hatasya= by Yama [ the Terminator,] with wand, slain; such as I am; asau= this one [of mine]; prati ruupaH= [my] reflected, image; te= [before] you; vartate= carrying on - is appearing.

"None can really make so bold at Rama to reappear with life, isn't it. What is appearing before you is the reflected image of mine, as I am already slain by the wand of Yama, the Terminator, the moment I conceded to your demand.

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ikm! nu ktuRm! mya zKym! @vm! Tviy raTmin,
@; gCDaim Ahm! tat SviSt te AStu inzacr>. 3424

4. tvayi evam dur aatmani= you, being a spiteful person; mayaa kim kartum shakyam nu= by me, what is, possible, to do, indeed; taata= oh, dear boy; nishaacaraH= oh, night-walker; eSa aham gacChaami= this, I am, going; te svasti astu= to you, good, may betide.

"When you are spiteful, oh, boy, indeed what can I possibly do otherwise, oh, night-walker, thither I go, may good betide you." So said Maareecha to Ravana. [3-42-4]

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> tu A-vt! ten vcnen s ra]s>,
pir:vJy sus<im! #dm! vcnm! AvIt!. 3425

5. saH raakSasaH= he, demon - Ravana; tena vacanena= by that, word; pra hR^iSTaH abhavat= verily, glad, he became; su sam shliSTam= very, well, tightly; pariSvajya= on hugging; idam vacanam abraviit= this, sentence, spoke.

By that word of Maareecha demon Ravana is very much gladdened and he spoke this sentence tightly hugging him. [3-42-5]

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@tt! zaE{fIyR caEiyR Nyum! te mt! CD<d vz vitRn>,
#danIm! Ais marIc> pUvRm! ANyae inzacr>. 3426

6. mat cChanda vasha vartinaH= in my, dictate's, control, abiding; te= of yours; etat= this word; cChauTirya yuktam= obduracy, having - shows; idaaniim maariicaH asi= from now, you are, Maareecha; puurvam anyaH nishaacaraH= earlier, different, night-walker.

"This word of yours shows your obduracy for you are abiding under the control of my dictate, and though you were a different night-walker earlier, henceforth you are really the good old Maareecha. [3-42-6]

Some mms use the word shauNDiirya for cChauTirya , where shauNDiirya is the word for courageousness, shauNDiirya tyaagii viirayoH : nighanTu The other way to tell this is: "Though your words show the fear of my dictate, but on listening those obdurate words, it appears that you have spoken them for yourself, regaining the grit of your demon-hood and estimating Rama as your own enemy," by which Ravana is shirking his responsibility to Maareecha himself in the event of the death of Maareecha.

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Aatam! zIm! ogae r iv-Ui;t>,
mya sh rwae yu> ipzac vdnE> orE>. 3427

7. pishaaca vadanaiH kharaiH yuktaH= with ghost, faced ones, asses - mules, yoked with; ratna vibhuuSitaH= with gems, adorned with; kha gaH= in sky, going; rathaH= chariot; [atha= then]; shiighram mayaa saha aaruhyataam= promptly, me, along with, you emplane.

"Then you promptly emplane this sky-flying chariot which is yoked with ghost-faced mules and adorned with gems along with me. [3-42-7]

It may be noted that this sort of air-chariots, though richly decorated with valuable gold and gems, but drawn by asses or mules, that too ghost-faced ones, are a kind of the then sci-fi version of aircrafts. Ravana's son Indrajit also uses such spaceships in Yuddha Kanda and his weaponry is altogether different, i.e., somewhat like the present day laser oriented hardware. These propellers may not be construed as real donkeys or mules but some powered vehicle-drawing instruments designed to look like ordinary harmless creatures.

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lae-iyTva vEdehIm! ywa #m! gNtum! AhRis,
tam! zUNye s-m! sItam! Aaniy:yaim mEiwlIm!. 3428

8. vaidehiim pralobhayitvaa= Vaidehi, on deluding; yathaa iSTam gantum arhasi= as, you please, to go, apt of you; shuunye= in empty place - devoid of people; maithiliim taam siitaam= one from Mithila, her, Seetha will be; prasabham= forcibly, defiantly; aanayiSyaami= brought by me.

