Chapter [Sarga] 30

Introduction

Rama and Khara exchange a haughty wordy duel and when the demon Khara charges at Rama, Rama eliminates him with his all-powerful arrow and gods and sages shower flowery rain. Seetha and Lakshmana return from their hiding cave and Seetha becomes very happy on seeing her victorious and indefatigable husband.


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bhittvaa tu taam gadaam baaNaiH raaghavo dharma vatsalaH |
smayamaanaH kharam vaakyam sa.mrabdham idam abraviit || 3-30-1

1. dharma vatsalaH raaghavaH= virtue, patron, Raghava; taam gadaam baaNaiH bhittvaa= that, mace, with arrows, having smashed; smayamaanaH= while smiling; samrabdham kharam= to flustering, Khara; idam vaakyam abraviit= this, sentence, spoke.

On smashing the mace with arrows Raghava spoke this sentence to Khara smiling him out of temper, without assaulting weaponless and flustering Khara, because Rama is the patron of virtue following the protocol of righteous war. [3-30-1]

This seems to be a roundabout meaning. But to explain why the epithet dharma vatsala to Rama is given, this beating round the bush is necessary. So also, many epithets used in this epic have relevance to the circumstances, characters, or their actions. These cannot be explained without the support of commentaries, and unfortunately commentaries skip these minor details assuming that the readers are capable enough to grasp them in the course of narration, which resulted otherwise at a later time. We therefore request pundits to consolidate the relevancy of each the inordinate epithet used to the situations narrated somewhere like web, if it is going to cost a fortune on printing and stationary. Explaining them occasionally is unnoticed, and they appear to be redundant metre fillers in these days where Sanskrit itself has become an alienated language.

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etat te bala sarvasvam darshitam raakSasaadhama |
shakti hiinataro matto vR^ithaa tvam upagar.hjasi || 3-30-2

2. raakSasa adhama= oh, demon, the wretched; te etat= your, all this - this is all the strength you have, is it; bala sarvasvam darshitam= strength [of yours and your army,] in its entirety, is displayed; mat taH shakti hiina taraH= than mine [your,] strength, paltry, higher in comparison - paltriest; tvam vR^ithaa upagarjasi= you, futilely, blare - you boast yourself.

"So, this is all the strength of yours and your army that is displayed and nothing more to display, is it! You wretched demon, it is paltriest compared to my strength, yet you vaunt aloud futilely! [3-30-2]

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eSaa baaNa vinirbhinnaa gadaa bhuumi talam gataa |
abhidhaana pragalbhasya tava pratyaya ghaatinii || 3-30-3

3. eSaa gadaa= this, mace [of yours]; baaNa vi nir bhinnaa= with arrows, very, completely, battered; abhidhaana pragalbhasya= in talking, pompous [of a bombastic being]; tava pratyaya ghaatinii= your, aplomb, is shattered - by mace; bhuumi talam gataa= mace, on earth's, surface, gone down.

"This mace of yours in which you repose your bombastic aplomb, now completely battered with my arrows has gone onto the surface of earth, so also is your vanity. [3-30-3]

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yat tvayaa uktam vinaSTaanaam idam ashru pramaarjanam |
raakSasaanaam karomi iti mithyaa tat api te vacaH || 3-30-4

4. [aham= I will]; vi naSTaanaam raakSasaanaam= completely, lost, demons - of demons whose kinsfolk is lost; idam= this; ashru pramaarjanam= tears, dabbing; karomi= I will do; iti= thus; yat tvayaa uktam= what words, by you, said; te tat vacaH api= your, that, words, even; mithyaa= are fake.

"What that is said by you, 'I will dab the tears of the demons whose kinfolk are dead here...' even this word of yours is a fake. [3-30-4]

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niicasya kSudra shiilasya mithyaa vR^ittasya rakSasaH |
praaNaan apahariSyaami garutmaan amR^itam yathaa || 3-30-5

5. niicasya= of a knave; kSudra shiilasya= roguish, in character; mithyaa vR^ittasya= of devious, behaviour [ghoulish]; rakSasaH= being a demon; such as you are, your; praaNaan= lives; garutmaan amR^itam yathaa= Garuda, Ambrosia, as with; [aham= I will]; apahariSyaami= I will snatch away.

"In boasting you are knavish, in character roguish, and in behaviour ghoulish, such a demon as you are, I will take your life away as the Divine Eagle Garuda took away Ambrosia. [3-30-5]

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adya te bhinna kaNThasya phena budbuda bhuuSitam |
vidaaritasya mat baaNaiH mahii paasyati shoNitam || 3-30-6

6. anvaya/word order: adya= now; mat baaNaiH vi daaritasya= by my, arrows verily, rip; bhinna kaNThasya= chopped off, of your throat; te phena budbuda bhuuSitam shoNitam= your, with froth, foam, garnished with, blood [gushed from chopped throat]; mahii paasyati= earth, guzzles.

