Chapter [Sarga] 41

Introduction

Maareecha dissuades Ravana again and warns him of the fatal consequences if Rama is irked by the wrongdoings of Ravana. In every utterance, Maareecha repeats that not only Ravana but the entire demonic race is also going to ruin due to Ravana's impertinence. Finally when Ravana is heedless of these advises, Maareecha prepares himself to die by the arrow of an enemy, namely Rama, rather than by his own clansman, Ravana.


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aaj~napto raavaNena ittham pratikuulam ca raajavat |
abraviit paruSam vaakyam niHshanko raakSasaadhipam || 3-41-1

1. raavaNena ittham= by Ravana, in this way; pratikuulam= contrarily - perversely; raajavat ca= as a king, also; aaj~naptaH= who is ordered; [maariicaH= Maareecha]; raakSasa adhipam= to demon's, king; paruSam vaakyam= caustic, words; niH shankaH= frankly abraviit= spoke.

When Ravana perversely ordered that way in all his kingliness, Maareecha spoke these words caustically and frankly to that king of demons. [3-41-1]

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kena ayam upadiSTaH te vinaashaH paapa karmaNaa |
sa putrasya sa raajyasya sa amaatyasya nishaacara || 3-41-2

2. nishaacara= oh, night-walker; sa putrasya sa raajyasya sa amaatyasya= with, progeny, with, kingdom, with, ministers - along with them; te= your; ayam vinaashaH= this, ruin - this self-ruinous thought; kena paapa karmaNaa= by which, evil, doer; upadiSTaH= taught.

"Oh, night-walker, by which evildoer this thought, which is self-ruinous to you, along with your progeny, kingdom and ministers put together, is taught to you? [3-41-2]

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kaH tvayaa sukhinaa raajan na abhinandati paapakR^it |
kena idam upadiSTam te mR^ityu dvaaram upaayataH || 3-41-3

3. raajan= oh, king; kaH paapa kR^it= which, sin, who has done - reprobate; sukhinaa= a happy one - you are; tvayaa na abhinandati= with you, not, happy - intolerant; mR^ityu dvaaram= demise, door of; idam= this - deed; kena upaayataH= by whom, by ideation - ingeniously; te upadiSTam =, to you, is taught [shown - door of death.]

"Who is that reprobate unhappy with such a happy one like you, and oh, king, by whom this door of demise is ingeniously shown to you? [3-41-3]

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shatravaH tava suvyaktam hiina viiryaa nishaa cara |
icChanti tvaam vinashyantam uparuddham baliiyasaa || 3-41-4

4. nishaa cara= oh, night-walker; tava shatravaH= your, rivals; hiina viiryaa= of skimpy, strength; tvaam= you; baliiyasaa= with a mighty one - more mighty Rama; upa ruddham= as one coming into, conflict; vi nashyantam= completely, getting ruined; icChanti= they are aspiring for; su vyaktam= it is very, clear.

"It is very clear, oh, night-walker, that your rivals with skimpy might are aspiring that you should be completely ruined coming into conflict with more mighty Rama. [3-41-4]

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kena idam upadiSTam te kSudreNa ahita buddhinaa |
yaH tvaam icChati nashyantam sva kR^itena nishaacara || 3-41-5

5. nishaacara= oh, night-walker; yaH= he who; tvaam= you; sva kR^itena= self, made - self-ruinous, suicidal deed; nashyantam= getting ruined; icChati= wishes to; by such; kSudreNa= by that - scoundrel; a +hita buddhinaa= not, helpful, intent -with a pernicious intent; kena idam te upadiSTam= by whom, this, to you, is counselled.

"He who wishes you to get ruined by your undertaking a self-made destruction is a scoundrel with a pernicious intent, as such, by whom you are counselled to do this? [3-41-5]

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vadhyaaH khalu na vadhyante sacivaaH tava raavaNa |
ye tvaam utpatham aaruuDham na nigR^ihNanti sarvashaH || 3-41-6

6. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; ut patham= on high, road [to self-ruination]; aaruuDham= one who mounted on; tvaam= you; ye= those; sarvashaH= anywise; na nigR^ihNanti= not, reining in; such of those; tava sacivaaH= your, ministers; vadhyaaH khalu= are killable [eligible for death sentence,] indeed; but they are; na vadhyante= not, being killed - not being sentenced to death.

