Chapter [Sarga] 40

Introduction

Ravana rebuts Maareecha for giving an unasked advice and details his plan to abduct Seetha. Ravana intimidates Maareecha that he himself will kill Maareecha immediately if his orders are disobeyed, and Maareecha may perhaps have no opportunity to die at the hands of Rama.


Verse Locator

marIcSy tu tt! vaKym! ]mm! yuKtm! c rav[>,
%Ktae n itjah mtuR kam #v AaE;xm!. 3-40-1

1. uktaH raavaNaH= he who is spoken thus, Ravana; maariicasya tu kSamam yuktam ca= Maareecha's, but, acceptable, equitable, also; tat vaakyam= that, sentence; martu kaama auSadham iva= to die, one desiring to, medicament, as with; na pratijagraaha= not, received - Ravana rejected.

When Maareecha spoke those acceptable and equitable words, Ravana rejected them like a person with a death wish rejects medicament. [3-40-1]

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tm! pWy iht vKtarm! marIcm! ra]saixp>,
AvIt! p;m! vaKym! AyuKtm! kal caeidt>. 3-40-2

2. raakSasa adhipaH= demons, king; kaala coditaH= by Time [the Terminator,] ushered; pathya hita vaktaaram= doing good - conducive, beneficial, who is speaking; tam maariicam= to him, to that Maareecha; a +yuktam= unbefitting; paruSam vaakyam abraviit= uncouthly, words, spoke.

Ushered by the Terminator the king of demons Ravana, uncouthly spoke these unbefitting words to Maareecha who had been speaking conducive and beneficial words of advise. [3-40-2]

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yt! ikl @tt! AyuKtawRm! marIc miy kWyte,
vaKym! in:)lm! ATywRm! bIjm! %m! #v ^;re. 3-40-3

3. maariica= oh, Maareecha; a +yukta artham= without, having, meaning - meaningless words; yat= that which; etat vaakyam= all these, sentence - advisory words; mayi= in me [to me]; kathyate= being said; that; uuSare uptam biijam iva= in wasteland, seeded, seed, like; ati artham= very, much - decidedly; niS phalam= without, fruit - worthless; kila= in effect.

"All these meaningless words that are being said to me are decidedly worthless, in effect, like the seeds seeded in wastelands. [3-40-3]

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Tvt! vaKyE> n tu mam! zKym! - etum! - eum! ramSy s<yuge,
pap zIlSy mUoRSy manu;Sy ivze;t>. 3-40-4

4. tvat vaakyaiH= by your, words; paapa shiilasya= evil, in character - an iniquitous one; muurkhasya= imprudent one; visheSataH maanuSasya= especially, human; raamasya= from such a Rama; maam samyuge bhetum [bhettum]= me, from a war, to scare; na shakyam= not, possible.

"But it is impossible to scare me away from a war with that iniquitous and imprudent Rama, that too, from a human being, with these words of yours. [3-40-4]

There is a grammarian's irk in bhettum ' to cut off, to destroy' bhetum 'to scare me' and if bhettum is taken, then 'it is impossible for that human to destroy me in war' will be the meaning, as per Eastern recension.

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y> TyKTva sudae raJym! matrm! iptrm! twa,
I vaKym! aktm! uTva vnm! @k pde gt>. 3-40-5

5. yaH= who is - which Rama is; praakR^itam strii vaakyam shrutvaa= artless, woman's, word, on hearing; su hR^idaH= good, hearted - friends and relatives; raajyam= kingdom; maataram= mother; tathaa= likewise; pitaram= father; tyaktvaa= on leaving; eka pade= in single, foot - trotted, loped; vanam gataH= forest, went to - bolted off; ellip. maama bhetum nashakyaa= you cannot scare me away from such a Rama.

"He who bolted off to forest in a single-foot on hearing the artless words of a woman, forfeiting his kingdom, friends and relatives, and even his mother, likewise his father too, you cannot scare me away from such a Rama. [3-40-5]

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AvZym! tu mya tSy s<yuge or "aitn>,
a[E> iytra sIta htRVya tv s<inxaE. 3-40-6

6. samyuge khara ghaatinaH= in war, Khara, killer of; tasya praaNaiH priya taraa siitaa= than his, by lives, dear, more, Seetha; tava sannidhau= in your, presence - with your help; avashyam mayaa hartavyaa= certainly, by me, is to be stolen - seizable.