"On deluding Vaidehi it is apt of you to go as you please, and I will bring that Seetha of Mithila, however defiant it might be." Thus Ravana said to Maareecha. [3-42-8]

Ravana is saying repeatedly that Maareecha can go away after beguiling Seetha and misleading Rama and Lakshmana away from hermitage. Maareecha knows that there is no place to go away from Rama's arrow, which once chased him up to seashore. But Ravana presumes that if Maareecha is capable enough, he will escape Rama, or if this old demon Maareecha is incapable of it, he may perhaps die by the arrow of Rama, for which Ravana is unconcerned.

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twa #it %vac @nm! rav[m! taqka sut>,
ttae rav[ marIcaE ivmanm! #v tm! rwm!. 3429
Aa yytu> zIm! tSmat! Aam m{flat!,

9, 10a. taaTakaa sutaH= Tataka's, son - Maareecha; tathaa iti= thus only [all right]; enam raavaNam uvaaca == to him, to Ravana, said; tataH= then; raavaNa maariicau= Ravana, Maareecha; tam ratham= that, chariot; vimaanam iva= aircraft, as with; aaruhya= on emplaning; tasmaat aashrama maNDalaat= from that, hermitage's, surroundings - from Maareecha's hermitage; shiighram yayatuH= swiftly, they travelled;

Tataka's son Maareecha said "All right" to Ravana, and then both Ravana and Maareecha mounted the chariot as they would emplane an aircraft and swiftly journeyed from the surroundings of Maareecha's hermitage. [3-42-9, 10a]

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twEv t pZyNtaE pnain vnain c. 34210
igrIm! c sirta> svaR ra+ai[ ngrai[ c,

10b, 11a. tathaa eva= like that; tatra= there - en route; pattanaani vanaani ca= seaports, forests, also; giriim ca sarvaaH saritaaH= mountains, also, rivers, all of them; raaSTraaNi nagaraaNi ca= provinces, cities, even; pashyantau [yayatuH]= while seeing - they travelled.

While looking at the seaports and forests, also at all the mountains and rivers, even at the cities and provinces en route they proceeded. [3-42-10b, 11a]

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smeTy d{fk Ar{ym! ra"vSy Aamm! tt>. 34211
ddzR sh mrIcae rav[ae ra]saixp>,

11b, 12a. saha mariicaH= with, Maareecha; raakSasa adhipaH raavaNaH= king, of demons, Ravana; daNDaka araNyam sametya= Dandaka, forest, on reaching; tataH raaghavasya aashramam dadarsha then, Raghava's, hermitage, he has seen.

On reaching Dandaka forest along with Maareecha the king of demons Ravana has then seen the hermitage of Raghava. [3-42-11b, 12a]

Please refer to the endnote for the Ancient Indian way of classification of villages, towns, and cities as per Indian architecture called vaastu shaastra.

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AvtIyR rwat! tSmat! tt> ka<cn -U;[at!. 34212
hSte g&hITva marIcm! rav[ae vaKym! AvIt!,

12b, 13a. raavaNaH= Ravana; kaancana bhuuSaNaat tasmaat rathaat avatiirya= with golden [ornaments,] decorated, from that, chariot, having alighted; tataH= then; maariicam haste gR^ihiitvaa= Maareecha, in hand, on taking; vaakyam abraviit= sentence, spoke.

Alighting the chariot that is decorated with golden ornaments Ravana then spoke this sentence to Maareecha taking his hand into his. [3-42-12b, 13a]

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@tt! ram Aam pdm! Zyte kdlI v&tm!. 34213
iytam! tt! soe zIm! yt! AwRm! vym! Aagta>,

13b, 14a. sakhe= oh, friend; kadalii vR^itam= banana plants, surrounded with; etat raama aashrama padam= this, is Rama's, hermitage's, threshold; dR^ishyate= being seen; to which; vayam yat artham aagataaH= we, for which, reason, came here; tat= that work; shiighram kriyataam= promptly, be done.