"Your ministers are not curbing you anywise when you scramble on a high road to self-ruination, hence they are indeed to be sentenced to death, but they are not being executed for their dereliction. [3-41-6]

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amaatyaiH kaama vR^itto hi raajaa kaapatham aashritaH |
nigraahyaH sarvathaa sadbhiH na nigraahyo nigR^ihyase || 3-41-7

7. kaama vR^ittaH= self, willed [or, lewdly, behaving]; kaa patham [ku patham] aashritaH raajaa= wrong, route, who relies on, that king; sadbhiH amaatyaiH sarvathaa nigraahyaH hi= by veracious, by ministers, always, restrainable, isn't it; nigraahyaH= restrainable [such as you are you are]; na nigR^ihyase= not, being restrained.

"Veracious ministers have to restrain a self-willed king when he relies on a wrong-route, isn't it. But you are unrestrained by your ministers though you are self-willed and though you are taking a wrong-route. [3-41-7]

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dharmam artham ca kaamam ca yashaH ca jayataam vara |
svaami prasaadaat sacivaaH praapnuvanti nishaacara || 3-41-8

8. jayataam vara= oh, among conquerors, the best - Ravana; nishaacara= oh, night-walker; sacivaaH= ministers; dharmam artham ca kaamam ca= probity, prosperity, also, pleasures, also; yashaH ca popularity, even; svaami prasaadaat praapnuvanti= master, by beneficence, they acquire.

"Oh, best conqueror Ravana, probity, prosperity and pleasures, and even the popularity of the ministers, oh, night-walker, are achieved at the beneficence of their master. [3-41-8]

The popularity, fame etc., of someone is said as yashas and there is another word taken as a synonym kiirti. For this Rama Tilaka says: yashaH sva desha khyaati, kiirti deshaantara khyaati. Thus 'yashas is the fame within one's own country and kiirti is cross-country fame. For this, another ancient commentator Kulluka Bhatt says: jiivataH khyaati ruupam yashaH, mR^itasya khyaati ruupaam kiirtim 'a living person's fame is yashaH and a dead person fame is kiirti Because Ravana is alive and Maareecha wishes him to be living, he used that chosen word.

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viparyaye tu tat sarvam vyartham bhavati raavaNa |
vyasanam svaami vaiguNyaat praapnuvanti itare janaaH || 3-41-9

9. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; vi paryaye= contrary, wise - when the king is perverse; tat sarvam vyartham bhavati= that, all, futile, it becomes; svaami vai guNyaat= by master's, negative, virtue; itare janaaH vyasanam praapnuvanti= other, subjects of kingdom, distress, they derive.

"Contrariwise, oh, Ravana, all that beneficence of the king to ministers becomes futile when the king behaves perversely, and even the others, namely the subjects of kingdom, will derive distress by the negative virtue of their master. [3-41-9]

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raaja muulo hi dharmaH ca jayaH ca jayataam vara |
tasmaat sarvaasu avasthaasu rakSitavyo naraadhipaaH || 3-41-10

10. jayataam vara= oh, among the successful[prosperous,] ones, best one; dharmaH ca jayaH ca= for probity, also, for victory [success, prosperity,] alone; raaja muulaH hi= king, is the root cause, isn't it; tasmaat sarvaasu avasthaasu= therefore, in all, situations; nara adhipaaH= people's, cheifs - kings; rakSitavyaH= are to be safeguarded - from the ill-effects of influences.

"The king alone is the root cause for probity and prosperity, isn't it. Therefore, oh, best prosperous one, in all situations the kings are to be safeguarded from the ill effects of influences. [3-41-10]

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raajyam paalayitum shakyam na tiikSNena nishaacara |
na ca api pratikuulena na aviniitena raakSasa || 3-41-11

11. raakSasa= oh, demon; nishaacara= oh, nigh, walker; tiikSNena= by one with acridity - perilous king; raajyam paalayitum na shakyam= kingdom, to govern, not, possible; prati kuulena= one with hostility; na= not - possible; a+vi niitena= not, without, ethics - one with immorality; na ca api= not, also, even.