"But his wife Seetha who is dearer to him more than his lives is certainly seizable by me in association with you, as that Rama had purposelessly killed Khara in a war. [3-40-6]

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@vm! me inita bui> id marIc iv*te,
n Vyavrtiytum! zKya s #NE> Aip sur AsurE>. 3-40-7

7. maariica= oh, Maareecha; me buddhiH evam nishcitaa= my, thinking, in this way, is decided; and; hR^idi vidyate [vartate]= in heart, obtains [lingering on] sa indraiH sura asuraiH api= with, Indra, by gods, by demons, even; vyaavartayitum= to revolute, to roll back; na shakyaa= not, possible.

"In this way my thinking is decided and it is lingering on in my heart, and it is impossible to roll back my mind or heart even for Indra coming along with gods and demons. [3-40-7]

Verse Locator

dae;m! gu[m! va s<p&> Tvm! @vm! vKtum! Arhis,
Apaym! va Aip %paym! va kayRSy ASy ivinye. 3-40-8

8. asya kaaryasya vinishcaye= of that, deed's, in determining; doSam guNam vaa= discredit, credit, or; apaayam vaa api= danger, either, or; upaayam vaa= ideation, or; sampR^iSTaH= if [you are] asked; tvam evam vaktum arhasi= you, this way, to talk, apt of you.

"If you are asked about the credits or discredits, or either of the danger or ideation of the deed for determining its modus operandi, it will be apt of you to talk like this, but I did not seek any viewpoints of yours. [3-40-8]

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s<p&en tu vKtVym! sicven ivpita,
%*t A<jilna ra}e y #CDet! Uitm! AaTmn>. 3-40-9

9. yaH= he who; aatmanaH bhuutim icChet= his own, welfare, if desires; such a one; sampR^iSTena= someone who is asked; vipashcitaa= by an intellectual; sacivena= by an adviser; udyata anjalinaa= with upraised, folded palms; raaj~ne [raaj~naH]= to king; vaktavyam= is liable to speak.

"Even if someone is asked, and if he desires his own welfare, then he has to submit his opinion to the king suppliantly upraising his palm-fold, may he be an intellectual, or an astute adviser. [3-40-9]

A king cannot be addressed unless he asks. Then Maareecha, who is fully aware of monarchical protocol, how he informed his analysis of Rama to Ravana, will be the question. Even if a king is resolute in undertaking a mad act, he is to be cautioned. In some cases, a king is to be held by hair and taught, as a teacher holds the taught by his tuft of hair to earbash. Likewise an upright minister shall counsel the king properly, as Krishna advises Vidura in Maha Bharata at Udyoga Parva 93 nanu evam sati ntijo mrco rvaena apa katham uktavn it cet - tanna - unmatto rj prana akarea api krytyaprasaktau nighya api vaktavyatvt - tath ca pen naiva vaktavyam iti katham vaktum akyata iti cenna - penaiva vaktavyam iti etasya svastha avastha rja viayatvt - padi uttham pratipanne c rjani kea grahaa prvakam pe n api vaktavyam eva - dk .

Verse Locator

vaKym! Aitklm! tu m& pUvRm! zum! ihtm!,
%pcare[ yuKtm! c vKtVyae vsuxa Aixp>. 3-40-10

10. vasudhaa adhipaH= a land, lord of - a king; a +prati +kuulam= not, going against - contradictory; mR^idu puurvam= gentility, preceding; hitam= beneficial; shubham= favourable; upacaareNa yuktam ca= etiquette, inclusive of, also; vaakyam= with such a - sentence; vaktavyaH= is to be addressed.

"The king being lord of the land is to be addressed preceded with gentility, with auspicious and beneficial words that do not contradict the interests of that lord, more so, they shall be inclusive of etiquette. [3-40-10]

The imperial protocol is an exaggerated affair, as known to everybody. Here Ravana is demanding one more aspect in demanding, 'the words that do not go against the whims and fancies of the king.' And this is more than an autocrat's mentality. Dharmaakuutam says referring to Kaamandaka, a scripture on political science: 'even if a king asks, one shall not 'readily' reply though every aspect of that question is known to the replier, and the subject speaking in the audience of a king shall forget his own know-all-ness or his own entity in the knowledge of the subject at issue. vijnan na api bryt bhartru kipta uttaram vaca | pravo api hi medhv varjayet abhimnitm ||.