"This one which we are seeing and which is surrounded with banana plants is the threshold of Rama's hermitage, and -`----oh, friend, the purpose for which we came here let it be effectuated promptly." Thus Ravana hastened Maareecha. [3-42-13b, 14a]

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s rav[ vc> uTva marIcae ra]s> tda. 34214
m&gae -UTva Aam air ramSy ivccar h,

14b, 15a. tadaa= then; saH raakSasaH maariicaH= he that, demon, Maareecha; raavaNa vacaH shrutvaa= Ravana's, words, on hearing; mR^igaH bhuutvaa= deer, on becoming; raamasya aashrama dvaari= in Rama's, hermitage's, door - frontage; vi cacaara ha= verily, ambled, indeed.

"And on hearing Ravana's words demon Maareecha then became a deer and indeed ambled freely in the frontage of Rama's hermitage. [3-42-14b, 15a]

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s tu pm! smaSway mht! Aтt dzRnm!. 34215
mi[vr z&<ga> ist Aist muoakit>,

15b, 16a. saH= he - Maareecha; adbhuta darshanam= superbly amazing, in appearance; mahat ruupam= gorgeous, form; sam aasthaaya= verily, on adopting; maNi pravara shR^inga agraH= sapphire blue [in the hue of,] the best, horn, with tips; sita a +sita mukha aakR^itiH= whitish, not, so whitish, face's, in look; such a; mR^igaH bhuutvaa vicacaara= deer, on becoming, he moved about.

Adopting the form of a gorgeous deer which is superbly amazing just by its appearance, whose tips of antlers are in the hue of best sapphires, and whose face is whitish at some places and not so whitish at other in its look, he became a Golden Deer and moved thereabout. [3-42-15b, 16a]

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rpaeTpl muo #NnIlaeTpl va>. 34216
ikiMct! A_yut Iv #NnIl in- %dr>,

16b, 17a. rakta padma utpala mukha= red, lotus [on one side,] blue lotus, [on the other,] face [cheeks]; indra niila utpala shravaaH= Indra, Blue [sapphirine in hue,] [bloomed] blue-lotus like, ears; kimcit abhi unnata griiva= a little, up, raised, neck; indra niila nibha udaraH [dasha adhara]= Indra, blue diamond, in shine, stomach, [lower lip]; vicacaara= he moved about.

One of its cheeks in the shade of a reddish-lotus while the other in the hue of a bluish-lotus, one of its ears is in the hue of bloomed blue-lotus while the other is in the shade of a sapphire, while the shine of its stomach is like that of a best blue-diamond, Indra-niila-maNi, and with a little upraised neck that deer has moved about there. [3-42-16b, 17a]

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mxUk in- paR> c k<j ik<jLk si->. 34217
vEyR s<kaz our> tnu j<"> sus<ht>,

17b, 18a. paarshvaH ca= flanks, also; madhuuka nibha= Mahuka flower [whitish flower from which country liquor is prepared,] in shine; kanja kinjalka sannibhaH= lotuses, fibril, similar to - flanks; vaiduurya sankaasha khuraH= Lapis [gem,] similar, hooves; tanu janghaH= thin, calves; su sam hataH= very, well, cohered - limbs; vicacaara= moved about.

One flank is shining whitish like Madhuka flowers and the other is similar to the roseate fibrils of lotuses, while its hooves are similar to the gemstone lapis, calves thin, and thus with very well cohered limbs that deer moved about there. [3-42-17b, 18a]

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#N Aayux sv[eRn puCDen ^XvRm! ivraijt>. 34218
mnaehr iGx v[aeR rE> nana ivxE> v&t>,

18b, 19a. uurdhvam vi raajitaH= to up - upraised [tail,] verily shining forth; indra aayudha sa varNena= Indra's, weapon [Rainbow,] equal, in tinge; pucChena= with such a tail; snigdha varNaH= lustrous, in colour [of body]; naanaa vidhaiH ratnaiH vR^itaH [iva]= many, diverse ones, with gems [gemlike dapples,] encompassed [dappled with.]; manaH haraH= heart, stealing - deer's aura; vicacaara= moved about.

With an upraised tail that shone forth in a tinge equal to the weapon of Indra, namely Rainbow, and with a complexion that is lustrous and dappled with many diverse gemlike dapples, that deer moved thereabout with a heart-stealing aura. [3-42-18b, 19a]

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][en ra]sae jatae m&g> prm zae-n>. 34219
vnm! Jvlyn! rMym! ram Aam pdm! c tt!,

19b, 20a. raakSasaH= demon [Maareecha]; vanam= woodlands; tat raama aashrama padam= that, Rama's, hermitage's, threshold; ca= even - in particular; pra jvalayan= verily, irradiating; kSaNena= in a moment; parama shobhanaH= highly, splendorous; ramyam= fascinating; mR^igaH jaataH= as deer, emerged as.