"It is impossible to govern kingdom, oh, demon, the night-walker, for a king with acridity, with hostility, or with immorality. [3-41-11]

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ye tiikSNa ma.ntraaH sacivaa bhajyante saha tena vai |
viSame turagaaH shiighraa manda saarathayo yathaa || 3-41-12

12. ye sacivaaH= those, ministers; tiikSNa mantraaH= are with drastic, notions; manda saarathayaH= which has a slowish, charioteer; shiighraa turagaaH having speedy, horses; viSame= on a rough road; [rathaa= chariot]; yathaa= as with; tena saha bhajyante vai= him [their king/charioteer,] with, will get dilapidated, indeed.

"The ministers with drastic notions will indeed fall apart together with their king, like a chariot that gets ramshackled together with it charioteer on a rough road, though it is hieing with galloping horses but badly controlled by that slothful charioteer. [3-41-12]

The ministers with drastic notions not only pull down the king and kingdom, they themselves get ruined along with the king and kingdom. anena tka mantribh rjo no bhavati iti | ata samcna mantr sampadanya iti uktam - dk - tath ca pura sre - paniteu gu sarve mrkhe do bhavanti hi | tasmt mrkha sahasreu prjam ekam niyojayet || thus Puraana Saara, a treatise on all mythological scriptures states that: 'In wise men there will be lots of good qualities. and the stupid persons too will be with as many qualities, but they are bad in nature. So it is better to nominate one wise man than a thousand stupid persons as minister.'

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bahavaH saadhavo loke yukta dharmam anuSThitaaH |
pareSaam aparaadhena vinaSTaaH sa paricChadaaH || 3-41-13

13. loke= in world; yuktaaH= high-minded people; dharmam anuSThitaaH= ethicality, pursuers of; bahavaH saadhavaH= many, saintly people; pareSaam aparaadhena= by other's, misdeeds; sa paricChadaaH= with, kinsmen; vi naSTaaH= completely, ruined.

"In the world many saintly beings that are high-minded and pursuers of ethicality are completely ruined together with their kinsmen owing to the misdeeds of others. [3-41-13]

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svaaminaa pratikuulena prajaaH tiikSNena raavaNa |
rakSyamaaNaa na vardhante meSaa gomaayunaa yathaa || 3-41-14

14. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; pratikuulena tiikSNena svaaminaa= one with contrariety, a coercive one, by such a lord; rakSyamaaNaaH prajaaH= being safeguarded, subjects; gomaayunaa meSaa yathaa= by fox, goats, as with; na vardhante= will not, flourish.

"Oh, Ravana, the subjects do not flourish while a lord with contrariety and coerciveness safeguards them, just like goats guarded by a fox. [3-41-14]

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avashyam vinashiSyanti sarve raavaNa raakSasaaH |
yeSaam tvam karkasho raajaa dur.hbuddhiH ajita indriyaH || 3-41-15

15. raavaNa= oh, Ravana; yeSaam= to whom; karkashaH= acrimonious; dur buddhiH= evil, minded [malicious]; a +jita indriyaH= not, conquered, senses - not above board; such as you; tvam raajaa= you are, king; [te= those]; sarve raakSasaaH= all, demons; avashyam vinashiSyanti= definitely, will completely ruin.

"All those demons will definitely ruin, oh, Ravana, to whom you are the acrimonious and malicious king with unconquered senses, though you have conquered the heaven. [3-41-15]

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tad idam kaaka taaliiyam ghoram aasaaditam mayaa |
atra tvam shocaniiyo asi sa sainyo vinashiSyasi || 3-41-16

16. mayaa= by me; kaaka taaliiyam= as in crow, palm tree syndrome; ghoram= ghastly - fortune; tat idam= that, this - predicament; aasaaditam= forgathered; atra= in this issue; [kim= what, what is the use of lamenting]; tvam shocaniiyaH asi= you, regrettable, you are; sa sainyaH vi nashiSyasi= with, military, completely, you ruin.