"Now, my arrows will rip and chop off your throat, and then the earth will guzzle the blood gushed therefrom garnished with froth and foam. [3-30-6]

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paa.msu ruuSita sarvaangaH srasta nyasta bhuja dvayaH |
svapsyase gaam samaashliSya durlabhaam pramadaam iva || 3-30-7

7. paamsu ruuSita sarva angaH= by dirt, smeared with, on all, limbs; srasta nyasta bhuja dvayaH= made to slide, laid [knocked down to earth,] arms, two; svapsyase gaam sam aashliSya= you sleep [eternally,] on earth, well-embracing; dur labhaam pramadaam iva= impossible one, to gain, lady, like.

"You will go to eternal sleep embracing the earth as you embrace an un-gainable lady, when both of your arms are knocked down to slide on earth, and limbs smeared with dirt. [3-30-7]

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pravR^iddha nidre shayite tvayi raakSasa paa.msane |
bhaviSyanti asharaNyaanaam sharaNyaa daNDakaa ime || 3-30-8

8. raakSasa paamsane= oh, demon, the notorious; tvayi= by you; pra vR^iddha nidre shayite= in well developed [profound,] sleep, while sleeping; ime daNDakaaH= these, Dandaka forests; sharaNyaanaam= for shelter-worthy [sages]; sharaNyaa bhaviSyanti= shelter, will become.

"While you are in profound sleep, oh, notorious demon, this Dandaka forest becomes a shelter to the shelter-worthy sages and saints. [3-30-8]

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janasthaane hata sthaane tava raakSasa mat sharaiH |
nirbhayaa vicariSyanti sarvato munayo vane || 3-30-9

9. raakSasa= oh, demon; tava janasthaane= in your, Janasthaana; mat sharaiH= with my, arrows; hata sthaane= ruined, strongholds [of demons]; munayaH nir bhayaa= sages, without, fear; sarvataH vane= everywhere, in forest; vi cariSyanti= well, move about.

"When the strongholds of demons in your Janasthaana are ruined with my arrows, the sages in this forest will move about everywhere, fearlessly. [3-30-9]

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adya viprasariSyanti raakSasyo hata baandhavaaH |
baaSpa aardra vadanaa diinaa bhayaat anya bhayaavahaaH || 3-30-10

10. anya bhayaavahaaH= to others, terrorizing [so far]; raakSasyaH= demonesses; hata baandhavaaH= killed, kinsmen; baaSpa aardra vadanaa= with tear, wet, with faces; bhayaat diinaa= with fear, becoming pitiable; adya= now; viprasariSyanti [vi pra sariSyanti]= very, quickly, flee away.

"The demonesses who terrorized others so far will be pitiably terrorised now, and they flee away very quickly with tear-wet faces as their kinsmen are killed. [3-30-10]

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adya shoka rasaj~naaH taaH bhaviSyanti nirarthakaaH |
anuruupa kulaaH patnyo yaasaam tvam patiH iidR^ishaH || 3-30-11

11. yaasaam= to which females [demonesses]; iidR^ishaH tvam patiH= this kind of you, [abominable one] is the husband; anuruupa kulaaH= well-matched to you, in befitting family [taken birth]; taaH= they the demonesses; patnyaH= are [befittingly deplorable] wives; adya= now; nir arthakaaH= without, meaning - meaningless - lives of demonesses became meaningless; shoka rasaj~naaH= grief's, enjoyers of empathy; bhaviSyanti= they will become.

"To which demonesses your kind of grievous demon is the husband, they must have taken birth in a befittingly grievous family like that of yours, and must be well-matched to you in grievous atrocities, and though they might not have tasted a grievous situation so far, since their lives have become meaningless, now they will become the enjoyers of the empathy of grief. [3-30-11]

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nR^isha.msa shiila kSudra aatman nityam braahmaNa kaNTaka |
tvat kR^ite shankitaiH agnau munibhiH paatyate haviH || 3-30-12

12. nR^ishamsa shiila= atrocious, in conduct; kSudra aatman= debased, by conscience; nityam braahmaNa kaNTaka= always, Brahmans, bothersome to; tvat kR^ite shankitaiH= by your, deeds, sceptical of; munibhiH haviH agnau paatyate= by sages, in Ritual-Fire, oblations dropped - consigned.

"You are atrocious in conduct because you countervail against Veda-s, debased by conscience because you counteract to Vedic rituals, and you are countermanding Vedic procedures because you have always been bothersome to Brahmans, and those Brahmans becoming sceptical of your deeds of hindrance, they are hesitatingly consigning oblations into Ritual-Fire, which are to be swiftly dropped into fire to the chants of hymns and even on time, hence you are countervailing against Veda-s and counteracting to their rituals, and countermanding their procedures." Thus Rama spoke to Khara irefully. [3-30-12]

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tam evam abhisa.mrabdham bruvaaNam raaghavam raNe |
kharo nirbhartsayaamaasa roSaat kharatara svaraH || 3-30-13

13. evam= this way; [raNe= in war] vane= in forest; abhi samrabdham bruvaaNam= very impetuously, who is speaking; tam raaghavam= to that, Raghava; roSaat= rancorously; khara tara svaraH= ass, more than, one who has voice - very harsh voiced Khara - stridulous than braying; kharaH= Khara; nirbhartsayaamaasa= started to intimidate.