Verse Locator

s AvmdRm! tu yt! vaKym! Awva marIc ihtm! %Cyte,
n Ain<dit tt! raja manawIR man vijRtm!. 3-40-11

11. maariica= oh, Maareecha; athavaa= or else; maana varjitam= honour, devoid of - dishonourable words; yat hitam vaakyam tu= which, beneficial, advise, but; sa ava mardam= with, down, letting - with reprehension; ucyate= will be said so; tat= that advise; maana arthii [or, maanaarhaH]= honour, insists upon [honourable]; raajaa= king; na abhi nandati= not, towards [him,] gladdens.

"Or else, oh, Maareecha, even if a beneficial word is said, but if it is said with reprehension it will not gladden that king who insists upon honour, for that said word is dishonourable, let alone reprehension. [3-40-11]

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p<c pai[ rajanae xaryiNt Aimt Aaejs>,
Ae> #NSy saemSy ymSy v[Sy c. 3-40-12

12. a+mita ojasaH= not, limited in vigour - with infinite, vigour; raajaanaH= kings; agneH indrasya somasya yamasya varuNasya ca= of Fire, Indra [the Administrator of Natural Forces,] Moon, Terminator, Rain, also; panca ruupaaNi dhaarayanti= five, aspects - constituent forces, he bear - he embodies.

"The kings with infinite vigour embody five constituents forces of Fire, Moon, Rain, Terminator, and that of Indra, the Administrator of Natural Forces. [3-40-12]

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AaE:{ym! twa ivmm! c saEMym! d{fm! stam!,
xaryiNt mhataae rajan> Kz[dacr. 3-40-13
tSmat! svaRsu AvSwasu maNya> pUJya> c paiwRva>,

13, 14a. kshaNadaa cara= oh, night, walker Maareecha; mahaataamnaH raajaanaH= great-souls, kings; auSNyam= sultriness; tathaa= likewise; vikramam ca= sternness, also; saumyam daNDam prasannataam= softness, harshness, suppleness; dhaarayanti= they are bearing - they personify; tasmaat paarthivaaH= therefore, kings; sarvaasu avasthaasu= in all, situations; maanyaaH puujyaaH ca= are respectable, reverential, also.

"Oh, nightwalker, thus the kings being great-souls personify the sultriness of Fire, sternness of Indra, softness of Moon, suppleness of Rain, and harshness of Terminator, and therefore in all situations they are respectable and reverential. [3-40-13, 14a]

Ravana has already conquered Indra and the said gods are responsible for the routine administration of universe. Hence, he is informing Maareecha about ordinary kings, presuming that Maareecha does not recognize the rectitude in dealing with ordinary kings, more so, with the king of kings, namely Ravana himself, which he says in next verse. A king acquires these traits of the presiding deities of the compass, by virtue of his kingship, and the sages said the very same to Rama when he entered Dandaka forest. anena agni di dik plaka rpatvt rj pjyo mnya ca iti scitam - dk .

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Tvm! tu xmRm! Aiv}ay kevlm! maehm! Aait>. 3-40-14
A_yagtm! mam! daErat!Myat! p;m! vdis $zm!,

14b, 15a. tvam tu= you, on your part; dharmam a+ vij~naaya= rectitude, not, knowing - incognizant of; kevalam moham aashritaH= only, your obsession, holding on to; abhi aagatam maam= to your near, who came, with me; daur aatmyaat= with ill, wishing; iidR^isham paruSam vadasi= this way, ill-advisedly, you are babbling.

"But you are ill-advisedly babbling with me in this way, incognizant of rectitude and holding on to your obsession, and wishing ill of me, as I am on your doorstep. [3-40-14b, 15a]

Verse Locator

gu[ dae;aE n p&CDaim ]mm! c AaTmin ra]s. 3-40-15
mya %Ktm! Aip c @tavt! Tvam! it Aimtivm,

15. raakSasa= oh, demon; guNa doSau= rights, wrongs; aatmani= for me; [yat= which is]; kSamam ca= expedient, also; na pR^icChaami= not, I asked; a+ mita vikrama= oh, one with not, limited, brave - oh, Maareecha untold bravery; tvaam prati= you, addressing [samprati= presently]; etaavat= this much; mayaa uktam api ca= by me, said, but, also.