Thus that demon Maareecha emerged like a highly splendorous and fascinating deer in a wink highly irradiating those woodlands, and the threshold of Rama's hermitage in particular. [3-42-19b, 20a]

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mnaehrm! dzRnIym! pm! kTva s ra]s>. 34220
lae-nawRm! vEdea nana xatu ivicitm!,
ivcrn! gCDte sMyk zalain sm<tt>. 34221

20b, 21. saH raakSasaH= he that, demon; naanaa dhaatu vi citritam= various, ores, [colours of ores,] amazingly, [body] painted with; manoharam darshaniiyam ruupam= heart-stealing, exquisite, form; kR^itvaa= on making - on adopting; vaidehyaaH pralobhana artham= Vaidehi, to delude, reason of; vi caran= freely, moving; samantataH= all over; shaadvalaani= on pastures; samyak= with good bearing [deer-like in conduct]; gacChate= is moving about.

Adopting such an exquisite and heart-stealing form which is amazingly dappled with the colours of diverse ores, that demon ambled all over there freely with the bearing of a real deer in order that Vaidehi might be deluded, and he moved forward onto the pastures. [3-42-2b, 21]

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raePyE> ibN ztE> icae -UTva c iy dzRn>,
ivqpInam! ikslyan! -]yn! ivccar h. 34222

22. ropyaiH bindu shataiH= with silvery, stipples [of body,] hundreds of; citraH bhuutvaa ca= astonishing, on becoming, also; priya darshanaH= having pleasant, for looks; viTapiinaam kisalayaan bhakshayan= of trees, new grass-blades, to graze; vicacaara ha= moved about, indeed.

And with hundreds of silvery stipples of body he became an astonishing deer with pleasant looks and indeed moved chewing new grass-blades of trees. [3-42-22]

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kdlI g&hkm! gTva ki[Rkarain tt> tt>,
smayn! m<dgit> sIta s<dzRnm! tt>. 34223

23. kadalii gR^ihakam gatvaa= banana, boscage, on going; karNikaaraani tataH tataH= of Karnikara, there, there; manda gatiH= slow, paced - on becoming; tataH= then; siitaa= Seetha; sam darshanam= field of view - at such a place; sam aashrayan= well, abided - resorted to such a place.

That Golden Deer has gone into the boscages of banana plants, and moved here and there around Karnikara trees, and then resorted to a place which is within the eyeshot of Seetha. [3-42-23]

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rajIv ic p&> s ivrraj mham&g>,
ram Aam pd A_yaze ivccar ywa suom!. 34224

24. saH mahaa mR^igaH= that, astounding, deer; raajiiva citra pR^iSThaH= lotus-like, odd, hind-side - it has; vi raraaja= verily, scintillated; raama aashrama pada abhyaashe= Rama's, hermitage's, threshold, surroundings; yathaa sukham vicacaara= as per, delight, milled around.

With an odd lotus like hind-side that astounding deer is verily scintillating, and it milled around the surroundings in the threshold of Rama's hermitage according to its own delight. [3-42-24]

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punr gTva inv&> c ivccar m&gaem>,
gTva mutRm! Tvrya pun> it invtRte. 34225

25. mR^iga uttamaH= deer, the excellent one; gatvaa punaH nivR^ittaH ca= on going away, again, on coming back, also; vicacaara= meandered; muhuurtam gatvaa= for sometime, on going away; punaH tvarayaa prati nivartate [vi kriiDan]= again, towards [hermitage,] returns, [very, playfully.]

That excellent deer beats a retreat and again returns, and meanders thus time and again, and turns its tail for sometime only to return once again very playfully. [3-42-25]

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ivIfn! c punr -UmaE punr @v in;Idit,
Aam arm! AagMy m&g yUwain gCDit. 34226

26. vi kriiDan= while verily, playing - gambolling [everywhere]; punaH ca= again, also; [kvacit= somewhere]; bhuumau punaH eva niSiidati= on ground, again, thus, sinks down - sits down; aashrama dvaaram aagamya= hermitage, threshold, on coming to; mR^iga yuuthaani gacChati= towards deer, herds, goes.