While Raghava is speaking that way with such an impetuosity in that forest, Khara started to intimidate him rancorously in a voice stridulous than braying. [3-30-13]

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dR^iDham khalu avalipto asi bhayeSu api ca nirbhayaH |
vaacya avaacyam tato hi tvam mR^ityu vashyo na budhyase || 3-30-14

14. bhayeSu api ca== in fearful [situation,] even, also; nir bhayaH tvam= without, fearing, you are; dR^iDham avaliptaH asi= resolutely, you pride yourself; tataH= thereby; mR^ityu vashyaH hi= [even if you are under] death's, control, indeed; vaacya a vaacyam= speakable, not, speakable; tvam= you; na budhyase khalu= not, mindful of, for sure.

"Priding yourself resolutely you are unfearing even in a fearful situation, thereby you have indeed gone into the control of death, and for sure you are unmindful of what is speakable and what is not." Thus, Khara started his tongue-lashing. [3-30-14]

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kaala paasha parikSiptaa bhava.nti puruSaa hi ye |
kaarya akaaryam na jaananti te nirasta SaD indriyaaH || 3-30-15

15. ye puruSaa= such of those, men; kaala paasha pari kSiptaa= Time's, lead, overly, when closing in; bhavanti= they will be; te= they; nir asta= without, animation; SaD indriyaaH= six, senses [on becoming insensible to]; kaarya a kaaryam= doable, not, doable; na jaananti= not, knowing.

"Such of those men on whom the Lead of the Time verily closes in, they will not know what is to be done and what not, for all of their six senses will be rendered insensible." Thus Khara intimidated Rama. [3-30-15]

dhvani/allusion: For the above three verses it said: evam bruvaaNam raamam 'to Rama who saying that way...' mR^ityu vashya kharaH 'Khara going under the control of Death...' is saying 'oh, Rama...' tvam vaacya a+vaacya na budhyase iti 'you know not what to speak and what not to speak - to a dying creature like me, because that creature's six-senses are stand-still...' Then why is this nirbhartsayana, roSa? 'threatening me, and anger at me?' 'Because the faculties of that dying creatures, presently mine, will be in a flux, they will attack anyone verbally or physically, let alone the Almighty... thus you are not able to distinguish between what is to be done or not to be done with such a senseless creature... So, what you have to do now is to finish me, and what is not to be done is this sermonising. Why not finish me off from this curse and accord salvation?' Maheshvara Tiirtha. anena maraõa samaye jan˜n˜m buddhi bhraÕþo bhavati it s¨citam - dk 'at the time of death people's mind deranges...'

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evam uktvaa tato raamam sa.mrudhya bhR^ikuTim tataH |
sa dadarsha mahaa saalam aviduure nishaacaraH || 3-30-16
raNe praharaNasya arthe sarvato hi avalokayan |

16, 17a. saH nishaacaraH= he that, nightwalker; raamam evam uktvaa= to Rama, this way, on saying; tataH= then; bhR^i kuTim= eye, brows; sam rudhya= tightly, contracting; raNe praharaNasya arthe= in war, to assault, for purpose of [assault weapon]; sarvataH avalokayan= everywhere, while seeing; a +vi+ duure= not, very, faraway; tataH= then; mahaa saalam dadarsha hi= a huge, saala tree, he saw, in fact.

Saying so to Rama that nightwalker Khara then knitting his brows tightly saw everywhere for an assault weapon for use in that combat, and then he indeed found one not far away from him, namely a huge saala tree. [3-30-16, 17a]

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sa tam utpaaTayaamaasa sa.mdaSTa dashana cChadam || 3-30-17
tam samutkSipya baahubhyaam vinarditvaa mahaabalaH |
raamam uddishya cikSepa hataH tvam iti ca abraviit || 3-30-18

17b, 18. saH= he that Khara; dashana cChadam= teeth, covering of [lips]; sam daSTa [sam dashya]= well, biting [curling in frown]; tam utpaaTayaamaasa= that tree, started to extricate; mahaabalaH= great-mighty one [Khara]; tam= it [tree]; baahubhyaam= by both hands; sam ut kSipya= forcefully, up, lifting; vi narditvaa= loudly, braying; raamam uddishya cikSepa= Rama, aiming at, hurled; tvam hataH= you are, killed; iti ca abraviit= thus, also, saying - shouting.

He curled his lips in frown and started to extricate that Saala tree, and that great-mighty Khara on forcefully uprooting that tree with both of hands hurled it aiming at Rama, braying loudly and shouting at him 'you are dead...' [3-30-17b, 18]

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tam aapatantam baaNa oghaiH cChittvaa raamaH prataapavaan |
roSam aahaarayat tiivram niha.ntum samare kharam || 3-30-19

19. prataapavaan raamaH= adventurous one, Rama; aa patantam= coming, falling; tam= it [tree]; baaNa oghaiH= with arrow, torrent of; cChittvaa= on shredding; samare kharam nihantum= in war, Khara, to eliminate; roSam aahaarayat tiivram= rancour, evoked, unusual [rancour.]