"Oh, demon, I did not ask the rights and wrongs concerning me, nor that which is expedient for me, but oh, demon of untold bravery, I have said this much to you. [3-40-15]

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AiSmn! tu s van! kTye sahaYym! ktuRm! AhRis. 3-40-16
u[u tt! kmR sahaYye yt! kayRm! vcnat! mm,

16. asmin tu kR^itye= in this, but, deed; [tvam= you]; saahaayyam kartum arhasi= helping hand, to proffer, apt of you; mama vacanaat= my, from words - as I say; sa bhavaan= such as you are, you; saahaayye= in such assistance; yat kaaryam= which, is to be done; tat karma shruNu= that, task, you listen.

" 'It will be apt of you to proffer a helping hand in this deed.' This much I said to you. And such as you are you may now listen to that task which you have to undertake during the course of your assistance as I detail it to you. [3-40-16]

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saEv[R> Tvm! m&gae UTva icae rjt ibNi>. 3-40-17
Aame tSy ramSy sItaya> muoe cr,
laeiyTva vEdehIm! ywa #m! gNtum! Arhis. 3-40-18

17. tvam= you; rajata bindubhiH= with silver, spots; citraH sauvarNaH mR^igaH bhuutvaa= amazing, golden, deer, on becoming; tasya raamasya aashrame= in that one, Rama's, in hermitage; siitaayaaH pra mukhe cara= in Seetha's, fore, front forefront, you move; vaidehiim pra lobhayitvaa= Vaidehi, on verily, alluring; yathaa iSTam gantum arhasi= as, you like, to go away, apt of you.

"On becoming an amazing silver-potted golden deer you move in front of Seetha in the hermitage of Rama, and on verily alluring Vaidehi you can go away as you like. [3-40-17, 18 ]

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Tvam! ih maya mym! :qva ka<cnm! jat ivSmya,
Aany @nm! #it i]m! ramm! vyit mEiwlI. 3-40-19

19. maithilii= Maithili; kaancanam [mR^igam ]= golden [deer]; maayaa mayam= illusory, wholly; tvaam dR^iSTvaa= you, on seeing; jaata vismayaa= with arisen, curiosity; enam kSipram aanaya= this one, quickly, be brought; iti= thus; raamam vakSyati hi= to Rama, tells, indeed.

"On seeing you as a wholly illusory golden deer curiosity arises in Vaidehi, and indeed she tells Rama, 'bring that one quickly.' [3-40-19]

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ApaNte c kakTSwe rm! c yaTva Aip %dahr,
ha sIte lKZm[e #it @vm! ram vaKy Anupkm!. 3-40-20

20. kaakutsthe apa kraante ca= Kakutstha, out, coming, further; [tvam= you]; duuram yaatvaa ca= distantly, having gone, also; raama vaakya anu ruupakam= Rama's, words [voice,] following, in model [mimicking]; haa siite lakshmaNe= ha, Seetha, ha, Lakshmana; iti evam thus, in that way; udaahara api= express - you blurt out even.

"Further, on Rama's coming out of his hermitage you go distantly and blurt out in this way, 'ha Seetha' and even as, 'ha, Lakshmana,' mimicking Rama's voice. [3-40-20]

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tt! uTva ram pdvIm! sItaya c caeidt>,
AnugCDit s<a<tm! saEimi> Aip saEdat!. 3-40-21

21. saumitriH api= Soumitri, even; tat shrutvaa= that, on hearing; siitaayaa ca pra coditaH== by Seetha, further, well, hastened; sambhraantam= apprehensively; sauhR^idaat= due to fondness towards Rama; raama padaviim= on Rama's, path; anugacChati= follows.

"On hearing that, and further hastened by Seetha, even Soumitri apprehensively follows the path of Rama in all his fondness for Rama. [3-40-21]

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ApaNte c kakTSwe lKZm[ c ywa suom!,
Aahir:yaim vEdehIm! sha]> zcIm! #v. 3-40-22

22. kaakutsthe= Rama; lakshmaNa ca= Lakshmana, as well; apa kraante= when sidetracked; vaidehiim= Vaidehi; sahasra akSaH shaciim iva= thousand, eyed one [Indra,] Sachi, like; yathaa sukham aahariSyaami= as per, convenience - effortlessly, I carry off.