Again gambolling everywhere it sits somewhere on the ground, then, on coming to the threshold of hermitage it goes towards herds of deer. [3-42-26]

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m&g yUwE> Anugt> punr @v invrtte,
sIta dzRnm! Aaka<]n! ra]sae m>am! gt>. 34227
pirmit icai[ m{flain ivin:ptn!,

27, 28a. mR^igataam gataH raakSasaH= deer-hood, on going into, demon - Maareecha; siitaa darshanam aakaankSan= to Seetha, to be perceptible, desirous of; mR^iga yuuthaiH anugataH= by deer, by herds, when followed [fraternizing]; punaH eva= again, thus; nivartatere= returns; vi niS patan= verily, out, falling - leaping and bounding; citraaNi maNDalaani pari bhramati= amusing, in circles, moves - whirligigs.

That demon who has gone into the deer-hood has gone after some herd of deer. But he returned again though that herd followed him wanting to fraternise, in order that he shall remain perceptible to Seetha, and he whirligiged in amusing circles while leaping and bounding to and from that herd of deer. [3-42-27, 28a]

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smuIy c sveR tm! m&ga ye ANye vnecra>. 34228
%pgMy smaay ivviNt idzae dz,

28b, 29a. vane caraaH= in forest, moving; ye sarve anye mR^igaaH= which, all, other, animals - are there; samudviikhya - sam ut viikSya= well, up [-necked,] on seeing; upa aagamya= to near, on coming; sam aaghraayaon= well, smelling [demon-deer]; dasha dishaH= to ten, directions; vi dravanti= verily, running away.

All the other animals moving in that forest on seeing this demon-deer with their necks up have come close to it, and on smelling it well they are running away to all the ten directions noticing it as a demon turned into a deer. [3-42-28b, 29a]

Here the animals are portrayed as better beings than humans in identifying demons or ghosts. Though they may not know or wish to know about god, the apparent ghost scares them. Humans apperceive neither god nor ghost because they are half of each.

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ra]s> sae Aip tan! vNyan! m&gan! m&gvxe rt>. 34229
CDadnawRm! -avSy n -]yit s<Sp&zn!,

29b, 30a. mR^iga vadhe rataH= in animal, killing, indulged; saH raakSasaH api= that, demon Maareecha, even; vanyaan taan mR^igaan= pertaining to forest, those, animals; samspR^ishan= touching them; bhaavasya= of his nature; pracChaadana artham= camouflaging, for the reason of; na bhakSayati= not, eating them.

Even that demon in the deer's semblance Maareecha, though indulged in killing those forest animals, and though the other animals are touching him, he is not killing and eating them indulgently, only for the reason of camouflaging his present nature of demon-hood. [3-42-29b, 30a]

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tiSmn! @v tt> kale vEdehI zu-laecna. 34230
ksum Apcye Vya padpan! A_yvtRt,

30b, 21a. tataH= what is more; tasmin eva kaale= at that, only, at time - in the same instant; shubha locanaa vaidehii= one with felicitous, eyes, Vaidehi; kusuma apacaye vyagraa= flowers, in plucking, yearning for; paadapaan abhyavartata [abhi a vartata]= to trees, towards, she came.

What is more, Vaidehi with her felicitous eyes came towards trees yearning for plucking the flowers in the same instant. [3-42-30b, 31a]

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ki[Rkaran! Azaekan! c cUtam! c midre][a. 34231
ksumain ApicNvNtI ccar icranna,

31b, 32a. madira iikSaNaa= one with inebriating, glances; rucira ananaa= one with delightful, visage; such Seetha; karNikaaraan ashokaan ca cuutaam ca= Karnikaara, Ashoka, also, Chuuta, also; kusumaani apacinvantii cacaara= flowers, while plucking, moved about.