But that adventurous Rama on shredding that tree which is swooping down with a torrent of arrows, and deciding to eliminate that Khara in that war evoked an unusual rancour, which rancour is equally an unusual facet of Rama. [3-30-19]

The inveterate bitterness of Rama is to see the unyielding Khara at a time when all of his war paraphernalia is lost, but still trying to be aggressive, rancorously.

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jaata svedaH tato raamo roSaat rakta anta locanaH |
nir.hbibheda sahasreNa baaNaanaam samare kharam || 3-30-20

20. tataH= then; jaata svedaH= emerging [on body,] sweat; roSaat rakta anta locanaH= in acrimony, bloodshot, at ends, with eyes; raamaH= such Rama; baaNaanaam sahasreNa= with arrows, a thousand; samare kharam= in war, Khara is; nirbibheda [nir bi bheda= completely, utterly, shredded]= shredded utterly.

Rama whose body is perspiring and whose eyes are acrimoniously bloodshot at ends, he utterly shredded Khara with a thousand arrows in that war. [3-30-20]

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tasya baaNa a.ntaraat raktam bahu susraava phenilam |
gireH prasravaNasya iva dhaaraaNaam ca parisravaH || 3-30-21

21. tasya phenilam= his [Khara's,] frothy [blood]; bahu raktam= copious, blood; baaNa antaraat= arrow's, gaps [apertures made by arrows, gashes]; prasravaNasya gireH iva= Prasavana, of mountain, like [the flow of rapids on Mt. Prasavana;] su sraava [gireH kharsya]= well, flowed [from mountainous Khara]; dhaaraaNaam ca pari sravaH= on earth, also, over, flowing.

Copious frothy blood gushed out from the gashes of arrows on the mountainous body of Khara, like the rapids on Mt. Prasavana, and it overflowed on earth too. [3-30-21]

Mt. Prasavana is depicted in Kishkindha canto where Rama admires and eulogises the rainy season when waiting for Sugreeva's help.

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vikala sa kR^ito baaNaiH kharo raameNa sa.myuge |
matto rudhira gandhena tam eva abhyadravat drutam || 3-30-22

22. samyuge raameNa baaNaiH= conflict, by Rama, with arrows; vikala [vihvala] kR^itaH= to torment, made to; mattaH saH kharaH= is bedevilled, he, that Khara; rudhira gandhena= with blood, stinking [on body]; drutam tam [raama] eva abhi adravat= quickly, to him [Rama,] towards, bolted.

When Khara is tormented with the arrows of Rama in that conflict he is bedevilled and with his blood stinking body he quickly bolted towards that Rama alone. [3-30-22]

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tam aapata.ntam sa.mrabdham kR^ita astro rudhira aaplutam |
apasarpat dvi tri padam ki.mcit tvarita vikramaH || 3-30-23

23. kR^ita astraH [shaastraH]= completed, missiles [sciences - one who learnt archery in full-fledged manner]; Rama; aa patantam= coming, falling - descending on; rudhira aaplutam= blood, bathed in; samrabdham= boisterous one; tam= him; on seeing; tvarita vikramaH= in swiftness, valorous one Rama; dvi tri padam= two, three, steps; kimcit apasarpat= a little, swerved, veered - stepped back.

When Khara is descending on boisterously with his body bathed in blood, that adept one in the Science of Archery, dhanur veda , the scripture on archery, and that valorous Rama, in swiftness lurched a little...say, two or three steps... [3-30-23]

On this back stepping, backtracking, or the scrape Rama took in war, [ scrape - intr. draw back a foot in making a clumsy bow; and here without clumsiness of bow]; much discussion is available discussing whether Rama can retrace his step or not. It is said that stepping back in war is prohibited for a valorous warrior or to the epical hero. sagrme sasthnam anivtti ca - gautama and many more scriptures say this. And a relaxation to such a stance is said: kvacit ati sankaa viaye subhanm abhito ayam apasarpa - vednta deika But here Rama is taking a runner's back-leg and it is not to be construed as an act of cowardice. Dharmaakuutam clarifies this as: vasca atru vadhe kmayamna rmsya dhanui ba sandhna di saukaryrtham apasarpaam rmea ktam bhaam eva na tu daam | ata eva mle apasarpae kta astram eva hetumatvena mahari upanyastham | anantara lokena khara vadya ara sandhna mokaa di pratipdanam upapannam bhavati | bhity apasarpae puna ara moka anupapatto riti | dk 'Wishing to eliminate the demon Rama has taken a back step. It is only to have a leeway between his target, arrow, and arrow-flinging place... In the verse itself the great-sage Valmiki incorporated words like kR^ita astra that Rama is an exponent in archery [keeping some doubting Thomas' in view.] Further, in the next few verses Rama eliminates Khara, thus it is not an act of cowardice...'

More so, some scholars hold that this verse has got grammatical glitches, some ancient mms reads this verse as, even though this verse too has the word apasarpaNa scrape: tam patantam vegena ptsyam rudhira plutam | apastya tata sthnt dv tvarita vikrama ||

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tataH paavaka sa.mkaasham vadhaaya samare sharam |
kharasya raamo jagraaha brahma daNDam iva aparam || 3-30-24

24. tataH= then; raamaH= Rama; kharasya vadhaaya= for Khara, to eliminating; paavaka samkaasham=, Ritual-fire, similar to; aparam brahma daNDam iva= another - secondary, Brahma's, shaft [missile,] as with; such an; sharam= arrow; samare jagraaha= in that conflict, taken.