"When Rama is diverted from hermitage, Lakshmana as well, I will carry off Vaidehi effortlessly like the Thousand-eyed Indra who once carried off Sachi Devi. [3-40-22]

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@vm! kTva tu #dm! kayRm! ywa #m! gCD ra]s,
raJySy AxRm! daSyaim marIc tv sut. 3-40-23

23. raakSasa= oh, demon; idam kaaryam evam kR^itvaa= this, stint, in this manner, on carrying out; yathaa iSTam gacCha= as, you like, you go; su vrata= oh, one with solemnly, avowed one; maariica= oh, Maareecha; tava= to you; raajyasya ardham pradaasyaami= kingdom's, half, I grant.

"Oh, demon, on carrying out this stint in this manner you may go as you like, and to you oh, Maareecha with solemn vows, I will grant half of my kingdom. [3-40-23]

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gCD saEMy izvm! magRm! kayRSy ASy ivv&ye,
Ahm! tu Anugim:yaim s rwae d{fka vnm!. 3-40-24

24. saumya= oh, gentle one; asya kaaryasya vi vR^iddhaye= for this, for task's, verily, for progressing - for easy achievement; shivam maargam gacCha= ontrouble-free, path, you get going; aham tu= I, for my part; sa rathaH daNDakaa vanam anugamiSyaami= with, chariot, to Dandaka, forest, I wish to follow.

"Hence, oh, gentle one, get going on a trouble-free path for the easy achievement of the task, and I for myself will follow you to Dandaka forest along with the chariot. [3-40-24]

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aPy sItam! Ayuen v<ciyTva tu ra"vm!,
l<kam! it gim:yaim kt kayR> sh Tvya. 3-40-25

25. raaghavam vancayitvaa tu= Raghava, on misleading, but; siitaam a +yuddhena praapya= Seetha, without, conflict, on gaining; kR^ita kaaryaH= on gaining, task - my goal; tvayaa saha= you, along with; lankaam prati gamiSyaami= Lanka, towards, I will proceed.

"My goal will be achieved just by misleading Raghava, and by gaining Seetha without a conflict, then I will proceed to Lanka along with you. [3-40-25]

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nae cet! kraei; marIc hiNm Tvam! Ahm! A* vE,
@tt! kayRm! AvZym! me blad Aip kir:yis,
ra}ae ih itklSwae n jatu suom! @xte. 3-40-26

26. maariica= oh, Maareecha; na karoSi cet= not, going to do, if; tvaam aham adya vai hanmi= you, I, now itself, truly, I kill; me etat kaaryam= mine, this, work; balaat api avashyam kariSyasi= by duress, even, certainly, you undertake - I will get it done; raaj~naH prati kuula sthaH= to king, indeed, opposite, staying - subjects that set against; jaatu= never; sukham na edhate hi= safely, not, succeeds, indeed.

"If you are not going to do so, oh, Maareecha, for sure I will kill you now itself. I will get my work done through you even under duress, and indeed, any subject setting against his king will never succeed safely. [3-40-26]

Verse Locator

Aasa*a tm! jIivt sMzy> te
m&Tyur uvae ih A* mya ivXyt>,
@tt! ywavt! pirg& bu(a
yt! A pWym! k tt! twa Tvm!. 3-40-27

27. tam= him - Rama; aasaadyaa= on getting at; te jiivita samshayaH= your, life, will be indefinite; mayaa virudhyataH= with me, conflicting; adya mR^ityuH dhruvaH hi= now, death, is definite, surely; etat buddhyaa= all this, keeping in view; yathaavat parigR^ihya= as befitting - conducive, receiving - understanding, conclusion; atra= in this issue; yat pathyam= what is, desirable; tat tvam tathaa kuru= that, you, that way, do.

"Your life may be indefinite on reaching Rama, but your death is surely definite now as you are conflicting with me. Hence, keeping all this in view you come to a conclusion that would be conducive to your interests, and whatever desirable to you let it be done in that way. " Thus Ravana spoke to Maareecha. [3-40-27]

 

#it vaLmIik ramay[e Aaid kaVye Ar{y ka{fe cTvair<z> sgR

Thus, this is the 40th chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - Book Of Forest : Chapter 40

 

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Sarga 40 in English Prose

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Aug, 2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : September 04]