And she with her inebriating glances and delightful visage moved there about while plucking flowers of Karnikaara, Ashoka, and of Mango trees. [3-42-31b, 32a]

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AnhaR Ar{y vasSy sa tm! rmym! m&gm!. 34232
mua mi[ ivic A<gm! ddzR prm A<gna,

32b, 33a. araNya vaasasya= for forest, dwelling; an arhaa= not, unsuited to; saa parama anganaa= she that, select, lady; ratnamayam= completely gemlike - as if; muktaa maNi vi citra angam= [studded with] pearls, gems, surprising, having limbs; tam mR^igam dadarsha= at that, deer, she beheld.

That select lady who is unmeet for forest life beheld that deer which is completely gemlike and whose limbs are surprising as though studded with pearls and gems. [3-42-32b, 33a]

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tm! vE icr d<t Aaem! Py xatu tnU hm!. 34233
ivSmyat! %T) nyna s ehm! smudE]t,

33b, 34a. [saa= she, Seetha]; rucira danta oSTham= one with pretty, teeth, lips - deer; ruupya dhaatu tanuu ruham= silver, ore [like copper ore coloured,] body, born [hairs]; tam= that [deer]; vismayaat utphulla nayanaa= astonishment, broadening, her eyes; sa sneham= with, affinity; samudaikshata [sam ut iikSata]= well, raising eyes, has seen - rubbernecked, goggled; vai= indeed.

And she that Seetha goggled the Golden Deer with a wide-eyed astonishment, which deer has pretty lips and teeth, hair resembling silver and copper ores, and she indeed gazed at it with an affinity for wildlife. [3-42-33b, 34a]

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s c tam! ram diytam! pZyn! mayamyae m&g>. 34234
ivccar tt> t dIpyn! #v tt! vnm!,

34b, 35a. maayaa mayaH= highly, phantasmal; sa R^igaH ca= that, deer also; taam raama dayitaam pashyan= at her, Rama's, wife, on seeing; tat vanam diipayan iva= that, woods, to scintillate, as though; tataH tatra vi cacaara= then, there about, verily, moved.

On seeing Rama's wife Seetha that highly phantasmal deer too then moved there about as though to scintillate that woodland. [3-42-34b, 35a]

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A pUvRm! va tm! nana rmym! m&gm!,
ivSmym! prmm! sIta jgam jnk AaTmja. 34235

35b, c. a +dR^iSTa puurvam= un, seen, hitherto; naanaa ratnamayam= numerously, gem-studded [as though]; tam mR^igam= that, deer; dR^iSTvaa= having seen; janaka aatmajaa= Janaka's, daughter; siitaa= Seetha; paramam vismayam jagaama= intense, astonishment, went into.

To see such a deer which is hitherto unseen, and which is as though studded with numerous gems, the daughter of Janaka, Seetha, went in to an intense wonderment. [3-42-35b, c]

The stress continuously laid on the eyes of Seetha is observable, only to conclude that 'trust not what thy eyes show you...'

.

Classification of Villages, Town, and Cities in Ancient India.

grma ca nagaram caiva pattanam kharvatam puram |
kheakam kusumam caiva ibiram rja vsikam |
sen mukam iti eva daadh krtitam budhai ||

The vaastu shaastra or the Ancient Indian Architecture lays down certain parameters for town, cities etc. Of them the township is said to be aneka nr sambaddham nan ilpi janai vtam | kraya vikrayai kram sarva devai samanvitam nagaram tu iti vikhytam adored with many ladies, many sculptors or architects, and with many deities, and where the buying and selling goes on it is nagaram the township.

The Seaports are said as: pattanam u smpratam | dvpntara gata dravya kraya vikrayikai yutam | pattanam tu abdhi tre syt | one which has all the above aspects but which is at seaside, it is pattanam seaport. The township between a nagara and puram is kharvaTam.

And the City is: kraya vikrayai yutam nn jti samanvitam | tantuvya samyuktam tat puram tu vikathyateThe one with all the above aspects plus very many civilisations and weavers and the like craftsmen, is purii, the city. Apart from these, the royal places, army stations etc., do comprise the ten varieties of urban places as said in the above verse, where the village is the first unit.

 

#it vaLmIik ramay[e Aaid kaVye Ar{y ka{fe i cTvair<z> sgR

Thus, this is the 42nd chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.

Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek : Chapter 42

 

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Sarga 42 in English Prose

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Sept, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]