Then, Rama snatched an arrow which is similar to the Ritual-fire, and secondary only to the ultimate missile, namely the Brahma-missile, for the elimination of Khara in war. [3-30-24]

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sa tat dattam maghavataa sura raajena dhiimataa |
sa.mdadhe ca sa dharmaatmaa mumoca ca kharam prati || 3-30-25

25. dharmaatmaa= virtue-souled one; saH= he that Rama; dhiimataa maghavataa sura raajena= by sensible one, prosperous one, gods, king of - namely Indra; dattam= given; tat= that [particular arrow]; sam dadhe ca= fitted on bow, also; kharam prati= Khara, towards; mumoca ca= released, also.

That particular arrow is made available to Rama through Sage Agastya by the king of gods, namely Indra, because Indra is a sensible one about the future course of events, and he is also prosperous in securing impossible weaponry, and now Rama fitted such an arrow on his bow and released it towards Khara. [3-30-25]

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sa vimukto mahaabaaNo nirghaata sama niHsvanaH |
raameNa dhanuraayamya kharasya urasi ca aapatat || 3-30-26

26. raameNa= by Rama; dhanuH aayamya= bow, bending - by stretching bowstring to ear; kharasya urasi vimuktaH= on Khara's, chest, released; nir ghaata out, falling, [with electric-force, viz., thunderbolt]; sama= similar to= niH svanaH= out, roaring - thunderous; saH mahaa baaNaH= that, great - formidable, arrow; aa patat= came, and fell [on Khara's chest.]

That formidable arrow is promptly released on Rama's stretching the bowstring up to his ear, bending bow almost to a circularity, and which arrow is thunderous while in egress like the thunder of a thunderbolt, and that has come and plunged inthe chest of Khara. [3-30-26]

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sa papaata kharo bhuumau dahyamaanaH shara agninaa |
rudreNa eva vinir.hdagdhaH shveta araNye yathaa andhakaH || 3-30-27

27. shara agninaa dahyamaanaH= by arrow's, radiation, being burnt; saH kharaH= that, Khara; shveta araNye= in White, forest; rudreNa vinirdagdhaH [vi nir dagdhaH]= by Rudra, very, completely, burnt; andhakaH yathaa= Andhaka, as with; bhuumau papaata= on earth, fell down.

Khara fell down on to earth and on being burnt by the radiation of that arrow he is like demon Andhaka, who once was very completely burnt by Rudra in Shveta-araNya, the White-forest. [3-30-27]

Andhaka is the son of Danu, the wife of Kashyapa Prajaapati, and her progeny is termed as daanava-s, demons. Shiva burns this Andhaka with his Third-eye in Shveta-forest, which is said to be at the confluence point of River Kauvery in ocean.

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sa vR^itra iva vajreNa phenena namucir yathaaa |
balo vaa indra ashani hato nipapaata hataH kharaH || 3-30-28

28. saH kharaH= he that Khara; hataH= when eliminated; vajreNa vR^itra iva= with Thunderbolt of Indra, demon Vritta, like; phenena namuciH yathaaa= by froth [of blood,] demon Namuchi, like; indra ashani hataH= by Indra's, Thunderbolt, eliminated; balaH vaa= demon Bala, or; nipapaata [ni pa paata ]= fell down - brought fown.

As with fall of demon Vritta or fall of demon Bala who are eliminated by Indra with his Thunderbolt, or as with the collapse of demon Namuchi who is eliminated by the same Indra just with forth or foam, Khara too is brought down. [3-30-28]

The demon Namuchi secures a boon from the gods that he may not die by wetness or dryness, so Indra uses foam and forth, which are neither wet nor dry, to eliminated him.

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etasmin a.ntare devaaH caaraNayoH saha sa.ngataaH |
dundubhiH ca abhinighna.ntaH puSpa varSa sama.ntataH || 3-30-29
raamasya upari sa.mhR^iSTaa vavarSuH vismitaaH tadaa |

29, 30a. etasmin antare= in this, meantime; devaaH caaraNayoH saha sangataaH= gods, carana-s [celestials,] along with, on gathering; sam hR^iSTaa= well-pleased; dundubhiH abhinighnantaH [abhi ni ghnantaH]= drums, also, all over, well, drummed; tadaa vismitaaH= then, amazed; raamasya upari= on Rama, above; samantataH= from all over; puSpa varSa vavarSuH= flowers, rain, showered.

In this meantime gods gathering along with carana-s drummed celestial drums from all over and showered flowers on Rama from all over. [3-30-29, 30a]

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artha adhika muhuurtena raameNa nishitaiH sharaiH || 3-30-30
catur dasha sahasraaNi rakshsaam kaama ruupiNaam |
khara duuSaNa mukhyaanaam nihataani mahaamR^idhe || 3-30-31

30b, 31. raameNa= by Rama; artha adhika muhuurtena= in half, more, one muhurta [hour]; nishitaiH sharaiH= with sharp, arrows; mahaa mR^idhe= in extreme, crack-down; khara duuSaNa mukhyaanaam= Khara, Duushana, chieftains; rakshsaam= of demons; kaama ruupiNaam= by wish, guise-changers; catur dasha sahasraaNi= four, ten, thousand [fourteen thousand]; nihataani= are eliminated.