"What is the use of laming for myself as I foregathered this ghastly situation as in crow-palm-tree syndrome, but in this issue you alone are regrettable, for you are gong to completely ruin along with your military. [3-41-16]

The Sanskrit 'crow-palm-tree syndrome' is one among the many compiled in that language. Here, a fox whose leg is broken has come underneath a palm tree to take shelter from the scorching sun, as there are no other shady trees. At the same time a crow swooped down on to the tip of the tree, by which a palm fruit, as big and weighty as a small pinball fell on the head of fox by the swoop of the crow, and then the misery of that fox is unexplainable. The sitting of fox, swoop of crow, fall of fruit are all at a time and thus none can blame the other. This syndrome is named for such fortuitous happenings.

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maam nihatya tu raamo asau aciraat tvaam vadhiSyati |
anena kR^ita kR^ityo asmi mriye ca api ariNaa hataH || 3-41-17

17. asau raamaH= that, Rama; maam nihatya tu= me, on killing, on his part; a + ciraat tvaam vadhiSyati= not, long after [soon,] you, he kills; ariNaa hataH mriye ca api= by enemy, killed, I die, also, even; anena= by that; kR^ita kR^ityaH asmi= means [of my life,] fulfilled, I will be.

"That Rama will soon kill you after killing me, and I will be dying at the hand of my enemy rather than at the hand of my own clansman like you, whereby the purpose of my life will be brought to an end. [3-41-17]

Maareecha decides that it is better to die at the hand of Rama rather than by Ravana; rmt api martavyam - martavyam rvat api | ubhayod api martavye - varam rmat na rvat | nsimha pura but yet he is trying to divert Ravana from self-ruination.

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darshanaat eva raamasya hatam maam avadhaaraya |
aatmaanam ca hatam viddhi hR^itvaa siitaam sa baandhavam || 3-41-18

18. raamasya darshanaat eva= of Rama, on seeing, alone; maam hatam avadhaaraya= me, killed, know thus; siitaam hR^itvaa= Seetha, on stealing; sa baandhavam= with, kinsmen; aatmaanam ca= yourself, also; hatam viddhi= as killed, you know thus.

"Know that I am killed just when Rama notices me, and know that you are also killed along with your kinsmen just when you steal Seetha. [3-41-18]

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aanayiSyasi cet siitaam aashramaat sahito mayaa |
na eva tvam asi na eva aham na eva la.nkaa na raakSasaaH || 3-41-19

19. mayaa sahitaH= me, together with; aashramaat= from hermitage; siitaam aanayiSyasi cet= Seetha, is brought, if; tvam na eva asi= you, not, that way, you will be there dead; aham eva na= I am, also, not - there; lankaa na eva= Lanka, is not there, thus; raakSasaaH na= demons, are not there;

"If you are going to bring Seetha from their hermitage on going there with me, then you will not be there, I will not be there, Lanka will not be there, the demons will not be there. [3-41-19]

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nivaaryamaaNaH tu mayaa hita eSiNaa
na mR^iSyase vaakyam idam nishaacara |
pareta kalpaa hi gata aayuSo naraa
hitam na gR^ihNanti suhR^idbhiH iiritam || 3-41-20

20. nishaacara= oh, night-walker; hita eSiNaa= welfare, desirer; mayaa= by me; nivaaryamaaNaH tu= you are being dissuaded, but; idam vaakyam= this, word - of advice; na mR^iSyase= not, feeling pleasant; gata aayuSaH= those with diminished, lifetime; pareta kalpaa naraaH= corpse, similar to, people; su hR^idbhiH iiritam= by good, hearted ones [considerate confidants,] spoken; hitam na gR^ihNanti hi= expedient, not, take in, isn't so.

"As a desirer of your welfare I am dissuading you, oh, night-walker, but you may feel that this word of mine is unpleasant to you. People on diminishing lifetime will be similar to corpses and a corpse cannot take in the expedient spoken by considerate confidants, isn't so. [3-41-20]

 

iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye araNya kaaNDe eka catvaarimshaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 41st chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek : Chapter 41

 

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Sarga 41 in English Prose

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Sept, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]