And those gods and other celestials in their amazement said among themselves that 'in one and half hours, say seventy two minutes of this extreme crack-down Rama with his sharp arrows has eradicated fourteen thousand guise changing demons, including their chieftains Khara and Duushana. [3-30-30b, 31]

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aho bata mahat karma raamasya vidita aatmanaH |
aho viiryam aho daar.hDhyam viSNoH iva hi dR^ishyate || 3-30-32
iti evam uktvaa te sarve yayuH devaa yathaa aagatam|

32, 33a. vidita aatmanaH= shrewd, souled; raamasya= of Rama; mahat karma= great, deed; aho bata= aha, Surprising; aho viiryam= what, a valour; aho daarDhyam= what, a fortitude; viSNoH iva= of Vishnu [valour, fortitude etc]; dR^ishyate hi= seems to be, really; iti evam uktvaa= thus, that way, saying; sarve te devaa= all, those, gods; yathaa aagatam yayuH= as, they came, went away.

"Aha! Surprising is this great deed of Rama, the shrewd-soul, what a valour, what a fortitude, really, his valour and fortitude are like those of Vishnu..." Thus saying that way all of those gods have gone away as the have come. [3-30-32, 33a]

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tato raaja R^iSayaH sarve samgataaH parama R^iSayaH || 3-30-33
sabhaajya muditaa raamam sa agastyaa idam abruvan |

33b, 34a. tataH= then; sarve raaja R^iSayaH= all, kingly, sages; sa agastyaa= with, Agastya; parama R^iSayaH samgataaH= with elite, sages, foregathering; muditaa= delighted; raamam sa bhaajya= Rama, on adoring; idam abruvan= this, said.

All the kingly-sages and elite-sages along with Sage Agastya, who as incidentally came here to witness the victory of Rama, then on foregathering near at Rama delightedly said this on adoring him. [3-30-33b, 34a]

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etat artham mahaatejaa mahendraH paaka shaasanaH || 3-30-34
sharabha.nga aashramam puNyam aajagaama pura.ndaraH |

34b, 35a. paaka shaasanaH= demon Paka, controller of; mahaatejaa= great-resplendent; purandaraH= enemy-city destroyer; mahendraH= Indra; etat artham= for this, purpose alone; puNyam sharabhanga aashramam aajagaama= meritorious, to Sharabhanga's, hermitage, came to.

"He that great-resplendent one, the controller of demon Paka, and the destroyer of enemy's cities, namely Indra, once came to the meritorious hermitage of Sage Sharabhanga only for the purpose such an elimination of demons. [3-30-34b, 35a]

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aaniitaH tvam imam desham upaayena mahar.hSibhiH || 3-30-35
eSaam vadha artham shatruuNaam rakSasaam paapa karmaNaam |

35b, 36a. shatruuNaam= enemies; paapa karmaNaam= demons, evil, doers; eSaam rakSasaam= these, of demons; vadha artham= for eradication, purpose of; tvam= you; maharSibhiH upaayena= by sages, with ideation; imam desham aaniitaH= to this, countryside, you are brought.

"For the purpose of eradicating these demons who are the evildoers by nature and the natural enemies to saintly people you are led to this countryside by the great sages with an ideation. [3-30-35b, 36a]

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tat idam naH kR^itam kaaryam tvayaa dasharatha aatmaja || 3-30-36
sva dharmam pracariSyanti daNDakeSu maharSayaH |

36b, 37a. dasharatha aatmaja= oh, Dasharatha's, son; tat idam kaaryam tvayaa kR^itam= that, this, task, by you, is done; maharSayaH daNDakeSu= great-sages, in Dandaka; sva dharmam pracariSyanti [pra car iSyati]= their own [of sages,] duties, well-practise.

"That which is the task of ours it is accomplished by you, oh, son of Dasharatha, now that Dandaka is unimpeded these great-sages will be practising their respective sacred devoirs in it." Thus, the sages expressed their thanksgiving. [3-30-36b, 37a]

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etasmin ana.ntare viiro lakSmaNaH saha siitayaa || 3-30-37
giri durgaat viniS.hkramya sa.mvivesha aashramam sukhii |

37b, 38a. etasmin anantare= in this, meanwhile; viiraH lakSmaNaH saha siitayaa= brave, Lakshmana, with, Seetha; giri durgaat viniSkramya= mountain, from cave, verily, exiting; sukhii= who is happy [charmed for Rama's victory]; aashramam samvivesha [sam vi vesha]= to [their own] hermitage, well entered.

In the meanwhile the brave Lakshmana exiting from the mountain cave came along with Seetha to their hermitage, and he is charmed at the victory of his brother Rama. [3-30-37b, 38a]

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tato raamaH tu vijayii puujyamaano mahar.hSibhiH || 3-30-38
pravivesha aashramam viiro lakSmaNena abhipuujitaH |

38b, 39a. tataH= then; vijayii viiraH raamaH tu= victorious, brave man, Rama, but; maharSibhiH puujyamaanaH= by great-sages, being reverenced; lakSmaNena abhi puujitaH= by Lakshmana, coming towards, greeted; aashramam pravivesha= hermitage, entered.

And then that brave and victories Rama too came towards hermitage while great-sages reverenced him, and he entered the hermitage while Lakshmana came forward to greet him. [3-30-38b, 39a]

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tam dR^iSTvaa shatru ha.ntaaram maharSiiNaam sukha aavaham || 3-30-39
babhuuva hR^iSTaa vaidehii bhartaaram pariSvaje |

39b, 40a. vaidehii= Seetha; shatru hantaaram= enemy, eliminator; maharSiiNaam sukha aavaham= for great-sages, rejoice, accorder; tam bhartaaram dR^iSTvaa= him, her husband, on seeing; hR^iSTaa babhuuva= became, rejoiced; pariSvaje= embraced.

And Seetha on seeing her husband, the eliminator of enemies and accorder of happiness to sages, embraced her husband Rama, rejoicingly. [3-30-39b, 40a]

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mudaa paramayaa yuk{}taa dR^iSTvaa raksho gaNaan hataan |
raamam ca eva avyayam dR^iSTaa tutoSa janaka aatmajaa || 3-30-40

40. janaka aatmajaa= Janaka's, daughter; hataan rakshaH gaNaan dR^iSTvaa= eliminated, demon, hordes, on seeing; paramayaa mudaa yuktaa= with extreme, rapture, along with; raamam ca eva= Rama, also, thus; a + vyayam dR^iSTaa= not, scathed, on observing; tutoSa= gladdened for herself, with sniggering smiles, with smiles hid behind lips, soft-pedalled smiles.

Janaka's daughter Seetha on seeing the hordes of demons eliminated, and even on observing her husband is also scatheless, she is all-smiles for him smiling sniggeringly. [3-30-40]

Any wife on seeing her husband returning from a risky journey will embrace her husband delightfully, and nothing special about it. But the commentators attach a great significance to this situation.

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Firstly Seetha is hR^iSTaa 'exultant...' more than happiness. Rama's victory is the cause for that. sati dharmiNi dharmaaH 'nature will have its own peculiar property...' Rama's victory is the peculiar property dharmi, and the exultancy caused is its nature dharma. hR^iSTaa 'exulted' 'thrilling, hair-raising, electrifying' 'as though the inner joy is going to outburst trough the skin pores...' Such is the joy of Seetha.

The cause for the extreme exultancy is said next. Vaidehi, is the daughter of Videha King, Janaka and when she is said so, it is remembered that mithila adhipatiH viiraH 'Mithila's king is the bravest of the brave...' Thus, she is aware what bravery and victory are, and knowing that she hailed her victorious husband, for she is a worthy princess. bhartaaram pariSvaje 'husband, embraced...' Is Rama a husband of Seetha or to total Universe? loka bhartaaram suSuveya. He is the husband of the total Universe. When she is the mother of all beings in the universe, and when her husband protects her progeny from the evildoers, will she not embrace that husband of hers, as well as of the Universe? The word bharta 'one who bears...' and this Rama has no other burden to bear, except the Universe.

This embracing is pariSvaje, pari sa svaje 'wholly embraced.' She embraced him from all over and fomented his war-wounds with her warm breasts. Then, why for this much happy hugging? It is replied: maharSiiNaam sukha aavaham pariSvaje 'one who brought comfort to great-sages, him she embraced...' The great-sages are her children, supplicating her to recommend to the Supreme Being to bestow His grace for their salvation. Since Rama brought some relief by his paternal affection to these children-like sages, she is happy and hugging.

Seetha came out of a mountain cave and embraced Rama. This suggests that the innate soul sheSi on the advise of a teacher, after leaving the cave-like living being, is released from bondages and embraces the master sheShin. This is the same predicament for her in Sundara Kanda, where the teacher Hanuma advises her to come with him, but she refuses, because her lord alone has to come conquering, as he has done now as far as her confinement is concerned. Here she is put in cave and guarded by Lakshmana, unlike demonesses guarding her in open-air gardens in Lanka. She came out of the cave and is joining her husband. Govindaraja.

Next, Maheshvara Tiirtha records: tam dR^iSTvaa shatru hantaaram 'at him Rama, on seeing, enemy, eliminator...'in that compound: tam 'at him...' that Rama, which one-Rama assumed himself as fourteen thousand Rama-s, appearing as each to each demon at the time of war, with his divinely gracious aspect divya mangala vigraha and eliminated all demons, that Rama she saw. te tu yaavanta evaa~Nau taavaan tu dadR^ishe sataiH As many demons are there, so many Rama-s are there on the battlefield.

tam 'at him...' 'who eliminated fourteen thousand demons, single-handedly, , that too in seventy two minutes. These demons are so far undeafted even by Indra with all his forces. Rama defeated such demons without any damage to his person, a + vyayam 'unscathed, undamaged... and very easily also...' at such a Rama Seetha saw.

tam 'him' who looks girlish. Seetha once said that Rama is girly not only in his looks but also in bravery, perhaps. rma jmtaram prpya striyam purua vigraham Ayodhya Part I, 30-3. When Rama dissuades Seetha from coming to forests, Seetha said to Rama, 'my father is the King of Mithila and he may think that you have left me behind at Ayodhya unable to protect me in forests... thus my father may also think that he got a 'girl' as his son-in-law in you...' Through this is a tongue-in-cheek expression Seetha reminded Rama at that situation of his Mohini ruupa 'getup of Mohini...' which he assumed at the time of churning Milky Ocean, it is her woomanhood that spoke like that. Though not then, even now Rama looks girlishly pleasant, if he is not summoning wrath upon him, as per his attributes, puNDarika vishaala aksha, somavat priya darshanaH 'lotus-petal-eyed, moon-like-delightful-aspect...' And he becomes unsightly, only if angered. Such a girlish Rama has won war, and at him Seetha saw in admiration about his mannishness. Now her father Janaka will definitely appreciate his son-in-law Rama. King Janaka is a result-oriented king, as said in Gita, 3-20: karmaNi evahi samsiddham aasthitaH janakaadayaH 'Janaka and others are involved in self-less- result-oriented deeds...' and facing him without results is impossible. Thus Seetha's opinion is 'my father Janaka who is result-oriented and self-less in his pursuits, he will now appreciate Rama, since Rama has also accomplished a self-less pursuit in saving the sages...'

tam shatru hantaaram 'at him... who has annihilated the enemies in war...' as he has annihilated troops and troops of unwieldy demons as said at: tai dhani dhvaja agri carmi ca irsi ca || 3-25-21 and at bahn sa hasta bharan rn kari kara upamn | 3-25-22 [A] and also who later said that he will emerge, as and when needed to eradicate vice, as at paritraNaaya saadhuunaam vinaashaaya ca duSkR^itaam - Gita: 4-8 And Seetha saw at such an omnipotent Being who is an eliminator of evil.

maharSiNaam sukha aavaham 'for great-sages, accorder of comfort...' dR^iSTvaa vaidehii babhuuva 'on seeing Vaidehi became...' she became one with herself bhuu sattaayaam. When it is said aatmaa vai puruSasya daaraa 'wife indeed is the soul of manl...' that soul of Rama, namely Seetha is so far in a dilemma, because Rama is a lone-warrior against fourteen-thousand demons and his safe return is ambiguous. Now that he remained unhurt, that soul called Seetha, has regained her abode in Rama. Then hR^iSTaa pariSvaje 'delightfully embraced...' Maheshvara Tiirtha.

Dharmaakuutam also derives the same meanings, but with reference to dharma:

st -- anapardhi rkasa jana vadho na ucita iti vaideh kta pratiedham api - apyaham jvitam jahym tvm v site - iti prakrea andtya - caturdaa sahasri rkasa -- ekasca rmo -- iti i jannm api samayite uddhe krratarn rkasn hatv - avyatho yo rma tda parmyate -- st -- tath ca - atru hantram maharim sukha vaham -- iti - avyadham iti ca vieani upapannni bhavanti -- ata eva ete arth uttara slokbhym upasamht

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tataH tu tam raakshasa sa.ngha mardanam
sa puujyamaanam muditaiH mahaatmabhiH |
punaH pariSvajya mudaa anvita aananaa
babhuuva hR^iSTaa janaka aatmajaa tadaa || 3-30-41

41. tataH= then; mudaa anvita aananaa= delight, having [beaming with,] with visage; janaka aatmajaa= Janaka's, daughter; raakshasa sangha mardanam= demonic, troops, eliminator of; muditaiH mahaatmabhiH= with delighted, great sages; sa puujyamaanam= with, adorability - who adore him; such as he is, tam= him, at that Rama; punaH pariSvajya= again, embraced; tadaa hR^iSTaa babhuuva= then, rapturous, she became.

She whose face is beaming with delight that Seetha, the daughter Janaka, on seeing Rama who has eliminated demonic troops, and whom great-sages are worshipping, again embraced him and became rapturous. [3-30-41]

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Khara's elimination

Anytime an evil-force is eliminated by any divinity the fruits of its reading/listening is said at conclusion. For the annihilation of Khara there is such an epilogue phala shruti quoted by Maheshvara Tiirtha.

rutv r rma vijayam ppa badht pramucyate |
tathaiva snkhal bandht a bandht vimucyate |
rutv pupavat nr tanayam vama vardhanam |
labhate rghavendrasya prasdt krti vardhanam || skaanda puraaNa

On hearing Rama's victory one will be freed from shackles of sins, also from the chains of punishment, also from the entanglement of debt... should a bride hear this she begets son, who enhances dynasty... and by the grace of Raghava, enriched is the renown... skaanda puraaNa.

 

iti vaalmiiki raamaayaNe aadi kaavye araNya kaaNDe tri.msha sargaH

Thus, this is the 30th chapter in Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, the First Epic poem of India.


Verse Locator for Book III : Aranya Kanda - The Forest Trek : Chapter 30

 

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Sarga 30 in English Prose

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2002, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [ Revised : July 04]